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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456968/alternative-splicing-of-differentiated-myeloid-cell-transcripts-after-infection-by-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-impacts-a-selective-group-of-cellular-programs
#1
J Stephen Dumler, Sara H Sinclair, Amol C Shetty
Eukaryotic proteome diversity exceeds that encoded within individual genes, and results in part from alternative splicing events of pre-messenger RNA. The diversity of these splicing events can shape the outcome in development and differentiation of normal tissues, and is important in pathogenic circumstances such as cancer and some heritable conditions. A role for alternative splicing of eukaryotic genes in response to viral and intracellular bacterial infections has only recently been recognized, and plays an important role in providing fitness for microbial survival, while potentially enhancing pathogenicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455007/embryoid-body-arrays-parallel-cryosectioning-of-spheroid-embryoid-body-samples-for-medium-through-put-analysis
#2
Ross Ferguson, Vasanta Subramanian
Three dimensional (3D) culture of mammalian cells is emerging as a powerful new tool to understand organogenesis as well as serve as models for diseases with implications for therapeutic evaluation. 3D cultures are referred to variously as spheroid, organoids or embryoid bodies. While many methods exist for large scale production of embryoid bodies or other spheroid cell aggregates, either at controlled sizes using microwell/micropatterned plates or uncontrolled sizes in suspension dishes, very few protocols exist for medium throughput analysis of differentiation at the histological level...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453282/eukaryotic-translation-elongation-factor-2-eef2-catalyzes-reverse-translocation-of-the-eukaryotic-ribosome
#3
Denis Susorov, Nikita Zakharov, Ekaterina Shuvalova, Alexander Ivanov, Tatiana Egorova, Alexey Shuvalov, Ivan N Shatsky, Elena Alkalaeva
During protein synthesis, a ribosome moves along the mRNA template and, using aminoacyl-tRNAs, decodes the template nucleotide triplets to assemble a protein amino acid sequence. This movement is accompanied by shifting of mRNA-tRNA complexes within the ribosome in a process called translocation. In living cells, this process proceeds in a unidirectional manner, bringing the ribosome to the 3'-end of mRNA, and is catalyzed by the GTPase translation elongation factor 2 (EF-G in prokaryotes, eEF2 in eukaryotes)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449807/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-acts-as-a-neuroprotective-agent-in-in-vitro-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-via-up-regulation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#4
Arianna Colini Baldeschi, Eugenia Pittaluga, Federica Andreola, Simona Rossi, Mauro Cozzolino, Giuseppe Nicotera, Gianluca Sferrazza, Pasquale Pierimarchi, Annalucia Serafino
In the last decades increasing evidence indicated a crucial role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Recently dysregulation of this pathway has been proposed as a novel pathomechanism leading to Parkinson's disease (PD) and some of the molecules participating to the signaling have been evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for PD. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac-derived hormone having a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. ANP and its receptors (NPRs) are widely expressed in mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where they could be implicated in the regulation of neural development, synaptic transmission and information processing, as well as in neuroprotection...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449453/conserved-and-divergent-features-of-human-and-mouse-kidney-organogenesis
#5
Nils O Lindström, Jill A McMahon, Jinjin Guo, Tracy Tran, Qiuyu Guo, Elisabeth Rutledge, Riana K Parvez, Gohar Saribekyan, Robert E Schuler, Christopher Liao, Albert D Kim, Ahmed Abdelhalim, Seth W Ruffins, Matthew E Thornton, Laurence Basking, Brendan Grubbs, Carl Kesselman, Andrew P McMahon
Human kidney function is underpinned by approximately 1,000,000 nephrons, although the number varies substantially, and low nephron number is linked to disease. Human kidney development initiates around 4 weeks of gestation and ends around 34-37 weeks of gestation. Over this period, a reiterative inductive process establishes the nephron complement. Studies have provided insightful anatomic descriptions of human kidney development, but the limited histologic views are not readily accessible to a broad audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449451/conserved-and-divergent-molecular-and-anatomic-features-of-human-and-mouse-nephron-patterning
#6
Nils O Lindström, Tracy Tran, Jinjin Guo, Elisabeth Rutledge, Riana K Parvez, Matthew E Thornton, Brendan Grubbs, Jill A McMahon, Andrew P McMahon
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney, but the mechanism of nephron formation during human development is unclear. We conducted a detailed analysis of nephron development in humans and mice by immunolabeling, and we compared human and mouse nephron patterning to describe conserved and divergent features. We created protein localization maps that highlight the emerging patterns along the proximal-distal axis of the developing nephron and benchmark expectations for localization of functionally important transcription factors, which revealed unanticipated cellular diversity...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447961/a-physiologically-relevant-3d-collagen-based-scaffold-neuroblastoma-cell-system-exhibits-chemosensitivity-similar-to-orthotopic-xenograft-models
#7
C Curtin, J C Nolan, R Conlon, L Deneweth, C Gallagher, Y J Tan, B L Cavanagh, A Z Asraf, H Harvey, S Miller-Delaney, J Shohet, I Bray, F J O'Brien, R L Stallings, O Piskareva
3D scaffold-based in vitro cell culturing is a recent technological advancement in cancer research bridging the gap between conventional 2D culture and in vivo tumours. The main challenge in treating neuroblastoma, a paediatric cancer of the sympathetic nervous system, is to combat tumour metastasis and resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of this study was to establish a physiologically relevant 3D neuroblastoma tissue-engineered system and explore its therapeutic relevance. Two neuroblastoma cell lines, chemotherapeutic sensitive Kelly and chemotherapeutic resistant KellyCis83 were cultured in a 3D in vitro model on two collagen-based scaffolds containing either glycosaminoglycan (Coll-GAG) or nanohydroxyapatite (Coll-nHA) and compared to 2D cell culture and an orthotopic murine model...
