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Csf and term, preterm and nicu

Andrew Whitelaw, Richard Lee-Kelland
BACKGROUND: Although in recent years the percentage of preterm infants who suffer intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) has reduced, posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) remains a serious problem with a high rate of cerebral palsy and no evidence-based treatment. Survivors often have to undergo ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) surgery, which makes the child permanently dependent on a valve and catheter system. This carries a significant risk of infection and the need for surgical revision of the shunt...
April 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael E Tsimis, Clark T Johnson, Radhika S Raghunathan, Frances J Northington, Irina Burd, Ernest M Graham
BACKGROUND: The development of periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) in the preterm neonate is the most common insult portending neurologic impairment and is linked with the later development of cerebral palsy. The pathogenesis of PWMI targets premyelinating oligodendrocytes of the periventricular region secondary to free radicals, cytokine toxicity, and excitatory neurotransmitters. The primitive nature of the vasculature in the developing fetal cortex lends to its predilection to PWMI and cerebral ischemia with less arterial anastomoses at arterial border zones and failure to compensate for global hypotension, termed the "pressure-passive" circulation...
March 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Veronica Siljehav, Annika M Hofstetter, Kristin Leifsdottir, Eric Herlenius
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether infection, with associated eicosanoid release, is a main cause of respiratory disruption in neonates, by measuring levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its metabolite (PGEM) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). STUDY DESIGN: Of 59 eligible infants, 25 preterm infants (mean gestational age, 28 ± 0.5 weeks) and 22 full-term infants (mean gestational age, 40 ± 0.5 weeks) from a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit and the general maternity neonatal ward were enrolled prospectively...
December 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
Lakshmi Srinivasan, Samir S Shah, Michael A Padula, Soraya Abbasi, Karin L McGowan, Mary C Harris
OBJECTIVE: To determine reference ranges of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory findings in term and preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected prospectively as part of a multisite study of infants aged <6 months undergoing lumbar puncture for evaluation of suspected sepsis. Infants with a red blood cell count >500 cells/μL or a known cause of CSF pleocytosis were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 318 infants met the inclusion criteria...
October 2012: Journal of Pediatrics
I Tsirkvadze, M Chkhaidze, D Pruidze, G Nizharadze, D Kanjaradze
Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is a major complication of intraventricular haemorrhages in very preterm infants. Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation is associated with a high rate of disability, multiple impairments and adverse effects of shunt surgery for hydrocephalus. It may lead to an impaired neurological prognosis, caused by a raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and concomitant decreased cerebral blood perfusion. Therefore, early intervention to decrease the ICP may improve the long term outcome...
April 2010: Georgian Medical News
Jeannette Milgrom, Carol Newnham, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alan W Gemmill, Katherine Lee, Rod W Hunt, Merilyn Bear, Terrie Inder
After birth, preterm infants face a stressful environment, which may negatively impact early brain development and subsequent neurobehavioral outcomes. This randomized controlled trial involving 45 women with infants <30-wk gestation, assessed the effectiveness of training parents in reducing stressful experiences. Intervention consisted of 10 sessions in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Postintervention, at term-equivalent (40-wk postmenstrual age), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to evaluate brain structure and development...
March 2010: Pediatric Research
E Ríos-Reátegui, L Ruiz-González, T Murguía-de-Sierra
OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence, etiologic agents and clinical manifestations of bacterial meningitis in patients hospitalized in the newborn ward at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico in Mexico City and establish the incidence of meningitis in newborns admitted with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and determine how often blood cultures are negative in bacterial meningitis in this population. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients with bacterial meningitis admitted to our hospital...
January 1998: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
M L Massone, A Cama, D Leone, E Pellas, R Vallarino, S Carini, L Andreussi
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The authors report the outcome of early treatment with long-term external ventricular drainage (EVD) of progressive post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PPHVD), following peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) in a population of preterm newborns. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of a Children's Hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-one preterms of 29.6 +/- 2.4 weeks of gestational age, weighing at birth 1443 +/- 445 g, mechanically ventilated, submitted to early EVD because of PPHVD following PIVH of III (n 11) e IV (n 10) grade...
November 1994: Minerva Anestesiologica
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