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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778671/international-study-of-comparative-health-effectiveness-with-medical-and-invasive-approaches-ischemia-trial-rationale-and-design
#1
David J Maron, Judith S Hochman, Sean M O'Brien, Harmony R Reynolds, William E Boden, Gregg W Stone, Sripal Bangalore, John A Spertus, Daniel B Mark, Karen P Alexander, Leslee Shaw, Jeffrey S Berger, T Bruce Ferguson, David O Williams, Robert A Harrington, Yves Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Prior trials comparing a strategy of optimal medical therapy with or without revascularization have not shown that revascularization reduces cardiovascular events in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). However, those trials only included participants in whom coronary anatomy was known prior to randomization and did not include sufficient numbers of participants with significant ischemia. It remains unknown whether a routine invasive approach offers incremental value over a conservative approach with catheterization reserved for failure of medical therapy in patients with moderate or severe ischemia...
April 21, 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769460/circulating-surfactant-protein-d-is-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-peripheral-artery-disease-patients-following-endovascular-therapy
#2
Yoichiro Otaki, Tetsu Watanabe, Hiroki Takahashi, Takayuki Sugai, Miyuki Yokoyama, Satoshi Nishiyama, Takanori Arimoto, Tetsuro Shishido, Takuya Miyamoto, Tamon Yamanaka, Isao Kubota, Masafumi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and death. Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is a 43-kDa protein secreted from type II pneumocytes in the lungs. Recent studies have demonstrated that circulating SP-D plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and is related to clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic heart disease. However, it remains unclear whether circulating SP-D is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with PAD...
May 17, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763967/machine-learning-algorithms-for-outcome-prediction-in-chemo-radiotherapy-an-empirical-comparison-of-classifiers
#3
Timo M Deist, Frank J W M Dankers, Gilmer Valdes, Robin Wijsman, I-Chow Hsu, Cary Oberije, Tim Lustberg, Johan van Soest, Frank Hoebers, Arthur Jochems, Issam El Naqa, Leonard Wee, Olivier Morin, David R Raleigh, Wouter Bots, Johannes H Kaanders, José Belderbos, Margriet Kwint, Timothy Solberg, René Monshouwer, Johan Bussink, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin
PURPOSE: Machine learning classification algorithms (classifiers) for prediction of treatment response are becoming more popular in radiotherapy literature. General machine learning literature provides evidence in favor of some classifier families (random forest, support vector machine, gradient boosting) in terms of classification performance. The purpose of this study is to compare such classifiers specifically for (chemo)radiotherapy datasets and to estimate their average discriminative performance for radiation treatment outcome prediction...
May 15, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742518/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-neuroendocrine-neoplasia
#4
Matthias M Weber, Christian Fottner
BACKGROUND: Well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are usually controlled by antiproliferative, local ablative and/or radionuclide therapies, whereas poorly differentiated NENs generally require cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, treatment options for patients with advanced/metastatic high-grade NENs remain limited. METHOD: Review of the literature and international congress abstracts on the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibition in advanced/metastatic NENs...
2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741203/peptide-receptor-radionuclide-therapy-for-advanced-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-from-oncology-perspective
#5
Agnieszka Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Anna Łowczak, Katarzyna Maciejkiewicz Maciejkiewicz, Jarosław Bogdan Ćwikła
Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) is a form of molecular targeted therapy which is performed by using a small peptide (somatostatin analogue - SSA) that is coupled with a radionuclide beta emitting radiation. PRRT is a nuclear medicine for the systemic treatment of non-resectable, metastasized well/moderately differentiated, neuroendocrine tumours (NET) with overexpression of somatostatin receptor. These types of tumours include gastroenteropancreatic neoplasm (GEP-NENs), e.g. arising from the small bowel (often called carcinoid tumours), the pancreas, duodenum or stomach, but also from the large bowel or the lung and many other tissues (so called diffuse neuroendocrine system)...
2018: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731176/an-exploratory-case-study-of-the-impact-of-expanding-cost-effectiveness-analysis-for-second-line-nivolumab-for-patients-with-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-canada-does-it-make-a-difference
#6
Jason Shafrin, Michelle Skornicki, Michelle Brauer, Julie Villeneuve, Michael Lees, Nadine Hertel, John R Penrod, Jeroen Jansen
INTRODUCTION: Health technology appraisal agencies often rely on cost-effectiveness analyses to inform coverage decisions for new treatments. These assessments, however, frequently measure a treatment's value from the payer's perspective, and may not capture value generated from reduced caregiving costs, increased productivity, value based on patient risk preferences, option value or the insurance value to non-patients. METHODS: To examine how using a broader societal perspective of treatment value affects cost-effectiveness estimates, this case study analyzed the net monetary benefit (NMB) of second-line nivolumab treatment of patients with squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Canada...
