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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917008/visualization-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-fibrin-meshwork-in-human-fibrinopurulent-inflammatory-lesions-iii-correlative-light-and-electron-microscopic-study
#1
Takanori Onouchi, Kazuya Shiogama, Yasuyoshi Mizutani, Takashi Takaki, Yutaka Tsutsumi
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released from dead neutrophils at the site of inflammation represent webs of neutrophilic DNA stretches dotted with granule-derived antimicrobial proteins, including lactoferrin, and play important roles in innate immunity against microbial infection. We have shown the coexistence of NETs and fibrin meshwork in varied fibrinopurulent inflammatory lesions at both light and electron microscopic levels. In the present study, correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) employing confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was performed to bridge light and electron microscopic images of NETs and fibrin fibrils in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, autopsied lung sections of legionnaire's pneumonia...
November 1, 2016: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895638/intercellular-interactions-as-regulators-of-netosis
#2
REVIEW
Nayef M Kazzaz, Gautam Sule, Jason S Knight
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are chromatin-derived webs extruded from neutrophils in response to either infection or sterile stimulation with chemicals, cytokines, or microbial products. The vast majority of studies have characterized NET release (also called NETosis) in pure neutrophil cultures in vitro. The situation is surely more complex in vivo as neutrophils constantly sample not only pathogens and soluble mediators but also signals from cellular partners, including platelets and endothelial cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890494/neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-lung-current-challenges-and-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-well-differentiated-disease
#3
REVIEW
Andrew E Hendifar, Alberto M Marchevsky, Richard Tuli
Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise from neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, most commonly originating from the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Lung NET can be classified as well-differentiated (low-grade typical carcinoids [TC] and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoids [AC]) and poorly differentiated (high-grade large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma or small cell lung carcinoma). The incidence of these tumors is increasing, but disease awareness remains low among thoracic specialists who are often involved in the diagnosis and early treatment for these patients...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882775/association-between-availability-of-care-providers-and-healthcare-utilizations-among-adults-with-asthma
#4
Minchul Kim, Carl V Asche, William Tillis, Jinma Ren
BACKGROUND: Limited accessibility to providers may delay appropriate control of asthma exacerbations. The objective of our study is to estimate the contributors to the hospital/emergency department (ED) visits among adults with asthma focusing on the availability of healthcare providers. METHODS: We conducted a pooled cross-sectional analysis using the 2011-2013 Asthma Call-Back Survey linked with 2012-2016 Area Health Resource Files. We employed multivariable logistic regression with dichotomous outcomes of hospitalization and ED visits...
December 2, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882349/the-airway-epithelium-undergoes-metabolic-reprogramming-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-lung-cancer
#5
S M Jamshedur Rahman, Xiangming Ji, Lisa J Zimmerman, Ming Li, Bradford K Harris, Megan D Hoeksema, Irina A Trenary, Yong Zou, Jun Qian, Robbert J C Slebos, Jennifer Beane, Avrum Spira, Yu Shyr, Rosana Eisenberg, Daniel C Liebler, Jamey D Young, Pierre P Massion
The molecular determinants of lung cancer risk remain largely unknown. Airway epithelial cells are prone to assault by risk factors and are considered to be the primary cell type involved in the field of cancerization. To investigate risk-associated changes in the bronchial epithelium proteome that may offer new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer, proteins were identified in the airway epithelial cells of bronchial brushing specimens from risk-stratified individuals by shotgun proteomics...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875217/automatic-scoring-of-multiple-semantic-attributes-with-multi-task-feature-leverage-a-study-on-pulmonary-nodules-in-ct-images
#6
Sihong Chen, Jing Qin, Xing Ji, Baiying Lei, Tianfu Wang, Dong Ni, Jie-Zhi Cheng
The gap between the computational and semantic features is the one of major factors that bottlenecks the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance from clinical usage. To bridge this gap, we exploit three multi-task learning (MTL) schemes to leverage heterogeneous computational features derived from deep learning models of stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE) and convolutional neural network (CNN), as well as hand-crafted Haar-like and HoG features, for the description of 9 semantic features for lung nodules in CT images...
November 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872075/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-gepotidacin-against-gram-positive-organisms-using-data-from-murine-infection-models
#7
Catharine C Bulik, Ólanrewaju O Okusanya, Elizabeth A Lakota, Alan Forrest, Sujata M Bhavnani, Jennifer L Hoover, David R Andes, Paul G Ambrose
Gepotidacin (formerly GSK2140944) is a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial topoisomerase inhibitor with in vitro activity against conventional and biothreat pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae Using neutropenic murine thigh- and lung-infection models, the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) of gepotidacin against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were characterized. Single dose PK data from uninfected mice (16-128 mg/kg SC) were fit with candidate models. Dose-fractionation studies (one isolate/organism; 2-512 mg/kg/day) and dose-ranging studies (5 isolates/organism; 2-2048 mg/kg/day; MIC ranges: S...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866042/carcinogenic-effects-of-oil-dispersants-a-kegg-pathway-based-rna-seq-study-of-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#8
Yao-Zhong Liu, Lei Zhang, Astrid M Roy-Engel, Shigeki Saito, Joseph A Lasky, Guangdi Wang, He Wang
The health impacts of the BP oil spill are yet to be further revealed as the toxicological effects of oil products and dispersants on human respiratory system may be latent and complex, and hence difficult to study and follow up. Here we performed RNA-seq analyses of a system of human airway epithelial cells treated with the BP crude oil and/or dispersants Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 that were used to help break up the oil spill. Based on the RNA-seq data, we then systemically analyzed the transcriptomic perturbations of the cells at the KEGG pathway level using two pathway-based analysis tools, GAGE (generally applicable gene set enrichment) and GSNCA (Gene Sets Net Correlations Analysis)...
