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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600150/updates-on-the-role-of-adrenal-steroidogenesis-inhibitors-in-cushing-s-syndrome-a-focus-on-novel-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Maria Fleseriu, Frederic Castinetti
PURPOSE: Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease that results from exposure to high levels of cortisol; Cushing's disease (CD) is the most frequent form of CS. Patients with CS suffer from a variety of comorbidities that increase the risk of mortality. Surgical resection of the disease-causing lesion is generally the first-line treatment of CS. However, some patients may not be eligible for surgery due to comorbidities, and approximately 25 % of patients, especially those with CD, have recurrent disease...
December 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26854589/the-potential-of-targeting-cyp11b
#2
Rita Bernhardt
INTRODUCTION: Members of the CYP11B subfamily participate in the biosynthesis of important steroid hormones. CYP11B1 catalyzes the formation of cortisol, while CYP11B2 realizes the biosynthesis of aldosterone. Overproduction of cortisol is related to Cushing's disease, whereas overproduction of aldosterone leads to hypertension and end-organ damage such as cardiac and renal hypertrophy. Therefore, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 have been defined as interesting targets for the development of novel drugs...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26542280/osilodrostat-a-potent-oral-11%C3%AE-hydroxylase-inhibitor-22-week-prospective-phase-ii-study-in-cushing-s-disease
#3
Maria Fleseriu, Rosario Pivonello, Jacques Young, Amir H Hamrahian, Mark E Molitch, Chikara Shimizu, Tomoaki Tanaka, Akira Shimatsu, Tracy White, Annie Hilliard, Chuan Tian, Nicholas Sauter, Beverly M K Biller, Xavier Bertagna
PURPOSE: In a 10-week proof-of-concept study (LINC 1), the potent oral 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor osilodrostat (LCI699) normalized urinary free cortisol (UFC) in 11/12 patients with Cushing's disease. The current 22-week study (LINC 2; NCT01331239) further evaluated osilodrostat in patients with Cushing's disease. METHODS: Phase II, open-label, prospective study of two patient cohorts. Follow-up cohort: 4/12 patients previously enrolled in LINC 1, offered re-enrollment if baseline mean UFC was above ULN...
April 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26540564/discovery-of-n-5-6-chloro-3-cyano-1-methyl-1h-indol-2-yl-pyridin-3-ylmethyl-ethanesulfonamide-a-cortisol-sparing-cyp11b2-inhibitor-that-lowers-aldosterone-in-human-subjects
#4
Julien P N Papillon, Changgang Lou, Alok K Singh, Christopher M Adams, Gary M Ksander, Michael E Beil, Wei Chen, Jennifer Leung-Chu, Fumin Fu, Lu Gan, Chii-Whei Hu, Arco Y Jeng, Daniel LaSala, Guiqing Liang, Dean F Rigel, Kerry S Russell, John A Vest, Catherine Watson
Human clinical studies conducted with LCI699 established aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) inhibition as a promising novel mechanism to lower arterial blood pressure. However, LCI699's low CYP11B1/CYP11B2 selectivity resulted in blunting of adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated cortisol secretion. This property of LCI699 prompted its development in Cushing's disease, but limited more extensive clinical studies in hypertensive populations, and provided an impetus for the search for cortisol-sparing CYP11B2 inhibitors...
December 10, 2015: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236804/medical-management-of-functioning-pituitary-adenoma-an-update
#5
Yutaka Oki
The treatment of functioning pituitary adenoma (FPA) must achieve endocrinological remission as well as tumor size reduction. The first-line treatment of FPA except prolactinoma is transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Medical treatments and/or radiation will be applied as adjuvant therapies succeeding to TSS. In patients with prolactinoma, dopamine agonists, especially cabergoline, are quite efficient. Dopamine agonists decrease plasma prolactin levels and induce shrinkage in most patients and can be ceased in some of them...
2014: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26021183/emerging-drugs-for-cushing-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Daniela Guelho, Ashley B Grossman
INTRODUCTION: Considering the effects of uncontrolled hypercortisolism on morbidity and mortality, there is a clear need for effective medical therapy for patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Therefore, the search for new medical effective tools remains active, and already promising results have been obtained. AREAS COVERED: The importance of the design and conduct of trials to validate old drugs or to test new compounds is discussed. The results of the ongoing clinical trials, targeting the specific properties of drugs, such as ketoconazole, LCI699, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide, are also reported...
September 2015: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981165/osilodrostat-lci699-a-potent-11%C3%AE-hydroxylase-inhibitor-administered-in-combination-with-the-multireceptor-targeted-somatostatin-analog-pasireotide-a-13-week-study-in-rats
#7
Li Li, Kapil Vashisht, Julie Boisclair, Wenkui Li, Tsu-Han Lin, Herbert A Schmid, William Kluwe, Heidi Schoenfeld, Peter Hoffmann
The somatostatin analog pasireotide and the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor osilodrostat (LCI699) reduce cortisol levels by distinct mechanisms of action. There exists a scientific rationale to investigate the clinical efficacy of these two agents in combination. This manuscript reports the results of a toxicology study in rats, evaluating different doses of osilodrostat and pasireotide alone and in combination. Sixty male and 60 female rats were randomized into single-sex groups to receive daily doses of pasireotide (0...
