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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807335/recent-updates-on-grading-and-classification-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#1
REVIEW
Joo Young Kim, Seung-Mo Hong, Jae Y Ro
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are originating from neuroendocrine cells in diffuse endocrine systems. NETs are diagnosed by characteristic histologic features and immunoprofiles. Recent 2010 WHO classification for gastroenteropancreatic NETs introduced grading system based on mitotic count and Ki-67 proliferation index. Gastroenteropancreatic NETs are classified as NET grade 1, NET grade 2, and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET grade 3). However, the carcinoid is still used in classification of NETs of the lung and uterine cervix...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803840/development-and-validation-of-risk-equations-for-complications-of-type-2-diabetes-recode-using-individual-participant-data-from-randomised-trials
#2
Sanjay Basu, Jeremy B Sussman, Seth A Berkowitz, Rodney A Hayward, John S Yudkin
BACKGROUND: In view of substantial mis-estimation of risks of diabetes complications using existing equations, we sought to develop updated Risk Equations for Complications Of type 2 Diabetes (RECODe). METHODS: To develop and validate these risk equations, we used data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes study (ACCORD, n=9635; 2001-09) and validated the equations for microvascular events using data from the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS, n=1018; 1996-2001), and for cardiovascular events using data from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD, n=4760; 2001-12)...
August 10, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798251/lungmap-the-molecular-atlas-of-lung-development-program
#3
Maryanne E Ardini-Poleske, Robert Fred Clark, Charles Ansong, James P Carson, Richard A Corley, Gail H Deutsch, James S Hagood, Naftali Kaminski, Thomas J Mariani, Steven S Potter, Gloria S Pryhuber, David Warburton, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Scott M Palmer, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, The LungMAP Consortium
The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic crosstalk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760232/biochemical-testing-in-neuroendocrine-tumors
#4
REVIEW
Vidya Aluri, Joseph S Dillon
Neuroendocrine cells are widely distributed throughout the body. They can produce, store, and secrete peptides and biogenic amines. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare, but most are found in the intestine, pancreas, and lung. NETs may cause specific hormonal symptoms (eg, carcinoid syndrome) or appear nonfunctional. Blood or urine concentrations of tumor-secreted amines and peptides have been used as biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of NETs. This article focuses on currently available biochemical testing of blood or urine for gastroenteropancreatic and lung NETs and discusses the limitations of these tests and the potential role of newer multianalyte markers for NET management...
September 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729431/sandostatin-lar-therapy-differentially-alters-68-ga-dotatate-uptake-in-normal-tissues-compared-to-primary-tumors-and-metastatic-lesions
#5
Narjess Ayati, Sze Ting Lee, Seyed Rasoul Zakavi, Kunthi Pathmaraj, Loai Qatawneh, Aurora Poon, Andrew Scott
Synthetic somatostatin analogs have been posed as a potential source of error in somatostatin receptor imaging by interfering with tumor detection; however, experimental models and clinical studies have shown a complex mechanism of octreotide effect on tumors. This study aimed to assess whether (68)Ga-DOTATATE uptake differs before and after treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogs. Methods: Thirty patients with intermediate to well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET) who underwent (68)Ga-DOTATATE Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) scanning before and after receiving long-acting repeatable (LAR) Sandostatin were included in the study...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721067/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-long-acting-pasireotide-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumors
#6
James C Yao, Jennifer A Chan, Alain C Mita, Madan G Kundu, Karina Hermosillo Reséndiz, Ke Hu, Shoba Ravichandran, Jonathan R Strosberg, Edward M Wolin
This phase I study aimed at determining the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and characterizing the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and efficacy of pasireotide in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Patients were enrolled in two phases: dose-escalation phase (to determine the MTD) at a starting dose of 80 mg pasireotide long-acting release (LAR) i.m. followed by a dose-expansion phase (to evaluate safety and prelimi-nary efficacy). Associations between PK/pharmacodynamic parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated using linear regression analysis...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720648/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-activate-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#7
Shi-Lin Qiu, Hui Zhang, Qi-Ya Tang, Jing Bai, Zhi-Yi He, Jian-Quan Zhang, Mei-Hua Li, Jing-Min Deng, Guang-Nan Liu, Xiao-Ning Zhong
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) represent a distinct strategy by which neutrophils trap, confine and eliminate invading microorganisms. Emerging evidence suggests that NETs exert a deleterious effect to the host in the absence of microbial stimuli. However, the role of NETs in smoking-related lung diseases remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the formation of NETs in the context of chronic inflammation induced by cigarette smoking and explore its potential role in an experimental mouse model of emphysema...
