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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432602/sphenopalatine-ganglion-block-in-the-management-of-chronic-headaches
#1
REVIEW
Jeffery Mojica, Bi Mo, Andrew Ng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) block has been used by clinicians in the treatment of a variety of headache disorders, facial pain syndromes, and other facial neuralgias. The sensory and autonomic fibers that travel through the SPG provided the scientific rationale for symptoms associated with these head and neck syndromes. Yet, despite the elucidation of this pathogenic target, the optimal method to block its pain-producing properties has not been determined. Clinicians have developed various invasive and non-invasive techniques, each of which has shown variable rates of success...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424400/-brodmann-areas-39-and-40-human-parietal-association-area-and-higher-cortical-function
#2
Yasuhisa Sakurai
The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia)...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422829/impact-of-pain-on-cognitive-functions-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-with-small-fiber-neuropathy-10-cases-and-a-literature-review
#3
Sandrine Indart, Jacques Hugon, Pierre Jean Guillausseau, Alice Gilbert, Julien Dumurgier, Claire Paquet, Damien Sène
Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by xerophthalmia, xerostomia, and potential peripheral or central neurological involvement. In pSS, the prevalence of cognitive disorders is generally sparse across literature and the impact of pain on cognitive profile is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between pain, cognitive complaint, and impairment in a very homogenous population of 10 pSS patients with painful small fiber neuropathy (PSFN) and spontaneous cognitive complaint...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410768/-small-fiber-neuropathy
#4
V Langlois, A-L Bedat Millet, M Lebesnerais, S Miranda, F Marguet, Y Benhamou, P Marcorelles, H Lévesque
Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is still unknown. Characterised by neuropathic pain, it typically begins by burning feet, but could take many other expression. SFN affects the thinly myelinated Aδ and unmyelinated C-fibers, by an inherited or acquired mechanism, which could lead to paresthesia, thermoalgic disorder or autonomic dysfunction. Recent studies suggest the preponderant role of ion channels such as Nav1.7. Furthermore, erythromelalgia or burning mouth syndrome are now recognized as real SFN. Various aetiologies of SFN are described...
April 11, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407202/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-an-iq-100-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#5
K Nickel, L Tebartz van Elst, E Perlov, D Endres, G T Müller, A Riedel, T Fangmeier, S Maier
OBJECTIVE: White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, impaired connectivity of limbic structures may be related to social deficits. Heterogeneous findings could be explained in terms of differences in sample characteristics and methodology. In this context, non-syndromic forms might differ substantially in WM structure from secondary ASD forms. METHOD: In an attempt to recruit a homogeneous study sample, we included adults with high-functioning ASD and an IQ > 100 to decrease the influence of syndromic forms being often associated with cognitive deficits...
April 13, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406779/classic-raymond-syndrome
#6
Majid Khan, Sadaf Naveed, Iqbal Haider, Mohammad Humayun, Abidullah Khan
Classic Raymond syndrome presents with abducens nerve palsy on the ipsilateral side with contralateral hemiparesis and facial nerve paralysis. A 60-year gentleman presented with deviation of left angle of mouth and right sided weakness. Examination showed that he had left sided abducens nerve palsy, with contralateral central facial paralysis and paresis. MRI of brain confirmed left pontine infarct. These findings were consistent with classic Raymond syndrome. Till now, only a few cases have been reported worldwide, this being the first case reported in South Asia...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405788/electroneuromyographic-findings-in-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome
#7
Deniz Turgut Coban, Tuncay Cakir, Muhammet Kazim Erol, Gulsum Dogan, Berna Dogan, Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz, Naciye Fusun Toraman
PURPOSE: To examine peripheral electroneuromyographic findings in patients with ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) and to compare them controls without PEX. METHODS: A case-control study design was used to examine 31 patients with PEX and compare the findings with those of 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination that included peripheral electroneuromyography examination. Motor and sensorial nerve conduction of the median, ulnar, tibial, peroneal, and sural nerve and the sympathetic skin response were measured...
April 12, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398919/collagenoma-in-a-patient-with-down-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Sun Young Choi, Sanghui Park
A 26-year-old woman with Down syndrome presented with a 4-cm-sized palpable mass in the sacrococcygeal region. Histologic evaluation of the specimen revealed densely packed collagen fibers in the dermis, which is consistent with a collagenoma. Masson trichrome staining showed dense fibrosis, and elastic Van Gieson staining revealed a significant decrease in elastic tissue. The clinicopathologic characteristics of this patient and 4 previously reported cases are discussed in detail.
