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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911384/analysis-of-scap-n-glycosylation-and-trafficking-in-human-cells
#1
Chunming Cheng, Jeffrey Yunhua Guo, Feng Geng, Xiaoning Wu, Xiang Cheng, Qiyue Li, Deliang Guo
Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909010/apoer2-controls-not-only-neuronal-migration-in-the-intermediate-zone-but-also-termination-of-migration-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#2
Yuki Hirota, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Takahiro Fujino, Tokuo T Yamamoto, Kazunori Nakajima
Neuronal migration contributes to the establishment of mammalian brain. The extracellular protein Reelin sends signals to various downstream molecules by binding to its receptors, the apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor and exerts essential roles in the neuronal migration and formation of the layered neocortex. However, the cellular and molecular functions of Reelin signaling in the cortical development are not yet fully understood. Here, to gain insight into the role of Reelin signaling during cortical development, we examined the migratory behavior of Apoer2-deficient neurons in the developing brain...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907214/derivation-of-induced-trophoblast-cell-lines-in-cattle-by-doxycycline-inducible-piggybac-vectors
#3
Takamasa Kawaguchi, Dooseon Cho, Masafumi Hayashi, Tomoyuki Tsukiyama, Koji Kimura, Shuichi Matsuyama, Naojiro Minami, Masayasu Yamada, Hiroshi Imai
Trophectoderm lineage specification is one of the earliest differentiation events in mammalian development. The trophoblast lineage, which is derived from the trophectoderm, mediates implantation and placental formation. However, the processes involved in trophoblastic differentiation and placental formation in cattle remain unclear due to interspecies differences when compared with other model systems and the small repertoire of available trophoblast cell lines. Here, we describe the generation of trophoblast cell lines (biTBCs) from bovine amnion-derived cells (bADCs) using an induced pluripotent stem cell technique...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905431/the-snd-proteins-constitute-an-alternative-targeting-route-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#4
Naama Aviram, Tslil Ast, Elizabeth A Costa, Eric C Arakel, Silvia G Chuartzman, Calvin H Jan, Sarah Haßdenteufel, Johanna Dudek, Martin Jung, Stefan Schorr, Richard Zimmermann, Blanche Schwappach, Jonathan S Weissman, Maya Schuldiner
In eukaryotes, up to one-third of cellular proteins are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they undergo folding, processing, sorting and trafficking to subsequent endomembrane compartments. Targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum has been shown to occur co-translationally by the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway or post-translationally by the mammalian transmembrane recognition complex of 40 kDa (TRC40) and homologous yeast guided entry of tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathways. Despite the range of proteins that can be catered for by these two pathways, many proteins are still known to be independent of both SRP and GET, so there seems to be a critical need for an additional dedicated pathway for endoplasmic reticulum relay...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903729/joint-encoding-of-object-motion-and-motion-direction-in-the-salamander-retina
#5
Norma Krystyna Kühn, Tim Gollisch
: The processing of motion in visual scenes is important for detecting and tracking moving objects as well as for monitoring self-motion through the induced optic flow. Specialized neural circuits have been identified in the vertebrate retina for detecting motion direction or for distinguishing between object motion and self-motion, although little is known about how information about these distinct features of visual motion is combined. The salamander retina, which is a widely used model system for analyzing retinal function, contains object-motion-sensitive (OMS) ganglion cells, which strongly respond to local motion signals but are suppressed by global image motion...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903607/mitochondrial-division-occurs-concurrently-with-autophagosome-formation-but-independently-of-drp1-during-mitophagy
#6
Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Xiulian Jin, Kentaro Furukawa, Maho Hamasaki, Akiko Nezu, Hidenori Otera, Tetsu Saigusa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Katsuyoshi Mihara, Tomotake Kanki
Mitophagy is thought to play an important role in mitochondrial quality control. Mitochondrial division is believed to occur first, and autophagosome formation subsequently occurs to enwrap mitochondria as a process of mitophagy. However, there has not been any temporal analysis of mitochondrial division and autophagosome formation in mitophagy. Therefore, the relationships among these processes remain unclear. We show that the mitochondrial division factor Dnm1 in yeast or Drp1 in mammalian cells is dispensable for mitophagy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901588/reciprocal-crosstalk-between-autophagic-and-endocrine-signaling-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#7
Rohit A Sinha, Brijesh K Singh, Paul M Yen
Autophagy is a cellular quality control and energy-providing process that is under strict control by intra- and extra-cellular stimuli. Recently, there has been an exponential increase in autophagy research and its implications for mammalian physiology. Autophagy de-regulation now is being implicated in many human diseases and its modulation has shown promising results in several pre-clinical studies. However, despite its first discovery as a hormone-regulated process by de Duve in the early 1960's, endocrine regulation of autophagy still remains poorly understood...