November 16, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856049/boosting-catalytic-activity-of-metal-nanoparticles-for-4-nitrophenol-reduction-modification-of-metal-naoparticles-with-poly-diallyldimethylammonium-chloride
#9
Jyun-Guo You, Chandirasekar Shanmugam, Yao-Wen Liu, Cheng-Ju Yu, Wei-Lung Tseng
Most of the previously reported studies have focused on the change in the size, morphology, and composition of metal nanocatalysts for improving their catalytic activity. Herein, we report poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) [PDDA]-stabilized nanoparticles (NPs) of platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) as highly active and efficient catalysts for hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in the presence of NaBH4. PDDA-stabilized Pt and Pd NPs possessed similar particle size and same facet with citrate-capped Pt and Pd NPs, making this study to investigate the inter-relationship between catalytic activity and surface ligand without the consideration of the effects of particle size and facet...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855591/effects-of-perioperative-fluid-replacement-therapy-in-lung-transplant-patients
#10
Emil Björkbom, Pekka Hämmäinen, Alexey Schramko
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 10 to 25 lung transplant procedures are performed annually in Finland, and 1-year survival has been 95% over the last 10 years. Our aim was to find associations between perioperative fluid replacement therapies and postoperative patient outcomes, with special emphasis on the use of colloids and blood products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from 100 patients who underwent lung transplant with cardiopulmonary bypass support in Finland from 2007 to 2013...
November 18, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854541/what-exactly-is-a-centrally-located-lung-tumor-results-of-an-on-line-survey
#11
Roberto F Casal, Macarena R Vial, Russell Miller, Lakshmi Mudambi, Horiana B Grosu, George A Eapen, Carlos A Jimenez, Rodolfo C Morice, Lorraine Cornwell, David Ost
RATIONALE: Accurate mediastinal staging is cornerstone in the management of patients with lung cancer. For patients with radiographically normal mediastinum, current lung cancer guidelines recommend invasive mediastinal staging when tumors are centrally located. However, definitions of central tumors are non-specific and there are discrepancies among guidelines (e.g. some use the inner one third of the hemithorax while others use the inner two thirds). OBJECTIVES: To describe the definitions of central tumors used by pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons in their practice...
November 17, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854516/evasion-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-by-respiratory-pathogens
#12
Daniel M L Storisteanu, Joanna M Pocock, Andrew S Cowburn, Jatinder K Juss, Angalee Nadesalingam, Victor Nizet, Edwin R Chilvers
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a major immune mechanism intended to capture pathogens. These histone and protease-coated DNA structures are released by neutrophils in response to a variety of stimuli, including respiratory pathogens, and have been identified in the airways of patients with respiratory infection, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, primary graft dysfunction and COPD. NET production has been demonstrated in the lungs of mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus fumigatus...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852541/best-prognostic-factor-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-grade-or-stage-a-multidisciplinary-single-center-study
#13
Ersin Özaslan, Fahri Bayram, Halit Karaca, Şebnem Gürsoy, Figen Öztürk, Erdoğan Sözüer, Ümmühan Abdurrezzak, Alper Yurci, Gülten Can Sezgin, Afra Yıldırım, Osman Başpınar, Mustafa Kula, Metin Özkan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Currently, there is no definite consensus about the prognostic factors of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). We evaluate epidemiology, survival and especially prognostic factors in NETs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had a NET and were diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 at a tertiary care center were included. Demographic data, tumor characteristics and survival rates were evaluated, retrospectively. RESULTS: Two-hundred and thirty-three patients (123 male, 110 female; median age, 55 years [16-92 years]) took part in the study...