August 1, 2015: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25953419/structure-activity-relationships-pharmacokinetics-and-in-vivo-activity-of-cyp11b2-and-cyp11b1-inhibitors
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Julien P N Papillon, Christopher M Adams, Qi-Ying Hu, Changgang Lou, Alok K Singh, Chun Zhang, Jose Carvalho, Srinivan Rajan, Adam Amaral, Michael E Beil, Fumin Fu, Eric Gangl, Chii-Whei Hu, Arco Y Jeng, Daniel LaSala, Guiqing Liang, Michael Logman, Wieslawa M Maniara, Dean F Rigel, Sherri A Smith, Gary M Ksander
CYP11B2, the aldosterone synthase, and CYP11B1, the cortisol synthase, are two highly homologous enzymes implicated in a range of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. We have previously reported the discovery of LCI699, a dual CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 inhibitor that has provided clinical validation for the lowering of plasma aldosterone as a viable approach to modulate blood pressure in humans, as well normalization of urinary cortisol in Cushing's disease patients. We now report novel series of aldosterone synthase inhibitors with single-digit nanomolar cellular potency and excellent physicochemical properties...
June 11, 2015: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25683946/efficacy-and-safety-of-lci699-for-hypertension-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-and-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
H-Z Wang, J-B Tian, K H Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the available data from randomized controlled trials on efficacy and safety of LCI699, a novel inhibitor of aldosterone synthase, as treatment of hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of phase II randomized, controlled trials comparing the efficacy/safety of LCI699 with placebo in hypertension patients. For this purpose, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library database, ISI-Science Citation Index, and the Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database were searched until August 2013...
2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25637072/therapy-of-endocrine-disease-steroidogenesis-enzyme-inhibitors-in-cushing-s-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Eleni Daniel, John D C Newell-Price
Steroidogenesis enzyme inhibitors are the mainstay of medical therapy in Cushing's syndrome (CS). Ketoconazole (KTZ) and metyrapone are the most commonly used agents. Although there is considerable experience of their use in individual specialist centres, these drugs have not been rigorously tested in prospective clinical trials. Clinicians face uncertainties and concerns with respect to the safety profile of these agents, and best means to monitor effect. We review steroidogenesis inhibitors in the management of CS, including older agents (KTZ, metyrapone, etomidate and mitotane) and those currently under development (LCI699, non-racemic KTZ), and offer a practical approach for their use in clinical practice...
June 2015: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25560275/medical-therapy-for-cushing-s-disease-adrenal-steroidogenesis-inhibitors-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-blockers
#11
REVIEW
Maria Fleseriu, Stephan Petersenn
Morbidity and mortality in Cushing's disease (CD) patients are increased if patients are not appropriately treated. Surgery remains the first line therapy, however the role of medical therapy has become more prominent in patients when biochemical remission is not achieved/or recurs after surgery, while waiting effects of radiation therapy or when surgery is contraindicated. Furthermore, use of preoperative medical therapy has been also recognized. In addition to centrally acting therapies (reviewed elsewhere in this special issue), adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitors, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists are frequently used...
April 2015: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25491597/aldosterone-synthase-inhibition-cardiorenal-protection-in-animal-disease-models-and-translation-of-hormonal-effects-to-human-subjects
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Joël Ménard, Dean F Rigel, Catherine Watson, Arco Y Jeng, Fumin Fu, Michael Beil, Jing Liu, Wei Chen, Chii-Whei Hu, Jennifer Leung-Chu, Daniel LaSala, Guiqing Liang, Sam Rebello, Yiming Zhang, William P Dole
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone synthase inhibition provides the potential to attenuate both the mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent and independent actions of aldosterone. In vitro studies with recombinant human enzymes showed LCI699 to be a potent, reversible, competitive inhibitor of aldosterone synthase (K i = 1.4 ± 0.2 nmol/L in humans) with relative selectivity over 11β-hydroxylase. METHODS: Hormonal effects of orally administered LCI699 were examined in rat and monkey in vivo models of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and angiotensin-II-stimulated aldosterone release, and were compared with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone in a randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted in 99 healthy human subjects...
2014: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25446388/medical-management-of-functioning-pituitary-adenoma-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Yutaka Oki
The treatment of functioning pituitary adenoma (FPA) must achieve endocrinological remission as well as tumor size reduction. The first-line treatment of FPA except prolactinoma is transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Medical treatments and/or radiation will be applied as adjuvant therapies succeeding to TSS. In patients with prolactinoma, dopamine agonists, especially cabergoline, are quite efficient. Dopamine agonists decrease plasma prolactin levels and induce shrinkage in most patients and can be ceased in some of them...