November 30, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896924/detailed-tail-proteomic-analysis-of-axolotl-ambystoma-mexicanum-using-an-mrna-seq-reference-database
#8
Turan Demircan, Ilknur Keskin, Seda Nilgun Dumlu, Nilufer Ayturk, Mahmut Erhan Avsaroglu, Emel Akgun, Gurkan Ozturk, Ahmet Tarik Baykal
Salamander Axolotl has been emerging as an important model for stem cell research due to its powerful regenerative capacity. Several advantages, such as the high capability of advanced tissue, organ and appendages regeneration, promote Axolotl as an ideal model system to extend our current understanding on the mechanisms of regeneration. Acknowledging the common molecular pathways between amphibians and mammals, there is a great potential to translate the messages from Axolotl research to mammalian studies...
November 29, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894681/results-of-micronucleus-assays-with-individuals-who-are-occupationally-and-environmentally-exposed-to-mercury-lead-and-cadmium
#9
REVIEW
Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Monika Waldherr, Tahereh Setayesh, Miroslav Mišík, Georg Wultsch, Metka Filipic, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Siegfried Knasmueller
Millions of humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally to lead, mercury and cadmium compounds. Mercury compounds are less abundant but some of them belong to the most toxic chemicals which are known. We evaluated the literature to find out if these metals act in humans as genotoxic carcinogens and if their health effects can be predicted by use of micronucleus (MN) assays with lymphocytes and/or with other genotoxicity tests. Numerous studies showed that lead and mercury induce cancer in humans and also in animals, in vitro experiments with cultured cells indicate that they cause DNA damage via different molecular mechanisms including release of reactive oxygen species and interactions with DNA repair processes...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894594/alterations-of-golgi-organization-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cause-or-a-consequence
#10
REVIEW
Inmaculada Ayala, Antonino Colanzi
The Golgi apparatus is a central organelle of the secretory pathway involved in the post-translational modification and sorting of lipids and proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi apparatus is composed of stacks of cisternae organized in polarized manner, which are interconnected by membrane tubules to constitute the Golgi ribbon, located in the proximity of the centrosome. Besides the processing and transport of cargo, the Golgi complex is actively involved in the regulation of mitotic entry, cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis, representing a signalling platform for the control of several cellular functions, including signalling initiated by receptors located at the plasma membrane...
November 19, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894274/gene-cassette-knock-in-in-mammalian-cells-and-zygotes-by-enhanced-mmej
#11
Tomomi Aida, Shota Nakade, Tetsushi Sakuma, Yayoi Izu, Ayu Oishi, Keiji Mochida, Harumi Ishikubo, Takako Usami, Hidenori Aizawa, Takashi Yamamoto, Kohichi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Although CRISPR/Cas enables one-step gene cassette knock-in, assembling targeting vectors containing long homology arms is a laborious process for high-throughput knock-in. We recently developed the CRISPR/Cas-based precise integration into the target chromosome (PITCh) system for a gene cassette knock-in without long homology arms mediated by microhomology-mediated end-joining. RESULTS: Here, we identified exonuclease 1 (Exo1) as an enhancer for PITCh in human cells...
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892932/reciprocal-regulation-of-carbon-monoxide-metabolism-and-the-circadian-clock
#12
Roman Klemz, Silke Reischl, Thomas Wallach, Nicole Witte, Karsten Jürchott, Sabrina Klemz, Veronika Lang, Stephan Lorenzen, Miriam Knauer, Steffi Heidenreich, Min Xu, Jürgen A Ripperger, Michael Schupp, Ralf Stanewsky, Achim Kramer
Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous oscillators regulating daily rhythms in a wide range of physiological, metabolic and behavioral processes. Feedback of metabolic signals, such as redox state, NAD(+)/NADH and AMP/ADP ratios, or heme, modulate circadian rhythms and thereby optimize energy utilization across the 24-h cycle. We show that rhythmic heme degradation, which generates the signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO), is required for normal circadian rhythms as well as circadian metabolic outputs. CO suppresses circadian transcription by attenuating CLOCK-BMAL1 binding to target promoters...