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398337/sex-differences-in-frontal-lobe-connectivity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#9
E A Zeestraten, M C Gudbrandsen, E Daly, M T de Schotten, M Catani, F Dell'Acqua, M-C Lai, A N V Ruigrok, M V Lombardo, B Chakrabarti, S Baron-Cohen, C Ecker, D G M Murphy, M C Craig
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are more prevalent in males than females. The biological basis of this difference remains unclear. It has been postulated that one of the primary causes of ASC is a partial disconnection of the frontal lobe from higher-order association areas during development (that is, a frontal 'disconnection syndrome'). Therefore, in the current study we investigated whether frontal connectivity differs between males and females with ASC. We recruited 98 adults with a confirmed high-functioning ASC diagnosis (61 males: aged 18-41 years; 37 females: aged 18-37 years) and 115 neurotypical controls (61 males: aged 18-45 years; 54 females: aged 18-52 years)...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395026/the-structural-role-of-elastic-fibers-in-the-cornea-investigated-using-a-mouse-model-for-marfan-syndrome
#10
Tomas L White, Philip Lewis, Sally Hayes, James Fergusson, James Bell, Luis Farinha, Nick S White, Lygia V Pereira, Keith M Meek
Purpose: The presence of fibrillin-rich elastic fibers in the cornea has been overlooked in recent years. The aim of the current study was to elucidate their functional role using a mouse model for Marfan syndrome, defective in fibrillin-1, the major structural component of the microfibril bundles that constitute most of the elastic fibers. Methods: Mouse corneas were obtained from animals with a heterozygous fibrillin-1 mutation (Fbn1+/-) and compared to wild type controls...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386925/vagus-nerve-stimulation-surgical-technique-of-implantation-and-revision-and-related-morbidity
#11
Flavio Giordano, Anna Zicca, Carmen Barba, Renzo Guerrini, Lorenzo Genitori
Indications for vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy include focal, multifocal epilepsy, drop attacks (tonic/atonic seizures), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-related multifocal epilepsy, and unsuccessful resective surgery. Surgical outcome is about 50-60% for seizures control, and may also improve mood, cognition, and memory. On this basis, VNS has also been proposed for the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's' disease. The vagus nerve stimulator must be implanted with blunt technique on the left side to avoid cardiac side effects through the classic approach for anterior cervical discectomy...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385916/mild-aerobic-exercise-blocks-elastin-fiber-fragmentation-and-aortic-dilatation-in-a-mouse-model-of-marfan-syndrome-associated-aortic-aneurysm
#12
Christine P Gibson, Cory Nielsen, Ramona Alex, Kimbal Cooper, Michael Farney, Douglas Gaufin, Jason Z Cui, Cornelis van Breemen, Tom L Broderick, Johana Vallejo-Elias, Mitra Esfandiarei
Regular low impact physical activity is generally allowed in patients with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. However, being above-average in height encourages young adults with this syndrome to engage in high-intensity contact sports, which unfortunately increases the risk for aortic aneurysm and rupture, the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary (wheel-cage) or forced (treadmill) aerobic exercise at different intensities on aortic function and structure in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381988/increased-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-of-dentate-granule-neurons-in-mice-lacking-psd-95-interacting-adhesion-molecule-neph2-kirrel3-during-the-early-postnatal-period
#13
Junyeop D Roh, Su-Yeon Choi, Yi Sul Cho, Tae-Yong Choi, Jong-Sil Park, Tyler Cutforth, Woosuk Chung, Hanwool Park, Dongsoo Lee, Myeong-Heui Kim, Yeunkum Lee, Seojung Mo, Jeong-Seop Rhee, Hyun Kim, Jaewon Ko, Se-Young Choi, Yong Chul Bae, Kang Shen, Eunjoon Kim, Kihoon Han
Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381495/dietary-reversal-of-neuropathy-in-a-murine-model-of-prediabetes-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#14
Lucy M Hinder, Phillipe D O'Brien, John M Hayes, Carey Backus, Andrew P Solway, Catrina Sims-Robinson, Eva L Feldman
Patients with the metabolic syndrome, defined as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), can develop the same macro- and microvascular complications as patients with type 2 diabetes, including peripheral neuropathy. In type 2 diabetes, glycemic control has little effect on the development and progression of peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that other metabolic syndrome components may contribute to the presence of neuropathy. A parallel phenomenon is observed in patients with prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome, where improvement in weight and dyslipidemia more closely correlates with restoration of nerve function than improvement in glycemic status...