February 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446847/lipidomic-analysis-from-archaea-to-mammals
#8
REVIEW
Tomáš Řezanka, Irena Kolouchová, Lucia Gharwalová, Andrea Palyzová, Karel Sigler
Lipids are among the most important organic compounds found in all living cells, from primitive archaebacteria to flowering plants or mammalian cells. They form part of cell walls and constitute cell storage material. Their biosynthesis and metabolism play key roles in faraway topics such as biofuel production (third-generation biofuels produced by microorganisms, e.g. algae) and human diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy, Zellweger syndrome, or Refsum disease. Current lipidomic analysis requires fast and accurate processing of samples and especially their characterization...
February 15, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443106/visualization-of-cortical-modules-in-flattened-mammalian-cortices
#9
Simon M Lauer, Undine Schneeweiß, Michael Brecht, Saikat Ray
The cortex of mammalian brains is parcellated into distinct substructures or modules. Cortical modules typically lie parallel to the cortical sheet, and can be delineated by certain histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. In this study, we highlight a method to isolate the cortex from mammalian brains and flatten them to obtain sections parallel to the cortical sheet. We further highlight selected histochemical and immunohistochemical methods to process these flattened tangential sections to visualize cortical modules...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443051/detecting-anastasis-in-vivo-by-caspasetracker-biosensor
#10
Ho Man Tang, Ming Chiu Fung, Ho Lam Tang
Anastasis (Greek for "rising to life") is a recently discovered cell recovery phenomenon whereby dying cells can reverse late-stage cell death processes that are generally assumed to be intrinsically irreversible. Promoting anastasis could in principle rescue or preserve injured cells that are difficult to replace such as cardiomyocytes or neurons, thereby facilitating tissue recovery. Conversely, suppressing anastasis in cancer cells, undergoing apoptosis after anti-cancer therapies, may ensure cancer cell death and reduce the chances of recurrence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441052/harnessing-the-mtor-pathway-for-tuberculosis-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Pooja Singh, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the leading killer infectious diseases of humans. At present, the standard therapeutic regimen to treat TB comprised of multiple antibiotics administered for a minimum of six months. Although these drugs are useful in controlling TB burden globally, they have not eliminated the disease. In addition, the lengthy duration of treatment with multiple drugs contributes to patient non-compliance that can result in the development of drug resistant strains (MDR and XDR) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440645/mammalian-cells-undergo-endoreduplication-in-response-to-lactic-acidosis
#12
Zhihao Tan, De Zhi Valerie Chu, Yong Jie Andrew Chan, Yi Ena Lu, Giulia Rancati
Polyploidization, a common event during the evolution of different tumours, has been proposed to confer selective advantages to tumour cells by increasing the occurrence of mutations promoting cancer progression and by conferring chemotherapy resistance. While conditions leading to polyploidy in cancer cells have been described, a general mechanism explaining the incidence of this karyotypic change in tumours is still missing. In this study, we tested whether a widespread tumour microenvironmental condition, low pH, could induce polyploidization in mammalian cells...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440496/crispr-cas9-cleavages-in-budding-yeast-reveal-templated-insertions-and-strand-specific-insertion-deletion-profiles
#13
Brenda R Lemos, Adam C Kaplan, Ji Eun Bae, Alexander E Ferrazzoli, James Kuo, Ranjith P Anand, David P Waterman, James E Haber
Harnessing CRISPR-Cas9 technology provides an unprecedented ability to modify genomic loci via DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and repair. We analyzed nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair induced by Cas9 in budding yeast and found that the orientation of binding of Cas9 and its guide RNA (gRNA) profoundly influences the pattern of insertion/deletions (indels) at the site of cleavage. A common indel created by Cas9 is a 1-bp (+1) insertion that appears to result from Cas9 creating a 1-nt 5' overhang that is filled in by a DNA polymerase and ligated...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440318/monitoring-the-5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine-mcm5s2u-modification-in-eukaryotic-trnas-via-the-gamma-toxin-endonuclease
#14
Jenna M Lentini, Jillian Ramos, Dragony Fu
The post-transcriptional modification of tRNA at the wobble position is a universal process occurring in all domains of life. In eukaryotes, the wobble uridine of particular tRNAs is transformed to the 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U) modification which is critical for proper mRNA decoding and protein translation. However, current methods to detect mcm5s2U are technically challenging and/or require specialized instrumental expertise. Here, we show that gamma-toxin endonuclease from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis can be used as a probe for assaying mcm5s2U status in the tRNA of diverse eukaryotic organisms ranging from protozoans to mammalian cells...
