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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822510/high-versus-low-dose-statin-therapy-in-indian-patients-with-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-undergoing-thrombolysis
#1
K Priti, Anand Agrawal, Bhanwar L Ranwa
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare high dose versus low dose statin therapy in Indian patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing thrombolysis. BACKGROUND: Randomized trials have demonstrated that statin treatment reduced major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with stable angina pectoris and acute coronary syndrome. However, randomized studies of statin therapy in Indian patients with STEMI are scarce. METHODS: Of 1859 patients with acute STEMI, 1027 eligible patients were randomized to 80-mg (n=512) or 10-mg (n=515) atorvastatin...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822347/screening-and-confirmation-of-steroids-and-nitroimidazoles-in-urine-blood-and-food-matrices-sample-preparation-methods-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometric-separations
#2
Ádám Tölgyesi, Enikő Barta, Andrea Simon, Thomas J McDonald, Virender K Sharma
Veterinary drugs containing synthetic anabolic steroid and nitroimidazole active agents are not allowed for their applications in livestock of the European Union (EU). This paper presents analyses of twelve selected steroids and six nitroimidazole antibiotics at low levels (1.56μg/L-4.95μg/L and 0.17μg/kg-2.14μg/kg, respectively) in body fluids and egg incurred samples. Analyses involved clean-up procedures, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and tandem mass spectrometric screening and confirmatory methods...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821264/impact-of-early-initiation-versus-national-standard-of-care-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-swaziland-s-public-sector-health-system-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomized-trial
#3
Fiona J Walsh, Till Bärnighausen, Wim Delva, Yvette Fleming, Gavin Khumalo, Charlotte L Lejeune, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Charmaine Khudzie Mlambo, Ria Reis, Donna Spiegelman, Mandisa Zwane, Velephi Okello
BACKGROUND: There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or "universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics...
August 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820893/a-computational-method-for-the-identification-of-candidate-drugs-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Lei Chen, Jing Lu, Tao Huang, Yu-Dong Cai
Lung cancer causes a large number of deaths per year. Until now, a cure for this disease has not been found or developed. Finding an effective drug through traditional experimental methods invariably costs millions of dollars and takes several years. It is imperative that computational methods be developed to integrate several types of existing information to identify candidate drugs for further study, which could reduce the cost and time of development. In this study, we tried to advance this effort by proposing a computational method to identify candidate drugs for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a major type of lung cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820269/reaction-phenotyping-to-assess-victim-drug-drug-interaction-risks
#5
Li Di
Reaction phenotyping provides critical information regarding the fraction metabolized (fm) of drug candidates. It has become increasingly important in drug discovery and development as it can be used to assess victim drug-drug interaction potential, guide structural modification to reduce fm, inform clinical study design, predict individual variability in pharmacokinetics, and evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms. Areas covered: The currently available in vitro and in vivo methods for reaction phenotyping are summarized along with their advantages, limitations and timings for application during the different stages of drug discovery and development...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819767/comparative-efficacy-of-drugs-for-preventing-acute-kidney-injury-after-cardiac-surgery-a-network-meta-analysis
#6
Xi Chen, Tianlun Huang, Xuan Cao, Gaosi Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and has been associated with increased hospital length of stay, mortality, and costs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacologic strategies for preventing AKI after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to 6 May 2017 and the reference lists of relevant articles about trials...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818376/an-overview-on-the-strategies-to-exploit-rice-endosperm-as-production-platform-for-biopharmaceuticals
#7
REVIEW
Fumio Takaiwa, Yuhya Wakasa, Shimpei Hayashi, Taiji Kawakatsu
Cereal seed has been utilized as production platform for high-value biopharmaceutical proteins. Especially, protein bodies (PBs) in seeds are not only natural specialized storage organs of seed storage proteins (SSPs), but also suitable intracellular deposition compartment for recombinant proteins. When various recombinant proteins were produced as secretory proteins by attaching N terminal ER signal peptide and C terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal or as fusion proteins with SSPs, high amounts of recombinant proteins can be predominantly accumulated in the PBs...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818245/estimation-of-breast-cancer-incident-cases-and-medical-care-costs-attributable-to-alcohol-consumption-among-insured-women-aged-45-years-in-the-u-s
#8
Donatus U Ekwueme, Benjamin T Allaire, William J Parish, Cheryll C Thomas, Diana Poehler, Gery P Guy, Arnie P Aldridge, Sejal R Lahoti, Temeika L Fairley, Justin G Trogdon
