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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691711/biomechanics-and-mechanical-signaling-in-the-ovary-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Jaimin S Shah, Reem Sabouni, Kamaria C Cayton Vaught, Carter M Owen, David F Albertini, James H Segars
PURPOSE: Mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis share a dynamic connection that is critical for gamete development. For maintenance of quiescence or follicular activation, follicles must respond to soluble signals (growth factors and hormones) and physical stresses, including mechanical forces and osmotic shifts. Likewise, mechanical processes are involved in cortical tension and cell polarity in oocytes. Our objective was to examine the contribution and influence of biomechanical signaling in female mammalian gametogenesis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690642/autophagic-removal-of-farnesylated-carboxy-terminal-lamin-peptides
#2
Xiang Lu, Karima Djabali
The mammalian nuclear lamina proteins—prelamin A- and B-type lamins—are post-translationally modified by farnesylation, endoproteolysis, and carboxymethylation at a carboxy-terminal CAAX (C, cysteine; a, aliphatic amino acid; X, any amino acid) motif. However, prelamin A processing into mature lamin A is a unique process because it results in the production of farnesylated and carboxymethylated peptides. In cells from patients with Hutchinson⁻Gilford progeria syndrome, the mutant prelamin A protein, progerin, cannot release its prenylated carboxyl-terminal moiety and therefore remains permanently associated with the nuclear envelope (NE), causing severe nuclear alterations and a dysmorphic morphology...
April 23, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689223/caveolae
#3
Robert G Parton, Vikas A Tillu, Brett M Collins
Caveolae are one of the most abundant and striking features of the plasma membrane of many mammalian cell types. These surface pits have fascinated biologists since their discovery by the pioneers of electron microscopy in the middle of the last century, but we are only just starting to understand their multiple functions. Molecular understanding of caveolar formation is advancing rapidly and we now know that sculpting the membrane to generate the characteristic bulb-shaped caveolar pit involves the coordinated action of integral membrane proteins and peripheral membrane coat proteins in a process dependent on their multiple interactions with membrane lipids...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688535/all-trans-retinoic-acid-increases-the-expression-of-oxidative-myosin-heavy-chain-through-the-ppar%C3%AE-pathway-in-bovine-muscle-cells-derived-from-satellite-cells
#4
Jongkyoo Kim, Kimberly B Wellmann, Zachary K Smith, Bradley J Johnson
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been associated with various physiological phenomenon in mammalian adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that ATRA may affect skeletal muscle fiber type in bovine satellite cell culture through various transcriptional processes. Bovine primary satellite cell (BSC) culture experiments were conducted to determine dose effects of ATRA on expression of genes and protein levels related to skeletal muscle fiber type and metabolism. The semimembranosus from crossbred steers (n = 2 steers), aged approximately 24 months, were used to isolate BSC for 3 separate assays...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686621/pravastatin-protects-against-avascular-necrosis-of-femoral-head-via-autophagy
#5
Yun Liao, Ping Zhang, Bo Yuan, Ling Li, Shisan Bao
Autophagy serves as a stress response and may contribute to the pathogenesis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head induced by steroids. Statins promote angiogenesis and ameliorate endothelial functions through apoptosis inhibition and necrosis of endothelial progenitor cells, however the process used by statins to modulate autophagy in avascular necrosis of the femoral head remains unclear. This manuscript determines whether pravastatin protects against dexamethasone-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head by activating endothelial progenitor cell autophagy...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685859/shock-wave-induced-permeabilization-of-mammalian-cells
#6
REVIEW
Luz M López-Marín, Ana Leonor Rivera, Francisco Fernández, Achim M Loske
Controlled permeabilization of mammalian cell membranes is fundamental to develop gene and cell therapies based on macromolecular cargo delivery, a process that emerged against an increasing number of health afflictions, including genetic disorders, cancer and infections. Viral vectors have been successfully used for macromolecular delivery; however, they may have unpredictable side effects and have been limited to life-threatening cases. Thus, several chemical and physical methods have been explored to introduce drugs, vaccines, and nucleic acids into cells...