April 26, 2018: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728103/establishment-and-validation-of-a-predictive-nomogram-model-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-viral-infection
#7
Shulin Chen, Yanzhen Lai, Zhengqiang He, Jianpei Li, Xia He, Rui Shen, Qiuying Ding, Hao Chen, Songguo Peng, Wanli Liu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to establish an effective predictive nomogram for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with chronic hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection. METHODS: The nomogram was based on a retrospective study of 230 NSCLC patients with chronic HBV infection. The predictive accuracy and discriminative ability of the nomogram were determined by a concordance index (C-index), calibration plot and decision curve analysis and were compared with the current tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging system...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721198/global-burden-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-and-changing-incidence-in-kentucky
#8
Aman Chauhan, Qian Yu, Neha Ray, Zainab Farooqui, Bin Huang, Eric B Durbin, Thomas Tucker, Mark Evers, Susanne Arnold, Lowell B Anthony
Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have a low incidence but relatively high prevalence. Over the last three decades, the incidence of NETs has risen 6-fold in the United States. We conducted an observational study to compare the incidence of NETs reported to the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) versus that reported to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER). We also provide a systematic review of the state of neuroendocrine tumors worldwide, and compare the available global and local published data...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713473/nkx2-2-pdx-1-and-cdx-2-as-potential-biomarkers-to-differentiate-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors
#9
Michelle X Yang, Ryan F Coates, Abiy Ambaye, Valerie Cortright, Jeannette M Mitchell, Alexa M Buskey, Richard Zubarik, James G Liu, Steven Ades, Maura M Barry
Background: Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET) most frequently arise from the gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreas, and lung. Patients often present as metastasis with an unknown primary, and the clinical management and outcome depend on multiple factors, including the accurate diagnosis with the tumor primary site. Determining the site of the NET with unknown primary remains challenging. Many biomarkers have been investigated in primary NETs and metastatic NETs, with heterogeneous sensitivity and specificity observed...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696066/metastatic-neuroendocrine-pancreatic-tumor-case-report
#10
E C Radu, A I Saizu, R R Grigorescu, A E Croitoru, C Gheorghe
Rationale. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms that develop from the endocrine tissues of the pancreas. They have a better overall prognosis than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, all commonly used classification systems reflect a separation between more indolent, well-differentiated tumors and far more aggressive poorly differentiated types that behave clinically more like small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Objective. To present the case of a 62-year-old man with an aggressive pancreatic NET, with liver, splenic and bone metastases who underwent multidisciplinary treatment including several lines of chemotherapy, somatostatin analogs and radiotherapy...
January 2018: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670633/extracellular-sphingomyelinase-rv0888-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-contributes-to-pathological-lung-injury-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-mice-via-inducing-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#11
Guanghui Dang, Yingying Cui, Lei Wang, Tiantian Li, Ziyin Cui, Ningning Song, Liping Chen, Hai Pang, Siguo Liu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), which mainly causes pulmonary injury and tubercles. Although macrophages are generally considered to harbor the main cells of M. tuberculosis , new evidence suggests that neutrophils are rapidly recruited to the infected lung. M. tuberculosis itself, or its early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6), can induce formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, NETs trap mycobacteria but are unable to kill them. The role of NETs' formation in the pathogenesis of mycobacteria remains unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664629/made-in-water-a-stable-microporous-cu-i-carboxylate-framework-cityu-7-for-co-2-water-and-iodine-uptake
#12
Jie Liu, Ran Xiao, Yan-Lung Wong, Xiao-Ping Zhou, Matthias Zeller, Allen D Hunter, Qianrong Fang, Li Liao, Zhengtao Xu
Using water as the sole solvent, the bifunctional molecule tetrakis(methylthio)-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (TMBD) was reacted with Cu(CH3 CN)4 BF4 to form a robust microporous metal-organic framework (MOF, CityU-7) featuring Cu(I) ions being simultaneously bonded to the carboxyl and thioether donors. The MOF solid is stable in air and can be easily activated by heating, without the need for treatment with organic solvents. The subnanoscopic pores (ca. 0.6 nm) of the host net allow for uptake of CO2 and H2 O but exhibit lesser sorption for N2 at 77 K...
April 17, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648804/computation-assisted-nanopore-detection-of-thorium-ions
#13
Golbarg M Roozbahani, Xiaohan Chen, Youwen Zhang, Oscar Juarez, Dien Li, Xiyun Guan
Thorium is a well-known radioactive and chemically toxic contaminant in the environment. The continuous exposure to thorium may cause an increased risk of developing lung and liver diseases as well as lung, pancreas and bone cancer. Due to its use in nuclear industry and other industrial applications, thorium may be accidentally released to the environment from its mining and processing plants. In this work, we developed a rapid, real-time, and label-free nanopore sensor for Th4+ detection by using an aspartic acid-containing peptide as a chelating agent and tuning the electrolyte solution pH to control the net charges of the peptide ligand and its metal ion complex...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644247/quantification-of-torque-teno-virus-and-epstein-barr-virus-is-of-limited-value-for-predicting-the-net-state-of-immunosuppression-after-lung-transplantation
#14
Rickard Nordén, Jesper Magnusson, Anna Lundin, Ka-Wei Tang, Staffan Nilsson, Magnus Lindh, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Gerdt C Riise, Johan Westin
Background: Major hurdles for survival after lung transplantation are rejections and infectious complications. Adequate methods for monitoring immune suppression status are lacking. Here, we evaluated quantification of torque teno virus (TTV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as biomarkers for defining the net state of immunosuppression in lung-transplanted patients. Methods: This prospective single-center study included 98 patients followed for 2 years after transplantation...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623234/the-positive-benefits-of-negative-movement-patterns-following-total-knee-arthroplasty
#15
Jesse C Christensen, K Bo Foreman, Paul C LaStayo
Introduction: Eccentric (negative) resistance exercise of the legs using specialized machines has been reported to be useful and often superior to standard exercise following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Movements that utilize body mass and gravity as a mode of eccentric resistance exercise in a more pragmatic rehabilitation paradigm may also be useful in reversing chronic muscle impairments observed years following surgery. This study explores whether an eccentrically biased, body mass resistance exercise induces greater magnitude of sagittal plane extensor angular impulse of the support torque and individual net joint torque contributions during both squatting and lunging movement patterns 6 weeks following TKA...
