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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737484/the-effect-of-fiber-and-prebiotics-on-children-s-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-microbiome
#1
Carrie A M Wegh, Margriet H C Schoterman, Elaine E Vaughan, Clara Belzer, Marc A Benninga
The bacteria received upon birth are the start of colonization of the approximately 10(14) bacteria that are present in the mature human gastrointestinal tract, better known as the microbiota. The gut microbiota is implicated in gastrointestinal health, nutrient metabolism and benefits such as prevention of infection. Dietary fiber, including prebiotics, escape digestion in the small intestine and reach the colon intact, where they are partially or completely fermented by the gut microbiota. Areas covered: The possible interactions between dietary fiber, prebiotics and microbiota are discussed as well as how this relates to functional gastrointestinal disorders...
July 24, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735851/assessing-beans-as-a-source-of-intrinsic-fiber-on-satiety-in-men-and-women-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Elizabeth J Reverri, Jody M Randolph, C Tissa Kappagoda, Eunyoung Park, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt M Burton-Freeman
Dietary fiber is well-known for its satiety inducing properties. Adding fibers to mixed dishes is one way to increase fiber intake. However, adding fibers to foods versus including foods inherently containing fiber may reveal differing effects on satiety. The present study aimed to explore the satiety effects of adding fiber to a mixed meal versus using beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a source of intrinsic fiber in the meal. In this pilot study, 12 men and women with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to eat three standard meals in a crossover design on three different occasions that contained either no added fiber (control (NF)), extrinsic or added fiber (AF), or whole black beans as the source of intrinsic fiber (BN)...
July 20, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734788/neuropathic-pain-in-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-is-associated-with-altered-electrophysiological-properties-of-nociceptive-drg-neurons
#3
Omneya Taha, Thoralf Opitz, Marcus Mueller, Julika Pitsch, Albert Becker, Bernd Oliver Evert, Heinz Beck, Monika Jeub
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy characterized by rapidly progressive paresis and sensory disturbances. Moderate to severe and often intractable neuropathic pain is a common symptom of GBS, but its underlying mechanisms are unknown. Pathology of GBS is classically attributed to demyelination of large, myelinated peripheral fibers. However, there is increasing evidence that neuropathic pain in GBS is associated with impaired function of small, unmyelinated, nociceptive fibers...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732069/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-supplementation-reduces-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-ibs
#4
Paola Brun, Melania Scarpa, Chiara Marchiori, Gloria Sarasin, Valentina Caputi, Andrea Porzionato, Maria Cecilia Giron, Giorgio Palù, Ignazio Castagliuolo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) exposure. METHODS: Mice were inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 (102 PFU) or vehicle at time 0 and 4 weeks later by the intragastric (IG) route (108 PFU). Six weeks after IG inoculum, mice were randomly allocated to receive oral gavage with either S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731144/dietary-fiber-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-review
#5
Magdy El-Salhy, Synne Otterasen Ystad, Tarek Mazzawi, Doris Gundersen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729815/symposium-report-an-evidence-based-approach-to-ibs-and-cic-applying-new-advances-to-daily-practice-a-review-of-an-adjunct-clinical-symposium-of-the-american-college-of-gastroenterology-meeting-october-16-2016-%C3%A2-las-vegas-nevada
#6
William D Chey
Many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies are available to manage irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). The American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) regularly publishes reviews on IBS and CIC therapies. The most recent of these reviews was published by the ACG Task Force on the Management of Functional Bowel Disorders in 2014. The key objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of therapies for IBS or CIC compared with placebo or no treatment in randomized controlled trials...
February 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728619/restless-genital-syndrome-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment-with-pramipexole
#7
Emilia Sforza, David Hupin, Frédéric Roche
Restless genital syndrome refers to excessive and persistent sensations of genital and clitoral arousal with the absence of conscious feeling of sexual desire. These sensations have been linked to symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) or an overactive bladder. Restless genital syndrome may be related to small fiber sensory neuropathy of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris, so it more frequently occurs in women. The association with RLS suggests a possible dopaminergic mechanism. We report a case of a 74-year-old woman who presented restless genital symptoms every night in association with RLS symptoms...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727859/space-flight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome
#8
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, William Tarver
New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station...