February 13, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439932/in-vivo-imaging-of-single-mammalian-cells-in-development-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Melanie D White, Ziqing W Zhao, Nicolas Plachta
Live imaging has transformed biomedical sciences by enabling visualization and analysis of dynamic cellular processes as they occur in their native contexts. Here, we review key recent efforts applying in vivo optical imaging with single-cell resolution to mammalian systems ranging from embryos to adult tissues and organs. We highlight insights into active processes regulating cell fate and morphogenesis during embryonic development, how neuronal circuitry and non-neuronal cell types contribute to neurological functions, and how novel imaging-based approaches enable the dissection of neurological disorders and cancer with high spatio-temporal resolution...
February 10, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435932/isolation-and-identification-of-gene-specific-micrornas
#16
Shi-Lung Lin, Donald C Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Computer programming has identified hundreds of genomic hairpin sequences, many with functions yet to be determined. Because transfection of hairpin-like microRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) into mammalian cells is not always sufficient to trigger RNA-induced gene silencing complex (RISC) assembly, a key step for inducing RNA interference (RNAi)-related gene silencing, we have developed an intronic miRNA expression system to overcome this problem by inserting a hairpin-like pre-miRNA structure into the intron region of a gene, and hence successfully increase the efficiency and effectiveness of miRNA-associated RNAi induction in vitro and in vivo...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435927/gene-silencing-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-using-intronic-micrornas
#17
Shi-Lung Lin, Shao-Yao Ying
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that contain either complete or partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. Numerous miRNAs have been reported to induce RNA interference (RNAi), a post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism. Recent evidence also indicates that they are involved in the transcriptional regulation of genome activities. They were first discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans as native RNA fragments that modulate a wide range of genetic regulatory pathways during embryonic development, and are now recognized as small gene silencers transcribed from the noncoding regions of a genome...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433327/redox-signaling-from-and-to-peroxisomes-progress-challenges-and-prospects
#18
Marc Fransen, Celien Lismont
<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Peroxisomes are organelles that are best known for their role in cellular lipid and hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that these organelles serve as guardians and modulators of cellular redox balance, and that alterations in their redox metabolism may contribute to aging and the development of chronic diseases such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, and cancer. <b><i>Recent Advances:</i></b> H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> is an important signaling messenger that controls many cellular processes by modulating protein activity through cysteine oxidation...
February 13, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428796/long-noncoding-rna-growth-arrest-specific-5-promotes-proliferation-and-survival-of-female-germline-stem-cells-in-vitro
#19
Jie Wang, Xiaowen Gong, Geng G Tian, Changliang Hou, Xiaoqin Zhu, Xiuying Pei, Yanrong Wang, Ji Wu
Female germline stem cells (FGSCs) are proposed to be a key factor for ameliorating female infertility. Previously we have shown that neonatal and adult FGSCs could be isolated and purified from mouse ovarian tissues. The long noncoding (lnc) RNA growth arrest-specific 5 sequence (GAS5) transcribed from mammalian genomes plays important regulatory roles in various developmental processes. However, there is no study on the relationship between GAS5 and FGSC development in vitro. In this study, we showed that GAS5 was highly expressed in the neonatal mouse ovary and was located in both FGSCs and oocytes...
February 8, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428489/broad-spectrum-antiviral-functions-of-duck-interferon-induced-protein-with-tetratricopeptide-repeats-avifit
#20
Enguang Rong, Jiaxiang Hu, Chenghuai Yang, Hualan Chen, Zeng Wang, Xiaojuan Liu, Wenjie Liu, Chang Lu, Penghua He, Xiaoxue Wang, Xiaoyun Chen, Jinhua Liu, Ning Li, Yinhua Huang
Mammalian interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) play important roles in many cellular processes and host innate immune response to viruses. However, the functions of IFIT proteins in birds are largely unknown. Here, we first describe that the only one avian IFIT protein is orthologous to ancestor of mammalian IFITs. We find that the predicted structure of duck AvIFIT protein is similar to that of human IFIT5. We also find that duck AvIFIT protein shows antiviral activity to a broad range of specific RNA and DNA viruses like mammalian IFIT proteins...
February 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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