July 18, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713683/do-we-really-care-about-incidental-lung-nodules-review-of-atypical-lung-carcinoid-and-a-proposal-for-systematic-patient-follow-up
#8
Henal Motiwala, Itisha Bansal, Pradeep Goyal, Olena Dorokhova, Yogesh Kumar, Thomas D Olsavsky, Albert DiMeo, Nishant Gupta
Atypical lung carcinoids are intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with malignant potential. They are often detected incidentally on imaging done for non-related causes, as the patients are frequently asymptomatic. Histopathology is required to confirm the diagnosis with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Due to their indolent nature, these are often diagnosed only in the advanced stages. Treatment options include chemoradiation for widespread disease versus surgery for local or minimally invasive disease...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710117/genetic-and-epigenetic-drivers-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-net
#9
Annunziata Di Domenico, Tabea Wiedmer, Ilaria Marinoni, Aurel Perren
Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the gastrointestinal tract and the lung are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors. The molecular characterization and the clinical classification of these tumors have been evolving slowly and show differences according to organs of origin. Novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing revealed new molecular aspects of NET over the last years. Notably, whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) approaches underlined the very low mutation rate of well differentiated NET of all organs compared to other malignancies, while the engagement of epigenetic changes in driving NET evolution is emerging...
July 14, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706752/rationale-of-using-dynamic-imaging-for-characterization-of-suspicious-lung-masses-into-benign-or-malignant-on-contrast-enhanced-multi-detector-computed-tomography
#10
Sachin Khanduri, Saurav Bhagat, Parul Shokeen, Girjesh Kumar, Shobha Khanduri, Bhumika Singh
OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of dynamic imaging namely, wash-in and wash-out characteristics through multidetector contrast-enhanced computed tomography in differentiating benign and malignant pulmonary masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients who were suspected to have malignant pulmonary mass on the basis of clinical symptoms and chest radiograph were included in the study. All the patients underwent multidetector computed tomography scanning, and three series of images were obtained for each patient-noncontrast, early enhanced, and 15 min delayed enhanced scans...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702798/the-differential-absorption-of-a-series-of-p-glycoprotein-substrates-in-isolated-perfused-lungs-from-mdr1a-1b-genetic-knockout-mice-can-be-attributed-to-distinct-physico-chemical-properties-an-insight-into-predicting-transporter-mediated-pulmonary-specific
#11
Daniel F Price, Chris N Luscombe, Peter J Eddershaw, Chris D Edwards, Mark Gumbleton
PURPOSE: To examine if pulmonary P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is functional in an intact lung; impeding the pulmonary absorption and increasing lung retention of P-gp substrates administered into the airways. Using calculated physico-chemical properties alone build a predictive Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model distinguishing whether a substrate's pulmonary absorption would be limited by P-gp or not. METHODS: A panel of 18 P-gp substrates were administered into the airways of an isolated perfused mouse lung (IPML) model derived from Mdr1a/Mdr1b knockout mice...
July 12, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700781/efficacy-and-safety-of-spironolactone-in-acute-heart-failure-the-athena-hf-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Javed Butler, Kevin J Anstrom, G Michael Felker, Michael M Givertz, Andreas P Kalogeropoulos, Marvin A Konstam, Douglas L Mann, Kenneth B Margulies, Steven E McNulty, Robert J Mentz, Margaret M Redfield, W H Wilson Tang, David J Whellan, Monica Shah, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Adrian F Hernandez, Eugene Braunwald
Importance: Persistent congestion is associated with worse outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists administered at high doses may relieve congestion, overcome diuretic resistance, and mitigate the effects of adverse neurohormonal activation in AHF. Objective: To assess the effect of high-dose spironolactone and usual care on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels compared with usual care alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind and placebo (or low-dose)-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in 22 US acute care hospitals among patients with AHF who were previously receiving no or low-dose (12...
July 12, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690727/-clinical-and-immunological-profile-of-15-moroccan-patients-with-hyper-igm-syndrome
#13
Hind Ouair, Ibtihal Benhsaien, Leila Jeddane, Jalila El Bakkouri, Naima Elhafidi, Noureddine Rada, Jilali Najib, Fatima Ailal, Hanane Salih Alj, Ahmed Aziz Bousfiha
Hyper IgM syndrome is a well known genetic (primary) immunodeficiency disorder which was first described in 1961. It is caused by B lymphocyte deficiency characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM levels and low or zero levels of IgG, IgA, IgE resulting from isotype-switching deficiency. Clinical manifestations are dominated by recurrent infections, especially involving the digestive tube of the ENT sphere and the lungs. This syndrome is caused by B-cell immunoglobulin class switch deficiency and decreased capacity to induce proliferation of T lymphocytes...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689056/patient-navigation-for-lung-cancer-screening-in-an-urban-safety-net-system-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
David E Gerber, Heidi A Hamann, Noel O Santini, Suhny Abbara, Hsienchang Chiu, Molly McGuire, Lisa Quirk, Hong Zhu, Simon J Craddock Lee
The National Lung Screening Trial demonstrated improved lung cancer mortality with annual low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening, leading to lung cancer screening endorsement by the United States Preventive Services Task Force and coverage by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid. Adherence to annual CT screens in that trial was 95%, which may not be representative of real-world, particularly medically underserved populations. This pragmatic trial will determine the effect of patient-focused, telephone-based patient navigation on adherence to CT-based lung cancer screening in an urban safety-net population...