July 20, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726540/mechanisms-of-the-analgesic-effect-of-calcitonin-on-chronic-pain-by-alteration-of-receptor-or-channel-expression
#9
Akitoshi Ito, Megumu Yoshimura
The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is well known clinically for its ability to relieve osteoporotic back pain and neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Because the analgesic effects of calcitonin have a broad range, the underlying mechanisms of pain relief by calcitonin are largely unknown. However, recent studies using several types of chronic pain models combined with various methods have been gradually clarifying the mechanism...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717435/psoriasis-bulbar-involvement-and-diarrhea-in-late-myoclonic-epilepsy-with-ragged-red-fibers-syndrome-due-to-the-m-8344a-g-trna-lys-mutation
#10
Josef Finsterer, Gabor Geza Kovacs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715584/reduced-retinal-vessel-density-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-patients-an-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-study
#11
Jian Yu, Kuanlin Xiao, Jingjing Huang, Xinghuai Sun, Chunhui Jiang
Purpose: To examine the retinal vasculature in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) and to determine the correlation between retinal vascularity and the severity of OSAS. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study. Methods: Sixty-nine consecutive subjects who underwent polysomnography were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of OSAS, which was defined using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as normal-to-mild (AHI <15), moderate (≥15 to <30), or severe (≥30)...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714091/habitual-diet-and-diet-quality-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a%C3%A2-case-control-study
#12
E F Tigchelaar, Z Mujagic, A Zhernakova, M A M Hesselink, S Meijboom, C W M Perenboom, A A M Masclee, C Wijmenga, E J M Feskens, D M A E Jonkers
BACKGROUND: Diet is considered to be a key factor in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and patients tend to exclude food products from their diet in pursue of symptom relief, which may impair diet quality. METHODS: We evaluated habitual dietary intake in IBS patients with regard to nutrients and food products using an extensive food frequency questionnaire. One hundred ninety-four IBS patients were compared to 186 healthy controls using multiple logistic regression analysis...
July 17, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692740/switching-of-%C3%AE-catenin-from-epithelial-to-neuronal-type-during-lens-epithelial-cell-differentiation
#13
Rupalatha Maddala, Ponugoti Vasantha Rao
Purpose: Ocular lens fiber cell elongation, differentiation, and compaction are associated with extensive reorganization of cell adhesive interactions and cytoskeleton; however, our knowledge of proteins critical to these events is still evolving. This study characterizes the distribution pattern of neuronal-specific α-catenin (αN-catenin) and its interaction with the N-cadherin-associated adherens junctions (AJs) and their stability in the mouse lens fibers. Methods: Expression and distribution of αN-catenin in developing mouse and adult human lenses was determined by RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687309/reduced-axonal-diameter-of-peripheral-nerve-fibers-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#14
Noha G Bahey, Kamal K E Gadalla, Rhona McGonigal, Mark E S Bailey, Julia M Edgar, Stuart R Cobb
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder characterized by motor and cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction and a loss of purposeful hand skills. In the majority of cases, typical RTT is caused by de novo mutations in the X-linked gene, MECP2. Alterations in the structure and function of neurons within the central nervous system of RTT patients and Mecp2-null mouse models are well established. In contrast, few studies have investigated the effects of MeCP2-deficiency on peripheral nerves. In this study, we conducted detailed morphometric as well as functional analysis of the sciatic nerves of symptomatic adult female Mecp2(+/-) mice...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686997/management-of-epilepsy-in-merrf-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome is a rare syndromic mitochondrial disorder (MID) with a broad phenotypic but narrow genotypic heterogeneity. One of the predominant phenotypic features in addition to myopathy is epilepsy. The most frequent seizure type in MERRF is generalised myoclonic seizure but also focal myoclonic, focal atonic, generalised tonic-clonic, generalised atonic, generalised myoclonic-atonic, typical absences, or tonic-clonic seizures of unknown onset have been reported...