November 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849031/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-indirectly-triggered-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-contribute-to-acute-lung-injury
#14
Shuai Liu, Xiaoli Su, Pinhua Pan, Lemeng Zhang, Yongbin Hu, Hongyi Tan, Dongdong Wu, Ben Liu, Haitao Li, Haosi Li, Yi Li, Minhui Dai, Yuanyuan Li, Chengping Hu, Allan Tsung
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) facilitate the extracellular killing of pathogens. However, excessive NETs formation and poor degradation are associated with exacerbated immune responses and tissue injury. In this study, we investigated the role of NETs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated acute lung injury (ALI) and assessed the use of DNase I, for the treatment of ALI. Additionally, we focused on the controversial issue of whether LPS directly induces NETs release in vitro. NETs formation was detected in murine ALI tissue in vivo and was associated with increased NETs markers, citrullinated-histone H3 tissue levels and NET-DNA levels in BALF...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834658/single-channel-sparse-nonnegative-blind-source-separation-method-for-automatic-3d-delineation-of-lung-tumor-in-pet-images
#15
Ivica Kopriva, Wei Ju, Bin Zhang, Fei Shi, Dehui Xiang, Kai Yu, Ximing Wang, Ulas Bagci, Xinjian Chen
In this paper, we propose a novel method for single-channel blind separation of non-overlapped sources and, to the best of our knowledge, apply it for the first time to automatic segmentation of lung tumors in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images. Our approach first converts 3D PET image into a pseudo multichannel image. Afterwards, regularization free sparseness constrained nonnegative matrix factorization is used to separate tumor from other tissues. By using complexity based criterion, we select tumor component as the one with minimal complexity...
November 3, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832748/invasive-mucormycosis-in-children-an-epidemiologic-study-in-european-and-non-european-countries-based-on-two-registries
#16
Zoi Dorothea Pana, Danila Seidel, Anna Skiada, Andreas H Groll, Georgios Petrikkos, Oliver A Cornely, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis has emerged as a rare but frequently fatal invasive fungal disease. Current knowledge on paediatric mucormycosis is based on case reports and small series reported over several decades. Contemporary data on a large cohort of patients is lacking. METHODS: Two large international registries (Zygomyco.net and FungiScope™) were searched for mucormycosis cases in ≤19 year-old patients. Cases enrolled between 2005 and 2014 were extracted, and dual entries in the two databases merged...
November 10, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821649/zinc-supplementation-leads-to-immune-modulation-and-improved-survival-in-a-juvenile-model-of-murine-sepsis
#17
Hammad A Ganatra, Brian M Varisco, Kelli Harmon, Patrick Lahni, Amy Opoka, Hector R Wong
Children with severe sepsis are known to have altered zinc homeostasis and decreased circulating zinc levels, suggesting a role for zinc supplementation to improve outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that zinc supplementation would improve survival in a juvenile model of polymicrobial sepsis. Juvenile (13-14-d-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of zinc via i.p. injections (or vehicle) for 3 d prior to induction of polymicrobial sepsis via i.p. cecal slurry injections. Survival after sepsis was followed for 3 d, and bacterial clearance, ex vivo phagocytosis, systemic inflammatory markers and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation were quantified...
November 7, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819295/il-21-signaling-is-essential-for-optimal-host-resistance-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#18
Matthew G Booty, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Stephen M Carpenter, Cláudio Nunes-Alves, Miye K Jacques, Britni L Stowell, Pushpa Jayaraman, Gillian Beamer, Samuel M Behar
IL-21 is produced predominantly by activated CD4(+) T cells and has pleiotropic effects on immunity via the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R), a member of the common gamma chain (γc) cytokine receptor family. We show that IL-21 signaling plays a crucial role in T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by augmenting CD8(+) T cell priming, promoting T cell accumulation in the lungs, and enhancing T cell cytokine production. In the absence of IL-21 signaling, more CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in chronically infected mice express the T cell inhibitory molecules PD-1 and TIM-3...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811856/predictive-factors-of-antiproliferative-activity-of-octreotide-lar-as-first-line-therapy-for-advanced-neuroendocrine-tumours
#19
Faidon-Marios Laskaratos, Martin Walker, Keval Naik, Emmanouil Maragkoudakis, Nikolaos Oikonomopoulos, Lee Grant, Tim Meyer, Martyn Caplin, Christos Toumpanakis
BACKGROUND: The antiproliferative activity of octreotide LAR in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) has been demonstrated by small retrospective studies and confirmed by a prospective phase III trial (PROMID). However, there are limited data about the duration and predictors of response. The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the time to radiological progression (TTRP) of disease and the factors that were associated with better response. METHODS: A total of 254 treatment naïve patients with advanced NETs and positive somatostatin receptor scintigraphy were included...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798263/cancer-cells-induce-metastasis-supporting-neutrophil-extracellular-dna-traps
#20
Juwon Park, Robert W Wysocki, Zohreh Amoozgar, Laura Maiorino, Miriam R Fein, Julie Jorns, Anne F Schott, Yumi Kinugasa-Katayama, Youngseok Lee, Nam Hee Won, Elizabeth S Nakasone, Stephen A Hearn, Victoria Küttner, Jing Qiu, Ana S Almeida, Naiara Perurena, Kai Kessenbrock, Michael S Goldberg, Mikala Egeblad
Neutrophils, the most abundant type of leukocytes in blood, can form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are pathogen-trapping structures generated by expulsion of the neutrophil's DNA with associated proteolytic enzymes. NETs produced by infection can promote cancer metastasis. We show that metastatic breast cancer cells can induce neutrophils to form metastasis-supporting NETs in the absence of infection. Using intravital imaging, we observed NET-like structures around metastatic 4T1 cancer cells that had reached the lungs of mice...
October 19, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
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