November 28, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890639/oxidized-c5-methyl-cytosine-bases-in-dna-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-5-formylcytosine-and-5-carboxycytosine
#13
Arne Klungland, Adam B Robertson
Recent reports suggest that the Tet enzyme family catalytically oxidize 5-methylcytosine in mammalian cells. The oxidation of 5-methylcytosine can result in three chemically distinct species - 5-hydroxymethylcytsine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxycytosine. While the base excision repair machinery processes 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine rapidly, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is stable under physiological conditions. As a stable modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine has a broad range of functions, from stem cell pluriopotency to tumorigenesis...
November 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890617/polycistronic-trna-and-crispr-guide-rna-enables-highly-efficient-multiplexed-genome-engineering-in-human-cells
#14
Fengping Dong, Kabin Xie, Yueying Chen, Yinong Yang, Yingwei Mao
CRISPR/Cas9 has been widely used for genomic editing in many organisms. Many human diseases are caused by multiple mutations. The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a potential tool to introduce multiple mutations in a genome. To mimic complicated genomic events in human diseases, such as multiple gene deletions or mutations, two or more small guide RNAs (sgRNA) must be introduced all together. This can be achieved by separate Pol III promoters in a construct. However, limited enzyme sites and the increased insertion size lower the efficiency to make a construct...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889578/molecular-neurobiology-of-mtor
#15
REVIEW
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that controls several important aspects of mammalian cell function. mTOR activity is modulated by various intra- and extracellular factors; in turn, mTOR changes rates of translation, transcription, protein degradation, cell signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. mTOR has been repeatedly shown to participate in neuronal development and the proper functioning of mature neurons. Changes in mTOR activity are often observed in nervous system diseases, including genetic diseases (e...
November 23, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888240/topological-organisation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-phospholipase-c-resynthesis-cycle-pitps-bridge-the-er-pm-gap
#16
REVIEW
Shamshad Cockcroft, Padinjat Raghu
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a receptor-regulated enzyme that hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) at the plasma membrane (PM) triggering three biochemical consequences, the generation of soluble inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), membrane-associated diacylglycerol (DG) and the consumption of PM PI(4,5)P2 Each of these three signals triggers multiple molecular processes impacting key cellular properties. The activation of PLC also triggers a sequence of biochemical reactions, collectively referred to as the PI(4,5)P2 cycle that culminates in the resynthesis of this lipid...
December 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885007/circadian-physiology-of-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Satchidananda Panda
A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884298/mhy1485-activates-mtor-and-protects-osteoblasts-from-dexamethasone
#18
Sai Zhao, Caiyun Chen, Shouguo Wang, Feng Ji, Yue Xie
Dexamethasone (Dex) exerts cytotoxic effects to cultured osteoblasts. The potential effect of MHY1485, a small-molecular mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activator, against the process was studied here. In both osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts, treatment with MHY1485 significantly ameliorated Dex-induced cell death and apoptosis. mTOR inhibition, through mTOR kinase inhibitor OSI-027 or mTOR shRNAs, abolished MHY1485-mediated osteoblast cytoprotection against Dex. Intriguingly, activation of mTOR complex (mTORC1), but not mTORC2, is required for MHY1485's anti-Dex activity...
December 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883091/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-triggered-hippo-pathway-orchestrates-cxcl1-2-expression-to-modulate-host-immune-responses
#19
Monoranjan Boro, Vikas Singh, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenesis encompasses a plethora of finely regulated alterations within the host which eventually coin the outcome of infection. Chemokines are important components in directing immune cell recruitment to the site of infection, and shaping the disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that Hippo (mammalian sterile 20-like 1 and 2 kinases, MST1/2, in mammals), is activated during mycobacterial infection in a toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-interleukin receptor-1 associated kinases (IRAK1/4)-dependent manner...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882454/portraying-the-effect-of-calcium-binding-proteins-on-cytosolic-calcium-concentration-distribution-fractionally-in-nerve-cells
#20
Brajesh Kumar Jha, Hardik Joshi, Devanshi D Dave
Nerve cells like neurons and astrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) take part in the signaling process which means the transformation of the information from one cell to another via signals. The signaling process is affected by various external parameters like buffers calcium-binding proteins, voltage-gated calcium channel. In the present paper, the role of buffers in the cytoplasmic calcium concentration distribution is shown. The elicitation in calcium concentration is due to the presence of lower amount calcium-binding proteins which can be shown graphically...
November 23, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
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