INTRODUCTION: This study estimated the percentage of breast cancer cases, total number of incident cases, and total annual medical care costs attributable to alcohol consumption among insured younger women (aged 18-44 years) by type of insurance and stage at diagnosis. METHODS: The study used the 2012-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, cancer incidence data from two national registry programs, and published relative risk measures to estimate the: (1) alcohol-attributable fraction of breast cancer cases among younger women by insurance type; (2) total number of breast cancer incident cases attributable to alcohol consumption by stage at diagnosis and insurance type among younger women; and (3) total annual medical care costs of treating breast cancer incident cases attributable to alcohol consumption among younger women...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817779/the-price-may-not-be-right-the-value-of-comparison-shopping-for-prescription-drugs
#9
Sanjay Arora, Neeraj Sood, Sophie Terp, Geoffrey Joyce
OBJECTIVES: To measure variations in drug prices across and within zip codes that may reveal simple strategies to improve patients' access to prescribed medications. STUDY DESIGN: We compared drug prices at different types of pharmacies across and within local markets. In-store prices were compared with a Web-based service providing discount coupons for prescription medications. Prices were collected for 2 generic antibiotics because most patients have limited experience with them and are less likely to know the price ranges for them...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817397/real-world-data-on-paliperidone-palmitate-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-and-other-psychotic-disorders-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-and-nonrandomized-studies
#10
Robin Emsley, Eduard Parellada, Miquel Bioque, Berta Herrera, Teresa Hernando, Marta García-Dorado
The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the effects of 1-month paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) for the treatment of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders in terms of outcomes reported in real-world evidence studies. A systematic review of real-world randomized and nonrandomized studies with PP1M was performed and is reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Comparative effectiveness data with oral antipsychotics indicate that PP1M has a lower likelihood of relapse-related events, including rehospitalization, and these differences are clinically relevant...
August 16, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817376/association-between-hospice-spending-on-patient-care-and-rates-of-hospitalization-and-medicare-expenditures-of-hospice-enrollees
#11
Melissa D Aldridge, Andrew J Epstein, Abraham A Brody, Eric J Lee, R Sean Morrison, Elizabeth H Bradley
BACKGROUND: Care at the end of life is increasingly fragmented and is characterized by multiple hospitalizations, even among patients enrolled with hospice. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hospice spending on direct patient care (including the cost of home visits, drugs, equipment, and counseling) is associated with hospital utilization and Medicare expenditures of hospice enrollees. DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational cohort study (2008-2010)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816992/are-physician-assistants-needed-in-guatemala-a-survey-of-potential-urban-and-rural-users
#12
Claudia Luna-Asturias, Jennifer Apple, Guillermo A Bolaños, Jonathan M Bowser, Edwin J Asturias
PURPOSE: The shortage of trained health care personnel has been increasing worldwide. With the physician assistant (PA) profession, created in the United States in the 1960s, expanding globally, this study sought to ascertain whether PAs can be an innovative solution to this crisis. METHODS: We conducted a convenience sample survey to assess the need for and acceptability of future PA professionals in Guatemala. Eighty-nine doctors, nurses, and community members from rural and urban areas of Guatemala participated in the survey...
September 2017: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816710/establishment-of-primary-cell-culture-from-ascitic-fluid-and-solid-tumor-obtained-from-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-patients
#13
Rajarshi Kar, Diwesh Chawla, Bindiya Gupta, Mohit Mehndiratta, Neelam Wadhwa, Rachna Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer death worldwide. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high rate of relapse and resistance following chemotherapy. In the present study, we describe simple and cost-effective method to establish primary culture from ascitic fluid and solid tumor obtained from epithelial ovarian carcinoma patient, which may provide a better tool for in vitro testing of drug sensitivity and designing individualized treatment protocol. METHODS: Complete Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) was prepared by supplementing DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B)...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816643/pharmacometabolomics-informs-quantitative-radiomics-for-glioblastoma-diagnostic-innovation
#14
Theodora Katsila, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, George P Patrinos, Dimitrios Kardamakis
Applications of omics systems biology technologies have enormous promise for radiology and diagnostics in surgical fields. In this context, the emerging fields of radiomics (a systems scale approach to radiology using a host of technologies, including omics) and pharmacometabolomics (use of metabolomics for patient and disease stratification and guiding precision medicine) offer much synergy for diagnostic innovation in surgery, particularly in neurosurgery. This synthesis of omics fields and applications is timely because diagnostic accuracy in central nervous system tumors still challenges decision-making...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816547/drug-utilization-among-hypertensive-patients-in-the-outpatient-department-of-medicine-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Sarika G Paradkar, Shyamal R Sinha
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal disease. Its increasing prevalence and treatment costs influence the prescribing pattern among physicians. Drug utilization studies provide insights into the current prescribing practices and help us facilitate the rational use of drugs. We carried out the present study to assess the pattern of drug utilization in hypertensive patients. METHOD: Adults seeking treatment for hypertension were recruited...