2018: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622373/antidepressants-appear-safe-in-patients-with-carcinoid-tumor-results-of-a-restrospective-review
#16
Elie Isenberg-Grzeda, Meredith MacGregor, Afton Bergel, Stacy Eagle, Fernando Espi-Forcen, Reema Mehta, Konstantina Matsoukas, Jonathan Wills, Diane Reidy-Lagunes, Yesne Alici
INTRODUCTION: Patients living with neuroendocrine tumors have high rates of depression, often necessitating antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) secrete vasoactive substances, including serotonin, which contribute to the cluster of symptoms known as carcinoid syndrome (flushing and diarrhea). Controversy exists over whether or not antidepressants are safe in NET. We aimed to study the safety of antidepressant use in NET patients...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621602/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-possess-anti-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-activity-possible-interaction-with-the-viral-f-protein
#17
Priscila Silva Sampaio Souza, Lia Vezenfard Barbosa, Larissa Figueiredo Alves Diniz, Gabriel Soares da Silva, Bruno Rafael Pereira Lopes, Pedro Miyadaira Ribeiro Souza, Gabriela Campos de Araujo, Diogo Pessoa, Juliana de Oliveira, Fátima Pereira Souza, Karina Alves Toledo
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is one of the main etiological agents of diseases of the lower respiratory tract, and is often responsible for the hospitalization of children and the elderly. To date, treatments are only palliative and there is no vaccine available. The airways of patients infected with hRSV exhibit intense neutrophil infiltration, which is responsible for the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are extracellular structures consisting of DNA associated with intracellular proteins, and are efficient in capturing and eliminating various microorganisms, including some viruses...
April 2, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589224/comparison-of-three-parameter-kinetic-model-analysis-to-standard-patlak-s-analysis-in-18-f-fdg-pet-imaging-of-lung-cancer-patients
#18
E Laffon, M L Calcagni, G Galli, A Giordano, A Capotosti, R Marthan, L Indovina
BACKGROUND: Patlak's graphical analysis can provide tracer net influx constant (Ki) with limitation of assuming irreversible tracer trapping, that is, release rate constant (kb ) set to zero. We compared linear Patlak's analysis to non-linear three-compartment three-parameter kinetic model analysis (3P-KMA) providing Ki, kb , and fraction of free18 F-FDG in blood and interstitial volume (Vb ). METHODS: Dynamic PET data of 21 lung cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed, yielding for each patient an18 F-FDG input function (IF) and a tissue time-activity curve...
March 27, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570757/simulation-of-airflow-in-an-idealized-emphysematous-human-acinus
#19
Amitvikram Dutta, Dragos Vasilescu, James C Hogg, A B Phillion, Joshua R Brinkerhoff
Emphysema is the permanent enlargement of air spaces in the respiratory regions of the lung due to destruction of the inter-alveolar septa. The progressive coalescence of alveoli and alveolar ducts into larger airspaces leads to the disruption of normal airway wall motion and airflow rates within the pulmonary acinus. To contribute to the understanding of the individual effects of emphysema during its earliest stages, computational fluid dynamics simulations of airflow in mathematically-derived models of the pulmonary acinus were performed...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563120/platelet-hmgb1-is-required-for-efficient-bacterial-clearance-in-intra-abdominal-bacterial-sepsis-in-mice
#20
Hui Zhou, Meihong Deng, Yingjie Liu, Chenxuan Yang, Rosemary Hoffman, Jingjiao Zhou, Patricia A Loughran, Melanie J Scott, Matthew D Neal, Timothy R Billiar
Thrombocytopenia impairs host defense and hemostasis in sepsis. However, the mechanisms of how platelets regulate host defense are not fully understood. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a danger-associated molecular pattern protein, is released during infection and contributes to the pathogenesis of sepsis. Platelets express HMGB1, which is released on activation and has been shown to play a critical role in thrombosis, monocyte recruitment, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) production. However, the contribution of platelet HMGB1 to host defense is unknown...
March 27, 2018: Blood Advances
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