June 24, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685718/clinical-characteristics-electrophysiology-and-skin-biopsy-of-38-peripheral-neuropathy-cases-with-small-fiber-involvement-of-various-etiologies
#16
Bo Sun, Li-Zhi Liu, Yi-Fan Li, Zhao-Hui Chen, Li Ling, Fei Yang, Fang Cui, Xu-Sheng Huang
BACKGROUND: In small fiber neuropathy (SFN), thinly myelinated Aδ and unmyelinated C fibers are primarily affected, resulting in sensory and/or autonomic symptoms. Various etiologies have been shown to be associated with SFN. This study was aimed to analyze a variety of features in peripheral neuropathy (PN) with small fiber involvement, and to compare disease severity among patients with idiopathic PN, PN associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and metabolic syndrome (MS) PN...
July 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684259/zinner-syndrome-a-diagnostic-challenge-the-aid-of-morphology-embryology-and-immunohistochemistry
#17
Michela Campora, Alberto Olivero, Carlo Toncini, Bruno Spina, Ezio Fulcheri, Carlo Terrone, Valerio Gaetano Vellone
We investigate a patient with right kidney agenesis. Imaging showed the presence of a cystic mass dislocating the bladder. The specimen showed three formations: a kidney remnant, a ureter with blind-ending branch and a cysts, from this departed another tubular structure, considered the deferential duct. The specimen was sampled. The supposed kidney was formed by cystic structures. Examination of the tubular structures disclosed smooth muscle fibers with no lumen, while the cyst was surrounded by fibrous and hemorrhagic walls...
July 3, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674518/brain-susceptibility-changes-in-a-patient-with-natalizumab-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-a-longitudinal-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-and-relaxometry-study
#18
Giuseppe Pontillo, Sirio Cocozza, Roberta Lanzillo, Pasquale Borrelli, Anna De Rosa, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Enrico Tedeschi, Giuseppe Palma
BACKGROUND: Brain MRI plays an essential role in both diagnosis and follow-up of the JC virus infection of the brain. Recently, MR studies with susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences have shown hypointensities in U-fibers adjacent to white matter (WM) lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). This finding has been confirmed with the use of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), allowing to hypothesize a paramagnetic effect in these regions. Here, we report the first longitudinal assessment of QSM and R2* maps in natalizumab-associated PML to evaluate serial changes in susceptibility contrast images and their role in PML diagnosis and follow-up...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674175/enhanced-excitatory-connectivity-and-disturbed-sound-processing-in-the-auditory-brainstem-of-fragile-x-mice
#19
Elisabet Garcia-Pino, Nikodemus Gessele, Ursula Koch
Hypersensitivity to sounds is one of the prevalent symptoms in individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS). It manifests behaviorally early during development and is often used as a landmark for treatment efficacy. However, the physiological mechanisms and circuit-level alterations underlying this aberrant behavior remain poorly understood. Using the mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 KO) we demonstrate that functional maturation of auditory brainstem synapses is impaired in FXS. Fmr1 KO mice showed a greatly enhanced excitatory synaptic input strength in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO), a prominent auditory brainstem nucleus, which integrates ipsilateral excitation and contralateral inhibition to compute interaural level differences (ILDs)...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663372/muscle-hypertrophy-in-pre-diabetic-men-after-sixteen-weeks-of-resistance-training
#20
Charles A Stuart, Michelle L Lee, Mark A South, Mary E A Howell, Michael H Stone
Resistance training of healthy young men typically results in muscle hypertrophy and a shift in vastus lateralis composition away from type IIx fibers to an increase in IIa fiber content. Our previous studies of eight weeks of resistance training found many metabolic syndrome men and women paradoxically increased IIx fibers with a decrease in IIa fibers. To confirm the hypothesis that obese subjects might have muscle remodeling after resistance training very different from healthy lean subjects, we subjected a group of nine obese men volunteers to progressive resistance training for a total of sixteen weeks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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