July 5, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684922/emerging-use-of-everolimus-in-the-treatment-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#15
REVIEW
Pablo Gajate, Olga Martínez-Sáez, Teresa Alonso-Gordoa, Enrique Grande
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) consist of a diverse family of malignancies, which are derived from neuroendocrine cells, most commonly originating from the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tract or the bronchopulmonary system. In general, NETs are more indolent than epithelial tumors, with median survival rates of longer than 30 months. The upregulation of mTOR pathway has been shown to play a pivotal role in NET pathogenesis. Inhibition of mTOR protein with everolimus represents a progress in the treatment of advanced NETs...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660170/low-grade-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-lung
#16
REVIEW
Barbara Melosky
The lung is the second most common site of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Typical and atypical carcinoids are low-grade NETs of the lung. They present a favorable prognosis comported to the more common high-grade NETs. The low- and high-grade NETs require different treatment strategies; effective management of these tumors is essential to prolong survival and to manage the symptoms in patients with secretory or functional tumors. These rare tumors have received little attention and education is needed for treating physicians...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656561/neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-esophagus-state-of-the-art-in-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-management
#17
REVIEW
Dimitrios Schizas, Aikaterini Mastoraki, George I Kirkilesis, Athanasios D Sioulas, Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Evangelos P Misiakos, Nikolaos Arkadopoulos, Theodore Liakakos
INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms composed of cells containing dense-core neuroendocrine secretory granules in their cytoplasm. NETs of the esophagus are exceedingly uncommon, with a parallel absence of data published on clinical features, prognosis, and proposed treatment strategies. METHODS: As relevant classification is not well-established, knowledge acquired in NETs of lung and gastrointestinal sites usually guides esophageal NET management...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652726/a-novel-scoring-index-by-doppler-echocardiography-for-predicting-severe-pulmonary-hypertension-due-to-chronic-lung-diseases-a-cross-sectional-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#18
Rong Jiang, Cheng Wu, Bigyan Pudasaini, Lan Wang, Qin-Hua Zhao, Rui Zhang, Wen-Hui Wu, Ping Yuan, Zhi-Cheng Jing, Jin-Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: Severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) resulting from a chronic lung disease (CLD) (severe CLD-PH) requires more aggressive treatment due to its increased mortality compared with mild PH. Therefore, we developed a Doppler echocardiography scoring index (ESI) to predict severe CLD-PH. METHODS: A derivation cohort of 107 patients with CLD who underwent echocardiography was classified into two groups, the normal/mild PH group and the severe PH group, based on the right heart catheterization...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644772/risk-stratification-for-second-primary-lung-cancer
#19
Summer S Han, Gabriel A Rivera, Martin C Tammemägi, Sylvia K Plevritis, Scarlett L Gomez, Iona Cheng, Heather A Wakelee
Purpose This study estimated the 10-year risk of developing second primary lung cancer (SPLC) among survivors of initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) and evaluated the clinical utility of the risk prediction model for selecting eligibility criteria for screening. Methods SEER data were used to identify a population-based cohort of 20,032 participants diagnosed with IPLC between 1988 and 2003 and who survived ≥ 5 years after the initial diagnosis. We used a proportional subdistribution hazards model to estimate the 10-year risk of developing SPLC among survivors of lung cancer LC in the presence of competing risks...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629213/la-sopravvivenza-dei-pazienti-oncologici-in-italia
#20
Vincenzo Coviello, Carlotta Buzzoni, Mario Fusco, Alessandro Barchielli, Francesco Cuccaro, Roberta De Angelis, Adriano Giacomin, Stefano Luminari, Giorgia Randi, Lucia Mangone
OBJECTIVES: Population-based survival statistics are fundamental to assess the efficacy of services offered to improve cancer patients' prognosis. This study aims to update cancer survival estimates for the Italian population, as well as provide new measures, such as the crude probability of death, which takes into account the possibility of dying from causes other than cancer, and the change in life expectancy after a cancer diagnosis, to properly address various questions. RESULTS: The study includes 1,932,450 cancer cases detected by the Network of Italian Cancer Registries (AIRTUM) from 1994 to 2011 and provides estimates for 38 cancer sites and for allsites cancer...
March 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
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