March 21, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685337/evaluation-of-recent-protein-a-stationary-phase-innovations-for-capture-of-biotherapeutics
#7
Timothy M Pabst, Johnny Thai, Alan K Hunter
We describe a comprehensive evaluation of 12 Protein A stationary phases for capture of biotherapeutics. We first examine the morphological properties of the stationary phases using a variety of orthogonal techniques including electron microscopy, particle sizing, pressure-flow behavior, and isocratic pulse response. A panel of nine proteins spanning a wide range of structures and biochemical properties was then used to assess equilibrium uptake, mass transport, dynamic binding capacity, and elution pH. Process performance and product quality were also examined under realistic bioprocess conditions using clarified mammalian cell culture broth...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681543/the-pou-oct-transcription-factor-nubbin-controls-the-balance-of-intestinal-stem-cell-maintenance-and-differentiation-by-isoform-specific-regulation
#8
Xiongzhuo Tang, Yunpo Zhao, Nicolas Buchon, Ylva Engström
Drosophila POU/Oct transcription factors are required for many developmental processes, but their putative regulation of adult stem cell activity has not been investigated. Here, we show that Nubbin (Nub)/Pdm1, homologous to mammalian OCT1/POU2F1 and related to OCT4/POU5F1, is expressed in gut epithelium progenitor cells. We demonstrate that the nub-encoded protein isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, play opposite roles in the regulation of intestinal stem cell (ISC) maintenance and differentiation. Depletion of Nub-PB in progenitor cells increased ISC proliferation by derepression of escargot expression...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679980/parental-genetic-material-and-oxygen-concentration-affect-hatch-dynamics-of-mouse-embryo-in-vitro
#9
Shaoquan Zhan, Shanbo Cao, Hongzi Du, Yuan Sun, Li Li, Chenhui Ding, Haiyan Zheng, Junjiu Huang
BACKGROUND: Hatching is crucial for mammalian embryo implantation, since difficulties during this process can lead to implantation failure, ectopic pregnancy and consequent infertility. Despite years of intensive researches, how internal and external factors affecting embryo hatch are still largely unclear. METHODS: The effects of parental genetic material and oxygen concentration on hatch process were examined. Fertilized and parthenogenetic mouse preimplantation embryos were cultured in vitro under 5 and 20% oxygen for 120 h...
April 21, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678955/studying-x-chromosome-inactivation-in-the-single-cell-genomic-era
#10
REVIEW
Andrew Keniry, Marnie E Blewitt
Single-cell genomics is set to revolutionise our understanding of how epigenetic silencing works; by studying specific epigenetic marks or chromatin conformations in single cells, it is possible to ask whether they cause transcriptional silencing or are instead a consequence of the silent state. Here, we review what single-cell genomics has revealed about X chromosome inactivation, perhaps the best characterised mammalian epigenetic process, highlighting the novel findings and important differences between mouse and human X inactivation uncovered through these studies...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677525/insights-from-diversified-anti-angiogenic-models-role-of-%C3%AE-interferon-inducer-deae-dextran
#11
Anita K Bakrania, Bhavesh C Variya, Snehal S Patel
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis, the physiological process involving growth of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels, is essential for organ growth and repair. However, the imbalance in angiogenesis contributes to copious pathologies including cancer. Preceding the development of anti-angiogenic or proangiogenic agents, its evaluation is equally imperative; hence, precise and adequate models required. Valid mammalian models are expensive, time-consuming and not easy to set up, instigating legal and ethical aspects making it necessary to establish models with satisfactory activity and limited drawbacks...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677509/beyond-host-defense-emerging-functions-of-the-immune-system-in-regulating-complex-tissue-physiology
#12
REVIEW
Lucille C Rankin, David Artis
The essential roles played by the immune system in the discrimination between self- versus non/altered-self and its integral role in promoting host defense against invading microbes and tumors have been extensively studied for many years. In these contexts, significant advances have been made in defining the molecular and cellular networks that orchestrate cell-cell communication to mediate host defense and pathogen expulsion. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to these classical immune functions, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system also sense complex tissue- and environment-derived signals, including those from the nervous system and the diet...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676260/embryonic-and-postnatal-neurogenesis-produce-functionally-distinct-subclasses-of-dopaminergic-neuron
#13
Elisa Galliano, Eleonora Franzoni, Marine Breton, Annisa N Chand, Darren J Byrne, Venkatesh N Murthy, Matthew Grubb
Most neurogenesis in the mammalian brain is completed embryonically, but in certain areas the production of neurons continues throughout postnatal life. The functional properties of mature postnatally-generated neurons often match those of their embryonically-produced counterparts. However, we show here that in the olfactory bulb (OB), embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis produce functionally distinct subpopulations of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We define two subclasses of OB DA neuron by the presence or absence of a key subcellular specialisation: the axon initial segment (AIS)...