April 5, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380320/reappraisal-of-the-f-m-amplitude-ratio-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#15
F Ginanneschi, M Mondelli, A Aretini, Alessandro Rossi
The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls...
January 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378047/-confocal-microscope-examination-of-the-corneal-nerve-plexus-as-biomarker-for-systemic-diseases-view-from-the-corneal-nerve-plexus-on-diabetes-mellitus-disease
#16
S Baltrusch
It is estimated that approximately 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from polyneuropathy, which is frequently diagnosed too late. Consequently, the question arises whether imaging procedures of the eye, namely optical coherence tomography of the retina and confocal microscopy of the cornea are suitable for the diagnostics and follow-up control of neurodegenerative changes in patients with diabetes mellitus. De Clerck and co-workers could demonstrate this by a systematic review of studies. Of these studies 11 were further evaluated with respect to corneal confocal microscopy...
April 4, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373535/dantrolene-requires-mg-2-to-arrest-malignant-hyperthermia
#17
Rocky H Choi, Xaver Koenig, Bradley S Launikonis
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a clinical syndrome of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to volatile anesthetic gases, where susceptible persons may develop lethally high body temperatures. Genetic predisposition mainly arises from mutations on the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR). Dantrolene is administered to alleviate MH symptoms, but its mechanism of action and its influence on the Ca(2+) transients elicited by MH triggers are unknown. Here, we show that Ca(2+) release in the absence of Mg(2+) is unaffected by the presence of dantrolene but that dantrolene becomes increasingly effective as cytoplasmic-free [Mg(2+)] (free [Mg(2+)]cyto) passes mM levels...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369367/collagen-xiii-secures-pre-and-postsynaptic-integrity-of-the-neuromuscular-synapse
#18
Heli Härönen, Zarin Zainul, Hongmin Tu, Nikolay Naumenko, Raija Sormunen, Ilkka Miinalainen, Anastasia Shakirzyanova, Tuomo Oikarainen, Azat Abdullin, Paula Martin, Sabrina Santoleri, Jari Koistinaho, Israel Silmanl, Rashid Giniatullin, Michael A Fox, Anne Heikkinen, Taina Pihlajaniemi
Both transmembrane and extracellular cues, one of which is collagen XIII, regulate formation and function of the neuromuscular synapse, and their absence results in myasthenia. We show that the phenotypical changes in collagen XIII knock-out mice are milder than symptoms in human patients, but the Col13a1-/- mice recapitulate major muscle findings of congenital myasthenic syndrome type 19 and serve as a disease model. In the lack of collagen XIII neuromuscular synapses do not reach full size, alignment, complexity and function resulting in reduced muscle strength...
March 24, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359846/long-term-effect-of-neonatal-inhibition-of-app-gamma-secretase-on-hippocampal-development-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#19
Fiorenza Stagni, Alessandra Raspanti, Andrea Giacomini, Sandra Guidi, Marco Emili, Elisabetta Ciani, Alessandro Giuliani, Andrea Bighinati, Laura Calzà, Jacopo Magistretti, Renata Bartesaghi
Neurogenesis impairment is considered a major determinant of the intellectual disability that characterizes Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition caused by triplication of chromosome 21. Previous evidence obtained in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS showed that the triplicated gene APP (amyloid precursor protein) is critically involved in neurogenesis alterations. In particular, excessive levels of AICD (amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain) resulting from APP cleavage by gamma-secretase increase the transcription of Ptch1, a Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) receptor that keeps the mitogenic Shh pathway repressed...
March 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300889/elastoma-clinical-and-histopathological-aspects-of-a-rare-disease
#20
Marina Gagheggi Maciel, Milvia Maria Simões E Silva Enokihara, Maria Bandeira de Melo Paiva Seize, Aline Pantano Marcassi, Christiane Affonso De Donato Piazza, Silmara da Costa Pereira Cestari
Elastoma is a connective tissue nevus characterized by changes in elastic fibers. It can be congenital or acquired, and is usually diagnosed before puberty. Associated with osteopoikilosis, it is known as Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome. Histopathology with specific staining for elastic fibers is critical for a diagnostic conclusion. This report describes the case of a 7-year-old male patient with lesions diagnosed as elastoma, with absence of bone changes in the radiological imaging. This study aims to report the clinical presentation and histological examination of such unusual disease...
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
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