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Mammalian cell processing ,

James W Fielding, Emma J Hodson, Xiaotong Cheng, David J P Ferguson, Luise Eckardt, Julie Adam, Philomena Lip, Matthew Maton-Howarth, Indrika Ratnayaka, Christopher W Pugh, Keith J Buckler, Peter J Ratcliffe, Tammie Bishop
The carotid body is a peripheral chemoreceptor that plays a central role in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. In response to sustained hypoxia, it manifests rapid cellular proliferation and an associated increase in responsiveness to hypoxia. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes is of interest both to specialised chemoreceptive functions of that organ and potentially to the general physiology and pathophysiology of cellular hypoxia. We have combined cell lineage tracing technology and conditionally inactivated alleles in recombinant mice to examine the role of components of the HIF hydroxylase pathway in specific cell types within the carotid body...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
He Xiaoyu, Yin Yiru, Shi Shuisheng, Cheng Keyan, Yan Zixing, Cheng Shanglin, Wang Yuan, Cheng Dongming, Zhang Wangliang, Bai Xudong, Ma Jie
OBJECTIVES: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a highly prevalent cancer withpoor survival rate and prognosis. Increasing evidence suggests an important role for metabolic regulation in treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The pyruvate kinase M2 isoform is a key enzyme in the energy production process, and the upregulation of pyruvate kinase M2 isoform also plays a crucial role in gene transcription and tumorigenesis. The mammalian target of rapamycin pathway regulates an array of cellular functions, including protein synthesis, metabolism, and cell proliferation...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
John L Brubacher, Ana P Vieira, Juliette Azimzadeh
The flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea and related species are emerging model systems in such fields as stem-cell biology, regeneration, and evolutionary biology. Excellent molecular tools have been developed for S. mediterranea, but ultrastructural techniques have received less attention, which is unfortunate, as these methods are necessary to better understand the actual histological, cellular and subcellular features of regeneration and development. Tissue-processing regimens can be quite idiosyncratic for particular species or specimen types-what works for mammalian tissues or cell cultures will not necessarily give good results with freshwater planarians...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Craig L Bennett, Albert R La Spada
Senataxin (SETX) is a DNA-RNA helicase whose C-terminal region shows homology to the helicase domain of the yeast protein Sen1p. Genetic discoveries have established the importance of SETX for neural function, as recessive mutations in the SETX gene cause Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2) (OMIM: 606002), which is the third most common form of recessive ataxia, after Friedreich's ataxia and Ataxia-Telangiectasia. In addition, rare, dominant SETX mutations cause a juvenile-onset form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), known as ALS4...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
Mayrim Machado Gomes Smaul, Alexandre Budu, Georgina Nuri Montagna, Taíse Fernanda da Silva Ferrara, Sarah El Chamy Maluf, Piero Bagnaresi, Marcelo Marcondes Ferreira Machado, Fellipe Bronze Dos Santos, Mauro Ferreira de Azevedo, Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona, Marcos Leoni Gazarini
Calcium signaling has an essential role in fundamental processes of Plasmodium life cycle, including migration, cell invasion and parasite development. Two important players in calcium homeostasis, the Histidine Triad (HIT) protein that is implicated in calcium signaling in mammalian cells and calmodulin, which is a classic calcium sensor in eukaryotes are present in Plasmodium falciparum, however theirs function is unknown in the parasite. Here, we investigated the involvement of the P. falciparum Histidine Triad protein (PfHint-1) and calmodulin (PfCaM) in calcium signaling and intracellular proteolysis...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mihnea Dragomir, George A Calin
Circular RNAs (circRNA) are RNA molecules built from fragments of linear pre-messenger RNAs and other linear RNA species through a process termed "back-splicing" in which the 3' and 5' ends are joined together giving rise to a covalently uninterrupted loop. circRNAs are not new members of the RNA world; they were first discovered in the early 1990s. The novelty is their abundance in the mammalian cells, as recently thousands of circRNAs were discovered and annotated. The biogenesis of circRNAs is a partially characterized process, regulated by three different mechanisms: exon skipping, intron pairing, and RNA-binding proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Pio Conti, Alessandro Caraffa, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Chiara M Conti, Spiros K Kritas, Filiberto Mastrangelo, Lucia Tettamanti, Theoharis C Theoharides
The purpose of this article is to study the involvement of inflammatory mast cells (MCs) in depression which may be inhibited by IL-37. We evaluate mast cells in depression on the basis of our previous experimental data, and using the most relevant studies reported in the literature. Dysfunction of mood, feelings, and thoughts is a major risk factor for several metabolic diseases and may influence the physiology of the body leading to depression. Depression, present in mastocytosis, is an important endogenous process that promotes the activation of meningeal cell receptors through a low-grade neurogenic chronic inflammation, and MCs...
