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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050397/the-antimyotonic-effect-of-lamotrigine-in-non-dystrophic-myotonias-a-double-blind-randomized-study
#1
Grete Andersen, Gitte Hedermann, Nanna Witting, Morten Duno, Henning Andersen, John Vissing
Mexiletine is the only drug with proven effect for treatment of non-dystrophic myotonia, but mexiletine is expensive, has limited availability and several side effects. There is therefore a need to identify other pharmacological compounds that can alleviate myotonia in non-dystrophic myotonias. Like mexiletine, lamotrigine is a sodium channel blocker, but unlike mexiletine, lamotrigine is available, inexpensive, and well tolerated. We investigated the potential of using lamotrigine for treatment of myotonia in patients with non-dystrophic myotonias...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049615/current-trends-in-management-of-submental-liposis-a-pooled-analysis-and-survey
#2
Sagar Patel, Russell Kridel
Importance: Since its approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of moderate to severe submental liposis in April 2015, deoxycholic acid (Kybella) has received significant media attention as a novel aesthetic treatment. Four phase 3 clinical trials have published data demonstrating the safety and efficacy of the drug compared with placebo; however, no study has juxtaposed the product with submental liposuction. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of injectable deoxycholic acid in the treatment of isolated submental liposis...
October 19, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049467/updated-cost-effectiveness-assessments-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-from-the-perspectives-of-the-health-system-and-private-payers-insights-derived-from-the-fourier-trial
#3
Alejandro Arrieta, Jonathan C Hong, Rohan Khera, Salim S Virani, Harlan M Krumholz, Khurram Nasir
Importance: Preliminary cost-effectiveness analyses of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9i) were based on benefits estimated from reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol that occurred in PCSK9i trials with variable results. The recent Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial provides better information about the effectiveness of the drug. Objective: To use the trial results to determine the cost-effectiveness of a PCSK9i and statin treatment strategy compared with a statin alone strategy...
October 18, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049014/transcriptomic-guided-drug-repositioning-supported-by-a-new-bioinformatics-search-tool-genexpharma
#4
Beste Turanli, Gizem Gulfidan, Kazim Yalcin Arga
Drug repositioning is an innovative approach to identify new therapeutic indications for existing drugs. Drug repositioning offers the promise of reducing drug development timeframes and costs, and because it involves drugs that are already in the clinic, it might remedy some of the drug safety challenges traditionally associated with drug candidates that are not yet available in the clinic. The gene-by-drug interactions are an important dimension of optimal drug repositioning and development strategies. While gene-by-drug interactions have been curated and presented in various databases, novel bioinformatics tools and approaches are timely, and required with a specific focus to support drug positioning...
October 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048876/microchemical-plant-in-a-liquid-droplet-plasmonic-liquid-marble-for-sequential-reactions-and-attomole-detection-of-toxin-at-microliter-scale
#5
Xuemei Han, Charlynn Sher Lin Koh, Hiang Kwee Lee, Wee Shern Chew, Xing Yi Ling
Miniaturizing the continuous multi-step operations of a factory into a microchemical plant offers a safe and cost-effective approach to promote high-throughput screening in drug development and enforcement of industrial/environment safety. While particle-assembled microdroplets in the form of liquid marble are ideal as microchemical plant, these platforms are mainly restricted to single-step reactions and limited to ex-situ reaction monitoring. Herein, we utilize plasmonic liquid marble (PLM), formed by encapsulating liquid droplet with Ag nanocubes, to address these issues and demonstrate it as an ideal microchemical plant to conduct reaction-and-detection sequences on-demand in a non-disruptive manner...
October 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048348/analysis-of-a-community-pharmacy-intervention-to-improve-low-adherence-rates-to-oral-diabetes-medications
#6
Jerica Singleton, Stevie Veach, Christine Catney, Matthew Witry
For patients with diabetes, suboptimal medication adherence contributes to disease progression, complications, and increased healthcare costs. Identification of, and intervention for patient-identified reasons for nonadherence are essential to improving medication adherence. This prospective, quality improvement study was conducted at an independent community pharmacy in the Mid-West United States. Patients with a proportion of days covered (PDC) for their oral antidiabetic medications of less than 80% were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a clinical pharmacist...