April 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675241/discrete-cu-i-complexes-for-azide-alkyne-annulations-of-small-molecules-inside-mammalian-cells
#14
Joan Miguel-Ávila, María Tomás-Gamasa, Andrea Olmos, Pedro J Pérez, José L Mascareñas
The archetype reaction of "click" chemistry, namely, the copper-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), has found an impressive number of applications in biological chemistry. However, methods for promoting intermolecular annulations of exogenous, small azides and alkynes in the complex interior of mammalian cells, are essentially unknown. Herein we demonstrate that isolated, well-defined copper(i)-tris(triazolyl) complexes featuring designed ligands can readily enter mammalian cells and promote intracellular CuAAC annulations of small, freely diffusible molecules...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674978/reporter-based-isolation-of-developmental-myogenic-progenitors
#15
Eyemen Kheir, Gabriella Cusella, Graziella Messina, Giulio Cossu, Stefano Biressi
The formation and activity of mammalian tissues entail finely regulated processes, involving the concerted organization and interaction of multiple cell types. In recent years the prospective isolation of distinct progenitor and stem cell populations has become a powerful tool in the hands of developmental biologists and has rendered the investigation of their intrinsic properties possible. In this protocol, we describe how to purify progenitors with different lineage history and degree of differentiation from embryonic and fetal skeletal muscle by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674962/invaginating-structures-in-mammalian-synapses
#16
REVIEW
Ronald S Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Mark P Mattson, Pamela J Yao
Invaginating structures at chemical synapses in the mammalian nervous system exist in presynaptic axon terminals, postsynaptic spines or dendrites, and glial processes. These invaginating structures can be divided into three categories. The first category includes slender protrusions invaginating into axonal terminals, postsynaptic spines, or glial processes. Best known examples of this category are spinules extending from postsynaptic spines into presynaptic terminals in forebrain synapses. Another example of this category are protrusions from inhibitory presynaptic terminals invaginating into postsynaptic neuronal somas...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673065/insight-into-tetrodotoxin-blockade-and-resistance-mechanisms-of-na-v-1-2-sodium-channel-by-theoretical-approaches
#17
Lei Xu, Dayu Li, Junjie Ding, Li Pan, Xiaoqin Ding
Nav 1.2, a member of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav s) that are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials along the cell membrane, and play a vital role in the process of information transmission within the nervous system and muscle contraction, is preferentially expressed in the central nervous system. As a potent and selective blocker of Nav s, tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been extensively studied in biological and chemical sciences, whereas the detailed mechanism by which it blocks nine Nav 1 channel subtypes remain elusive...
April 19, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671811/shape-shifted-red-blood-cells-a-novel-red-blood-cell-stage
#18
Verónica Chico, Sara Puente-Marin, Iván Nombela, Sergio Ciordia, María Carmen Mena, Begoña Carracedo, Alberto Villena, Luis Mercado, Julio Coll, María Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan
Primitive nucleated erythroid cells in the bloodstream have long been suggested to be more similar to nucleated red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds than the red cells of fetal and adult mammals. Rainbow trout Ficoll-purified red blood cells (RBCs) cultured in vitro undergo morphological changes, especially when exposed to stress, and enter a new cell stage that we have coined shape-shifted RBCs (shRBCs). We have characterized these shRBCs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, Wright⁻Giemsa staining, cell marker immunostaining, and transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation...
April 19, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671738/hif-2%C3%AE-is-essential-for-carotid-body-development-and-function
#19
David Macias, Andrew S Cowburn, Hortensia Torres-Torrelo, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo, Randall Johnson
Mammalian adaptation to oxygen flux occurs at many levels, from shifts in cellular metabolism to physiological adaptations facilitated by the sympathetic nervous system and carotid body (CB). Interactions between differing forms of adaptive response to hypoxia, including transcriptional responses orchestrated by the Hypoxia Inducible transcription Factors (HIFs), are complex and clearly synergistic. We show here that there is an absolute developmental requirement for HIF-2α, one of the HIF isoforms, for growth and survival of oxygen sensitive glomus cells of the carotid body...
April 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671706/circadian-regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-retinal-photoreceptors
#20
Janet Ya-An Chang, Liheng Shi, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
Energy expenditure and metabolism in the vertebrate retina are under circadian control, as we previously reported that the overall retinal ATP content and various signaling molecules related to metabolism display daily or circadian rhythms. Changes in the fission and fusion process of mitochondria, the major organelles producing ATP, in retinal photoreceptors are largely dependent on light exposure, but whether mitochondrial dynamics in photoreceptors and retinal neurons are under circadian control is not clear...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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