June 16, 2018: Immunologic Research
Gopinath M Sundaram, Shan Quah, Prabha Sampath
Complex multicellular organisms have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to rapidly resolve epithelial injuries. Epithelial integrity is critical to maintaining internal homeostasis. An epithelial breach represents the potential for pathogen ingress and fluid loss, both of which may have severe consequences if not limited. The mammalian wound healing response involves a finely-tuned, self-limiting series of cellular and molecular events orchestrated by the transient activation of specific signalling pathways. Accurate regulation of these events is essential; failure to initiate key steps at the right time delays healing and leads to chronic wounds, whilst aberrant initiation of wound healing processes may produce cell behaviours that promote cancer progression...
June 15, 2018: FEBS Journal
Jens P Goetze, Jens F Rehfeld
The mammalian heart is by now an established endocrine organ whose myocytes in a regulated manner release atrial and ventricular natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP). But like other hormone-producing cells in classic endocrine organs, the cardiac myocytes also express genes of additional peptide hormones. One such hormone gene is that of the well-known pleiotropic gut-brain peptide system, cholecystokinin (CCK), which is expressed at mRNA and protein levels in both atrial and ventricular cardiac myocytes. The posttranslational processing of proCCK in the myocytes, however, deviates substantially from that of other CCK-producing cells...
June 11, 2018: Peptides
Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh, Maryam Rahimi, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Vahid Shariati J, Seyed Alireza Salami
Successful spermatogenesis and oogenesis are the two genetically independent processes preceding embryo development. To date, several fertility-related proteins have been described in mammalian species. Nevertheless, further studies are required to discover more proteins associated with the development of germ cells and embryogenesis in order to shed more light on the processes. This work builds on our previous software (OOgenesis_Pred), mainly focusing on algorithms beyond what was previously done, in particular new fertility-related proteins and their classes (embryogenesis, spermatogenesis and oogenesis) based on the support vector machine according to the concept of Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition features...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Olivier Ganier, Dominik Schnerch, Erich A Nigg
Centrosome aberrations disrupt tissue architecture and may confer invasive properties to cancer cells. Here we show that structural centrosome aberrations, induced by overexpression of either Ninein-like protein (NLP) or CEP131/AZI1, sensitize polarized mammalian epithelia to basal cell extrusion. While unperturbed epithelia typically dispose of damaged cells through apical dissemination into luminal cavities, certain oncogenic mutations cause a switch in directionality towards basal cell extrusion, raising the potential for metastatic cell dissemination...