October 19, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047275/excipient-free-pulmonary-delivery-and-macrophage-targeting-of-clofazimine-via-air-jet-micronization
#7
Ashlee D Brunaugh, Syed Umer Jan, Silvia Ferrati, Hugh D C Smyth
Clofazimine (CFZ) is highly active against mycobacterium, including resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its therapeutic efficacy via the oral route is limited by severe adverse effects, poor aqueous solubility, and slow onset of action. Pulmonary delivery of CFZ is an attractive alternative to target mycobacterium-harboring alveolar macrophages. This study explores the use of air jet milling to develop a respirable, cost-effective CFZ formulation. Jet milled CFZ was readily dispersed from an off-the-shelf dry powder inhaler without the need for additional excipients or carrier particles...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047249/a-personalized-and-learning-approach-for-identifying-drugs-with-adverse-events
#8
Sug Kyun Shin, Ho Hur, Eun Kyung Cheon, Ock Hee Oh, Jeong Seon Lee, Woo Jin Ko, Beom Seok Kim, YoungOk Kwon
PURPOSE: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are associated with high health and financial costs and have increased as more elderly patients treated with multiple medications emerge in an aging society. It has thus become challenging for physicians to identify drugs causing adverse events. This study proposes a novel approach that can improve clinical decision making with recommendations on ADE causative drugs based on patient information, drug information, and previous ADE cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We introduce a personalized and learning approach for detecting drugs with a specific adverse event, where recommendations tailored to each patient are generated using data mining techniques...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047177/selected-hepatoprotective-herbal-medicines-evidence-from-ethnomedicinal-applications-animal-models-and-possible-mechanism-of-actions
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Ali, Tariq Khan, Kaneez Fatima, Qurat Ul Ain Ali, Muhammad Ovais, Ali Talha Khalil, Ikram Ullah, Abida Raza, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muhammad Idrees
Insight into the hepatoprotective effects of medicinally important plants is important, both for physicians and researchers. Main reasons for the use of herbal medicine include their lesser cost compared with conventional drugs, lesser undesirable drug reactions and thus high safety, and reduced side effects. The present review focuses on the composition, pharmacology, and results of experimental trials of selected medicinal plants: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Phyllanthus amarus Schumach...
October 19, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047143/rising-drug-costs-drives-the-growth-of-pharmacy-benefit-managers-exclusion-lists-are-exclusion-decisions-value-based
#10
Joshua P Cohen, Christelle El Khoury, Christopher-Paul Milne, Sandra M Peters
OBJECTIVE: We examine whether drugs' excluded versus recommended status on pharmacy benefit manager exclusion lists corresponds to evidence from cost-effectiveness analyses, lack of evidence, or rebates. DATA SOURCES: To find cost-effectiveness data for drugs on 2016 exclusion lists of CVS Caremark and Express Scripts, we searched the Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and the peer-reviewed literature. STUDY DESIGN: For each excluded and recommended drug, we compared the mean cost-per-QALY, and we calculated the difference between the numbers of excluded and recommended drugs for which we could find no cost-effectiveness evidence...
October 18, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046992/managing-hypertension-in-patients-aged-75%C3%A2-years-and-older
#11
REVIEW
Yogita Rochlani, Mohammed Hasan Khan, Wilbert S Aronow
On the basis of the available data, we would diagnose a normal blood pressure in elderly persons including those 75 years of age and older if the blood pressure was below 120/80 mmHg. We would diagnose hypertension in elderly persons including those aged 75 years and older if the systolic blood pressure was 130 mmHg and higher or if the diastolic blood pressure was 80 mmHg and higher. We would treat these elderly patients with hypertension to a blood pressure goal of less than 130/80 mmHg if the blood pressure was obtained by automated blood pressure monitoring in a quiet room...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046488/principles-and-applications-of-rabbit-models-for-atherosclerosis-research
#12
Jianglin Fan, Yajie Chen, Haizhao Yan, Manabu Niimi, Yanli Wang, Jingyan Liang
Rabbits are one of the most used experimental animals for biomedical research, particularly as a bioreactor for the production of antibodies. However, many unique features of the rabbit have also made it as an excellent species for examining a number of aspects of human diseases such as atherosclerosis. Rabbits are phylogenetically closer to humans than rodents, in addition to their relatively proper size, tame disposition, and ease of use and maintenance in the laboratory facility. Due to their short life spans, short gestation periods, high numbers of progeny, low cost (compared with other large animals) and availability of genomics and proteomics, rabbits usually serve to bridge the gap between smaller rodents (mice and rats) and larger animals, such as dogs, pigs and monkeys, and play an important role in many translational research activities such as pre-clinical testing of drugs and diagnostic methods for patients...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045525/clinical-benefit-of-systemic-treatment-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-and-gastro-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumours-according-to-esmo-mcbs-and-asco-framework
#13
L D de Hosson, L M van Veenendaal, Y Schuller, W T Zandee, W W de Herder, M E T Tesselaar, H J Klümpen, A M E Walenkamp
BackgroundAssessment of clinical benefit of systemic treatments of rare diseases including gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) is challenging. Recently several tools have been developed to grade clinical benefit of cancer drugs. European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has developed the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS). The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) developed and revised the ASCO framework consisting of the Net Health Benefit (NHB) score juxtaposed against the costs of the treatment...