2014: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25304940/rhesus-monkey-model-for-concurrent-analyses-of-in-vivo-selectivity-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-aldosterone-synthase-inhibitors
#14
Tian-Quan Cai, Sloan Stribling, Xinchun Tong, Ling Xu, Thomas Wisniewski, Jane A Fontenot, Mary Struthers, Karen O Akinsanya
INTRODUCTION: In vivo profiles of aldosterone synthase inhibitors (ASIs) have been investigated utilizing various rodent models. Due to lack of CYP17 activity, rodents produce corticosterone rather than cortisol as that of humans, which raised concern to their effectiveness in translational pharmacological characterization of ASI. METHODS: A rhesus monkey model that combines a low sodium diet with adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) treatment was developed. Plasma concentrations of steroid metabolites associated with reactions catalyzed by CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 were measured concurrently by a UPLC/MS method...
January 2015: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25251996/mineralocorticoids-in-the-heart-and-vasculature-new-insights-for-old-hormones
#15
REVIEW
Achim Lother, Martin Moser, Christoph Bode, Ross D Feldman, Lutz Hein
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is a key regulator of water and electrolyte homeostasis. Numerous recent developments have advanced the field of mineralocorticoid pharmacology—namely, clinical trials have shown the beneficial effects of aldosterone antagonists in chronic heart failure and post-myocardial infarction treatment. Experimental studies using cell type-specific gene targeting of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene in mice have revealed the importance of extrarenal aldosterone signaling in cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, vascular smooth cells, and macrophages...
2015: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24899257/novel-pyridyl-or-isoquinolinyl-substituted-indolines-and-indoles-as-potent-and-selective-aldosterone-synthase-inhibitors
#16
Lina Yin, Qingzhong Hu, Juliette Emmerich, Michael Man-Chu Lo, Edward Metzger, Amjad Ali, Rolf W Hartmann
Pathologically, high levels of aldosterone are associated with severe cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, hypertension, and myocardial fibrosis. The inhibition of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) to reduce aldosterone levels has been proposed as a promising treatment for diseases related to CYP11B2 because it is the crucial enzyme in the biosynthesis of aldosterone. A series of novel pyridyl- or isoquinolinyl-substituted indolines and indoles was designed via a ligand-based approach. The synthesized compounds were tested and found to be strong CYP11B2 inhibitors...
June 26, 2014: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24814004/a-semi-automated-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-lci699-a-steroid-11%C3%AE-hydroxylase-inhibitor-in-human-plasma
#17
Wenkui Li, Suyi Luo, Sam Rebello, Jimmy Flarakos, Francis L S Tse
A novel liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of LCI699 was developed and validated with dynamic ranges of 0.0500-50.0 ng/mL and 1.00-1,000 ng/mL using 0.0500 mL and 0.100mL, respectively, of human plasma. LCI699 and the internal standard, [M+6]LCI699, were extracted from fortified human plasma via protein precipitation. After transfer or dilution of the supernatant followed by solvent evaporation and/or reconstitution, the extract was injected onto the LC-MS/MS system...
June 1, 2014: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24423285/lci699-a-potent-11%C3%AE-hydroxylase-inhibitor-normalizes-urinary-cortisol-in-patients-with-cushing-s-disease-results-from-a-multicenter-proof-of-concept-study
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Xavier Bertagna, Rosario Pivonello, Maria Fleseriu, Yiming Zhang, Paul Robinson, Ann Taylor, Catherine E Watson, Mario Maldonado, Amir H Hamrahian, Marco Boscaro, Beverly M K Biller
INTRODUCTION: The clinical features and increased mortality associated with Cushing's syndrome result from a chronic excess of circulating cortisol. As LCI699 potently inhibits 11β-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the final step of cortisol synthesis, it is a potential new treatment for Cushing's disease, the most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. METHODS: Adult patients with moderate-to-severe Cushing's disease (urinary free cortisol [UFC] levels >1...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24107737/aldosterone-synthase-inhibition-for-the-treatment-of-hypertension-and-the-derived-mechanistic-requirements-for-a-new-therapeutic-strategy
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christoph D Schumacher, Ronald E Steele, Hans R Brunner
CONTEXT: We describe the clinical investigation of the first generation aldosterone synthase inhibitor, LCI699, in patients with essential, uncontrolled, resistant, or secondary hypertension. LCI699 competitively reduced blood pressure at lower doses yet counterintuitive effects were observed at higher doses. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: An extensive endocrine biomarker analysis was performed to better understand the pharmacological mechanism of the drug. RESULTS: The interference of LCI699 in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurred with limited target selectivity, as a dose-dependent compensatory stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal feedback axis was discovered...
October 2013: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23737437/recent-developments-in-drug-therapy-for-cushing-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Rob van der Pas, Wouter W de Herder, Leo J Hofland, Richard A Feelders
Cushing's disease (CD) is a rare endocrine disorder that is caused by an adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenoma that chronically stimulates adrenocortical cortisol production. CD is primarily treated by transsphenoidal surgery, resulting in long-term biochemical remission in approximately 60-90% of the patients. Patients who are ineligible for surgery or have undergone unsuccessful surgery are candidates for drug therapy. Medical treatment can aim to inhibit the excess ACTH production at the level of the pituitary adenoma, to decrease adrenocortical steroidogenesis or to antagonize the effects of cortisol at the level of its receptor...
June 2013: Drugs
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