June 2018: Open Biology
Yang Li, Liurong Fang, Yanrong Zhou, Ran Tao, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has caused tremendous economic losses in the global swine industry since it was discovered in the late 1980s. Inducing host translation shutoff is a strategy used by many viruses to optimize their replication and spread. Here, we demonstrate that PRRSV infection causes host translation suppression, which is strongly dependent on viral replication. By screening PRRSV-encoded nonstructural proteins (nsps), we found that nsp2 participates in the induction of host translation shutoff and that its transmembrane (TM) domain is required for this process...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jeroen Witteveldt, Alasdair Ivens, Sara Macias
Type I interferons (IFNs) are central components of the antiviral response. Most cell types respond to viral infections by secreting IFNs, but the mechanisms that regulate correct expression of these cytokines are not completely understood. Here, we show that activation of the type I IFN response regulates the expression of miRNAs in a post-transcriptional manner. Activation of IFN expression alters the binding of the Microprocessor complex to pri-miRNAs, reducing its processing rate and thus leading to decreased levels of a subset of mature miRNAs in an IRF3-dependent manner...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
Long Cui, Li Fang, Xiaodan Mao, Hsun-Ming Chang, Peter C K Leung, Yinghui Ye
Context: Although glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate mammalian oocyte maturation, little is known about their effects on human oocyte maturation and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Objectives: To examine the effects of GDNF on both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in cultured immature human oocytes and to investigate the involvement of miRNAs in GDNF-induced oocyte maturation. Design: A total of 200 human immature oocytes were used to evaluate the effects of GDNF on oocyte maturation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kara L McKinley, Nico Stuurman, Loic A Royer, Christoph Schartner, David Castillo-Azofeifa, Markus Delling, Ophir D Klein, Ronald D Vale
Cell division is essential to expand, shape, and replenish epithelia. In the adult small intestine, cells from a common progenitor intermix with other lineages, whereas cell progeny in many other epithelia form contiguous patches. The mechanisms that generate these distinct patterns of progeny are poorly understood. Using light sheet and confocal imaging of intestinal organoids, we show that lineages intersperse during cytokinesis, when elongated interphase cells insert between apically displaced daughters...
June 13, 2018: ELife
Shakir Hasan, Peter Sebo, Radim Osicka
Mammalian lungs are organs exhibiting cellular and spatial complexity required for gas exchange to support life. The respiratory epithelium internally lining the airways is susceptible to infections due to constant exposure to inhaled microbes. Biomedical research into respiratory bacterial infections in humans has been mostly carried out using small mammalian animal models or undifferentiated, two dimensional, submerged cultures of epithelial cells. These experimental model systems have considerable limitations due to host specificity of bacterial pathogens and lack of cellular and morphological complexity...
June 13, 2018: FEBS Journal
George Tetz, Victor Tetz
Prions are proteins that can self-propagate, leading to the misfolding of proteins. In addition to the previously demonstrated pathogenic roles of prions during the development of different mammalian diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, they have recently been shown to represent an important functional component in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and bacteriophages, confirming the previously unexplored important regulatory and functional roles. However, an in-depth analysis of these domains in eukaryotic viruses has not been performed...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gary Hong Chun Chung, Marie Charlotte Domart, Christopher Peddie, Judith Mantell, Kieran Mclaverty, Angela Arabiotorre, Lorna Hodgson, Richard D Byrne, Paul Verkade, Kenton Arkill, Lucy M Collinson, Banafshe Larijani
Dysregulation of nuclear envelope (NE) assembly results in various cancers; for example, renal and some lung carcinomas ensue due to NE malformation. The NE is a dynamic membrane compartment and its completion during mitosis, is a highly regulated process but the detailed mechanism still remains incompletely understood. Previous studies have found isolated diacylglycerol (DAG) containing vesicles are essential for completing the fusion of NE in non-somatic cells. We investigated the impact of DAG depletion from cis-Golgi in mammalian cells on NE reassembly...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Anne Wilkening, Cornelia Rüb, Marc Sylvester, Wolfgang Voos
Proteins in mammalian cells exhibit optimal stability at physiological temperatures, and even small temperature variations may cause unfolding and nonspecific aggregation. As this process leads to a loss of function of the affected polypeptides and to cytotoxic stress, formation of protein aggregates has been recognized as a major pathogenic factor in human diseases. In this study, we determined the impact of physiological heat stress on mitochondria isolated from HeLa cells. We found that the heat-stressed mitochondria had lower membrane potential, ATP level, and exhibited a decreased production of reactive oxygen species...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bence Kozma, András Salgó, Szilveszter Gergely
In-situ Raman spectroscopy is frequently applied to monitor and even control the glucose concentration of monoclonal antibody producing mammalian cell cultivations. Previous studies used the PLSR algorithm only, however other multivariate algorithms were applied successfully for different protein production processes. In this study, four mammalian cell cultivation runs were followed with Raman spectroscopy and the spectra were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively as well. The PCA analysis showed that one of the most dominant factors in the Raman spectra were the concentration of glucose, which strongly correlated with the score values of the eighth principal component...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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