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Drugs costs

Jing Peng, Nan Pang, Ying Wang, Xiao-Le Wang, Jian Chen, Juan Xiong, Pan Peng, Can-Hui Zhu, Miriam Barakael Kessi, Fang He, Fei Yin
BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were three-fold: (i) to determine the contribution of known genes to the causation of a broad-spectrum of pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), (ii) to compare the diagnostic yield and cost among different next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches, and especially (iii) to assess how NGS approaches can benefit patients by improving diagnosis and treatment efficiency. METHODS: This study enrolled 273 pediatric DRE patients with no obvious acquired etiology...
June 22, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
A V Prasolov, A S Kolbin, Yulia E Balykina
OBJECTIVES: To propose an algorithm that relates the effectiveness of drugs for a wide range of diseases with the financial capabilities of patients. METHODS: Estimates of the volume of pharmaceuticals that are consumed in the Russian Federation by all segments of the population regardless of household income were considered. These were calculated using statistically valid probabilities of the appearance of various diseases, official state data on the structure of expenditures of various strata of the population, and the optimal choice of the most effective medicines with income restrictions taken into account...
June 19, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Asima Farooq, Ali Shukur, Cai Astley, Lubomira Tosheva, Peter Kelly, Debra Whitehead, May Azzawi
Blood vessel disease is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is hallmarked by dysfunction of the lining endothelial cells (ECs). These cells play a significant role in vascular homeostasis, through the release of mediators to control vessel diameter, hence tissue perfusion. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) can be used as potential drug delivery platforms for vasodilator drugs. Here, using an ex vivo model of vascular function, we examine the use of titania coating for improved biocompatibility and release dynamics of MSN loaded sodium nitroprusside (SNP)...
June 19, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Maxwell G De Jong, Kevin B Wood
Spatial heterogeneity plays an important role in the evolution of drug resistance. While recent studies have indicated that spatial gradients of selection pressure can accelerate resistance evolution, much less is known about evolution in more complex spatial profiles. Here we use a stochastic toy model of drug resistance to investigate how different spatial profiles of selection pressure impact the time to fixation of a resistant allele. Using mean first passage time calculations, we show that spatial heterogeneity accelerates resistance evolution when the rate of spatial migration is sufficiently large relative to mutation but slows fixation for small migration rates...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Melissa J Palmer, Sharmani Barnard, Pablo Perel, Caroline Free
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of disability and mortality globally. Premature fatal and non-fatal CVD is considered to be largely preventable through the control of risk factors via lifestyle modifications and preventive medication. Lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drug therapies for primary prevention are cost-effective in reducing CVD morbidity and mortality among high-risk people and are recommended by international guidelines. However, adherence to medication prescribed for the prevention of CVD can be poor...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sara Bocanegra-Rodríguez, Neus Jornet-Martinez, Carmen Molins-Legua, Pilar Campíns-Falcó
Nowadays, the interest for using environmental friendly materials is increasing in many fields. However, the rational design of sensors with biodegradable materials is a challenge. The main of this work is to show the possibilities of the use of zein, protein of corn, as biodegradable and low cost material for immobilizing/stabilizing and delivering different kind of reagents for developing optical sensors. Enzymes, metallic salts, aromatic and small organic compounds were tested. In addition, different techniques of immobilization, entrapped and adsorbed, were used and different formats such as solid devices but also multi-well platform were proposed...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Peter Tyrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the diagnosis of health anxiety, its prevalence in different settings, public health significance, treatment, and outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Health anxiety is similar to hypochondriasis but is characterized by fear of, rather than conviction of, illness. Lifetime prevalence rates are 6% in the population and as high as 20% in hospital out-patients, leading to greater costs to health services through unnecessary medical contacts. Its prevalence may be increasing because of excessive internet browsing (cyberchondria)...
June 22, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Mehrdad Mansouri, Bowei Yuan, Colin J D Ross, Bruce C Carleton, Martin Ester
Motivation: Adverse Drug Reactions are one of the major factors that affect the wellbeing of patients and financial costs of healthcare systems. Genetic variations of patients have been shown to be a key factor in the occurrence and severity of many ADRs. However, the large number of confounding drugs and genetic biomarkers for each adverse reaction case demands a method that evaluates all potential genetic causes of ADRs simultaneously. Results: To address this challenge, we propose HUME, a multi-phase algorithm that recommends genetic factors for ADRs that are causally supported by the patient record data...
June 19, 2018: Bioinformatics
Sorawut Thamyongkit, Malick Bachabi, John M Thompson, Babar Shafiq, Erik A Hasenboehler
Background: The increasing financial burden of orthopaedic implants on our health care system has prompted cost-control measures, such as implant reprocessing. The purpose of this study was to describe the current usage by orthopaedic trauma surgeons of reprocessed external fixators (EFs) for treatment of complex fractures. Methods: A 16-question survey about use and perceptions of reprocessed EFs was distributed to 894 Orthopaedic Trauma Association members between August 2016 and June 2017 using a web-based survey system...
2018: Patient Safety in Surgery
Marco Simonetti, Diego M Cannas, Xavier Just-Baringo, Iñigo J Vitorica-Yrezabal, Igor Larrosa
Biaryls are ubiquitous core structures in drugs, agrochemicals and organic materials that have profoundly improved many aspects of our society. Although traditional cross-couplings have made practical the synthesis of many biaryls, C-H arylation represents a more attractive and cost-effective strategy for building these structural motifs. Furthermore, the ability to install biaryl units in complex molecules via late-stage C-H arylation would allow access to valuable structural diversity, novel chemical space and intellectual property in only one step...