September 26, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045435/impact-of-clinical-pharmacist-interventions-on-inappropriate-prophylactic-acid-suppressant-use-in-hepatobiliary-surgical-patients-undergoing-elective-operations
#14
Hongli Luo, Qingze Fan, Shunlin Xiao, Kun Chen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact and cost-benefit of clinical pharmacist interventions on inappropriate use of prophylactic acid suppressant in hepatobiliary surgical patients in a Chinese tertiary hospital. METHODS: A retro-prospective intervention study of patients undergoing elective operations was performed in the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University. Patients admitted from October to December 2015 and from October to December 2016, served as the pre-intervention and the post-intervention group, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044643/fidaxomicin-versus-vancomycin-as-a-first-line-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-cdad-in-specific-patient-populations-a-pharmacoeconomic-evaluation
#15
Kelly R Reveles, Jennifer L Backo, Frank A Corvino, Marko Zivkovic, Kelly C Broderick
OBJECTIVES: The reduction in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) with fidaxomicin therapy may reduce hospital readmissions and lead to lower overall CDAD costs. However, studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin as first-line therapy from the United States (US) hospital perspective are lacking. This study evaluated the costs associated with utilizing fidaxomicin or vancomycin as a first-line therapy for CDAD in specific patient populations from a US hospital perspective...
October 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044101/controlling-the-bioactivity-of-a-peptide-hormone-in-vivo-by-reversible-self-assembly
#16
Myriam M Ouberai, Ana L Gomes Dos Santos, Sonja Kinna, Shimona Madalli, David C Hornigold, David Baker, Jacqueline Naylor, Laura Sheldrake, Dominic J Corkill, John Hood, Paolo Vicini, Shahid Uddin, Steven Bishop, Paul G Varley, Mark E Welland
The use of peptides as therapeutic agents is undergoing a renaissance with the expectation of new drugs with enhanced levels of efficacy and safety. Their clinical potential will be only fully realised once their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties have been precisely controlled. Here we demonstrate a reversible peptide self-assembly strategy to control and prolong the bioactivity of a native peptide hormone in vivo. We show that oxyntomodulin, a peptide with potential to treat obesity and diabetes, self-assembles into a stable nanofibril formulation which subsequently dissociates to release active peptide and produces a pharmacological effect in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044002/irrational-antibiotic-prescribing-practice-among-children-in-critical-care-of-tertiary-hospitals
#17
Mirza Tasawer Baig, Ali Akbar Sial, Ambreen Huma, Maryam Ahmed, Uzma Shahid, Nayel Syed
This study assessed the prescribing pattern of irrational use of antibiotic among children under age of 12 years in public and private sector hospitals in Pakistan. The prospective clinical evaluation of drug utilization pattern of antimicrobials from Patient Bedside File (PBF) of in-patients and Culture Sensitivity Test (CST) reports were evaluated to determine the antibiotic resistance. Two indicators recorded to assess antibiotic prescribing were; dose of prescribed antibiotic (low-dose, rational and high -dose) and Indication (valid or invalid)...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043071/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-peptic-ulcer-bleeding
#18
REVIEW
Ian Beales
Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to peptic ulcer bleeding remains an important cause of emergency presentation and hospital admission. Despite advances in many aspects of management, peptic ulcer bleeding is still associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Comprehensive international guidelines have been published, but advances as well as controversies continue to evolve. Important recent advances include the evidence supporting a more restrictive transfusion strategy aiming for a target haemoglobin of 70-90 g/l...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042803/the-cost-of-successful-antiviral-therapy-in-hepatitis-c-patients-a-comparison-of-ifn-free-versus-ifn-based-regimens-at-an-individual-patient-level-in-australia
#19
Allister Sebastian Lee, Mieke L van Driel, Darrell Hg Crawford
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C remains a major global health burden with serious long-term consequences if left untreated. Recently the treatment standard of care has shifted to new interferon (IFN)-free drug regimens, which have been shown to be safe and effective. The aim of our study was to assess and compare medical resource utilization and costs of successfully treating patients with IFN-based and IFN-free therapies in Australia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 30 HCV-infected patients successfully treated with IFN-based therapy between 2013 and 2015...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042260/pldt-planarian-light-dark-test-an-invertebrate-assay-to-quantify-defensive-responding-and-study-anxiety-like-effects
#20
Ashenafi Mebratu Zewde, Frances Yu, Sunil Nayak, Christopher Tallarida, Allen B Reitz, Lynn G Kirby, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND: Planarians, like rodents, instinctively spend more time in dark versus light environments when given a choice. This behavioral phenomenon is called negative phototaxis, which may reflect defensive responding related to an anxiety-like phenotype. NEW METHOD: We propose a planarian light/dark test, designated PLDT, to predict anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects. Experimentally, we placed a planarian at the midline of a Petri dish, containing test compound or water, that was split evenly into light and dark compartments and determined time spent in the light over 10min...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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