August 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816107/fishing-anti-inflammatories-from-known-drugs-in-silico-repurposing-design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-bisacodyl-analogues
#16
Maité Sylla-Iyarreta Veitía, Dany Siverio Mota, Vanessa Lerari, Marta Marín, Rosa M Giner, Liliana Vicet Muro, Yankier Rivero Guerra, Françoise Dumas, Clotilde Ferroud, Peter A M de Witte, Alexander D Crawford, Vicente J Arán, Yovani Marrero Ponce
Herein is described in silico repositioning, design, synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of an original class of anti-inflammatory agents based on a polyaromatic pharmacophore structurally related to bisacodyl (BSL) drug used in therapeutic as laxative. We describe the potential of TOMOCOMD-CARDD methods to find out new anti-inflammatory drug-like agents from a diverse series of compounds using the total and local atom based bilinear indices as molecular descriptors. The models obtained were validated by biological studies, identifying BSL as the first anti-inflammatory lead-like using in silico repurposing from commercially available drugs...
August 17, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815727/gender-disparities-among-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-treated-via-endovascular-approach-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#17
Rajkumar Doshi, Priyank Shah, Perwaiz Meraj
BACKGROUND: Remarkable improvement in the treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) has led to changes in revascularization strategies from traditional open surgery to less invasive endovascular management. However, few studies are available on gender disparities in patients with PAD treated via an endovascular approach. This study was designed to analyze gender related differences with respect to in-hospital outcomes in PAD patients. METHODS: Our data was obtained from National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2012 through 2014...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815602/efficacy-and-safety-of-amphotericin-b-formulations-a-network-meta-analysis-and-a-multicriteria-decision-analysis
#18
Fernanda S Tonin, Laiza M Steimbach, Helena H Borba, Andreia C Sanches, Astrid Wiens, Roberto Pontarolo, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos
OBJECTIVES: Despite its broad spectrum, conventional amphotericin B (AB) is associated with serious adverse events. Lipid-based formulations may offer safer options. We aimed to synthesize the evidence of efficacy and safety of AB formulations. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to compare all available formulations: conventional AB; lipid complex or ABLC; colloidal dispersion or ABCD; liposomal or LAB; AB in Intralipid. Randomized controlled trials were searched in four databases...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815430/clinical-evaluation-of-the-antifungal-effect-of-sertraline-in-the-treatment-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-patients-a-single-mexican-center-experience
#19
Hiram Villanueva-Lozano, Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, Gloria M González, Pedro A Hernández-Rodríguez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Luis Castillo-Reyna, Sandra G Galindo-Alvarado, Michel F Martínez-Reséndez
PURPOSE: Cryptococcal meningitis is a potentially fatal fungal infection associated with a significant attributable morbidity and mortality, especially among HIV/AIDS patients. The first-line therapy for the treatment of this clinical entity is the combinatory therapy of amphotericin B plus flucytosine. However, the high cost, toxic effects, and limited repertoire of effective antifungal drugs have led to the investigation of novel molecules. This is a prospective, double-blinded, and randomized study performed in a Mexican tertiary care center to evaluate the antifungal activity of sertraline in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients...
August 16, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815128/a-comparative-study-of-different-methods-for-automatic-identification-of-clopidogrel-induced-bleedings-in-electronic-health-records
#20
Hee-Jin Lee, Min Jiang, Yonghui Wu, Christian M Shaffer, John H Cleator, Eitan A Friedman, Joshua P Lewis, Dan M Roden, Josh Denny, Hua Xu
Electronic health records (EHRs) linked with biobanks have been recognized as valuable data sources for pharmacogenomic studies, which require identification of patients with certain adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from a large population. Since manual chart review is costly and time-consuming, automatic methods to accurately identify patients with ADRs have been called for. In this study, we developed and compared different informatics approaches to identify ADRs from EHRs, using clopidogrel-induced bleeding as our case study...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
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