July 2018: Nature Chemistry
Vijaya M Vemulakonda, Ruth A Bush, Michael G Kahn
BACKGROUND: The electronic health record (EHR) was designed as a clinical and administrative tool to improve clinical patient care. Electronic healthcare systems have been successfully adopted across the world through use of government mandates and incentives. METHODS: Using electronic health record, health information system, electronic medical record, health information systems, research, outcomes, pediatric, surgery, and urology as initial search terms, the literature focusing on clinical documentation data capture and the EHR as a potential resource for research related to clinical outcomes, quality improvement, and comparative effectiveness was reviewed...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Renata De Paris, Christian Vahl Quevedo, Duncan D Ruiz, Furia Gargano, Osmar Norberto de Souza
BACKGROUND: In the rational drug design process, an ensemble of conformations obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation plays a crucial role in docking experiments. Some studies have found that Fully-Flexible Receptor (FFR) models predict realistic binding energy accurately and improve scoring to enhance selectiveness. At the same time, methods have been proposed to reduce the high computational costs involved in considering the explicit flexibility of proteins in receptor-ligand docking...
June 22, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Shindu C Thomas, Tushar Madaan, Zeenat Iqbal, Sushama Talegaonkar
BACKGROUND: Bendamustine HCl, an antineoplastic drug, has a very short life of about 40 minutes which necessitates administration of large doses which leads to increased side effects as well as costs. OBJECTIVE: The present work describes the fabrication, optimization and evaluation of bioactive hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to achieve sustained delivery of bendamustine HCl. METHODS: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by the wet chemical precipitation method by reacting a calcium and phosphate precursor and the reaction was optimized via Box-Behnken DOE...
June 20, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Ricardo L Pereira, Isis C Nascimento, Ana P Santos, Isabella E Y Ogusuku, Claudiana Lameu, Günter Mayer, Henning Ulrich
Although the term 'cancer' was still over two thousand years away of being coined, the first known cases of the disease date back to about 3000BC, in ancient Egypt. Five thousand years later, still lacking a cure, it has become one of the leading causes of death, killing over half a dozen million people yearly. So far, monoclonal antibodies are the most successful immune-therapy tools when it comes to fighting cancer. The number of clinical trials that use them has been increasing steadily during the past few years, especially since the Food and Drug Administration greenlit the use of the first immune-checkpoint blockade antibodies...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Nastaran Majdinasab, Foroogh Namjoyan, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Hamid Saki
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination in the central nervous system. In regard to the prevalence of diseases and enormous costs imposed on society and the health system, finding a way to stop the progression of the disease using drugs with fewer side effects seems a serious sanitation issue to the health of the international community. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of evening primrose oil (EPO) on fatigue and quality of life in patients with MS...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Gabriel Sanfélix-Gimeno, María-Lirios Juliá-Sanchis, Julián Librero, Salvador Peiró, Aníbal García-Sempere
Little is known about the contextual variability in osteoporosis medication utilization. Our aims were 1) to describe variations in utilization and spending on osteoporotic medication between the Primary Care Health Zones (PHZ) of the Valencia region, Spain, 2) to analyze observed variations using Small Area Variation Analysis methods, and 3) to quantify the influence of the specialized care level on variations in utilization. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional ecological study of expenditure and utilization of five therapeutic groups marketed as osteoporosis treatments in Spain in 2009...
2018: PloS One
Islam M Mostafa, Sayed M Derayea, Dalia M Nagy, Mahmoud A Omar
One of the most commonly used drugs in treatment of schizophrenia is flupentixol dihydrochloride, therefore it is important to develop a simple, low cost and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the estimation of flupentixol dihydrochloride. The yellow fluorescent product that is generated from the nucleophilic substitution reaction of the free lone pair of the alcoholic hydroxyl group of the drug and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in Mcllvaine buffer pH 7.0 was estimated at 510 nm (λex 460 nm)...
June 21, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
David E Wamble, Michael Ciarametaro, Robert Dubois
BACKGROUND: Developments in diagnostics, medical devices, procedures, and prescription drugs have increased life expectancy and quality of life after diagnosis for many diseases. Previous research has shown that, overall, increased investment in medical technology has led to increased health outcomes. In addition, the value of investment in specific innovations, particularly in new pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals, has frequently been shown through an evaluation of the associated health outcomes and costs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Antonis S Manolis, Theodora A Manolis, Antonis A Manolis, Helen Melita
Dual angiotensin and neprilysin inhibition using the combination drug sacubitril-valsartan has ushered in a new era in the treatment of heart failure (HF). The randomized controlled PARADIGM-HF trial, which randomized 8399 patients with HF to enalapril or sacubitril-valsartan, showed a 20% reduction in mortality and HF hospitalization with the new drug. This has been heralded as a step toward filling a crucial gap in HF management by providing strong evidence that combined inhibition of the angiotensin receptor and neprilysin is superior to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system alone in stable patients with chronic HF as it negates the deleterious effects of angiotensin while concomitantly augmenting the beneficial effects of the endogenous natriuretic peptide system...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Ron D Oshri, Keren S Zrihen, Itzhak Shner, Shira Omer Bendori, Avigdor Eldar
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs a hierarchical quorum-sensing network to regulate virulence factor production that cooperatively benefit the population at a cost to the individual. It has been argued that the evolution of a cooperative mutant in a quorum sensing-suppressed population would be hampered through its exploitation by neighboring non-mutant cells. It remains unclear whether mechanisms which overcome this exploitation exist. Here we investigate the regain of quorum-sensing cooperation by evolving a mutant of the lasR master quorum-sensing regulator...
June 20, 2018: ISME Journal
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