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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725145/hiv-pharmaceutical-care-in-primary-healthcare-improvement-in-cd4-count-and-reduction-in-drug-related-problems
#1
C G R C Molino, Renata Cavalcanti Carnevale, Aline Teotonio Rodrigues, Patricia Moriel, Priscila Gava Mazzola
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is complex and many factors contribute to a patient's response to initial therapy including adherence, drug effectiveness, and tolerance. Close HAART follow-up is needed, particularly when there are concurrent therapies such as prophylactic antibiotics and medications for the treatment of comorbidities. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of pharmacist intervention in reducing drug related problems in HIV/AIDS outpatients (intervention group) and in improving clinical parameters in the intervention group compared to the control group...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723963/impact-of-thyroid-function-abnormalities-on-reproductive-hormones-during-menstrual-cycle-in-premenopausal-hiv-infected-females-at-nauth-nnewi-nigeria
#2
Nkiruka Rose Ukibe, Solomon Nwabueze Ukibe, Obiageli Fidelia Emelumadu, Chinedum Charles Onyenekwe, Joseph Eberendu Ahaneku, Anthony Osita Igwegbe, Ifeoma Nwamaka Monago, Amobi Linus Ilika
BACKGROUND: This was a prospective study designed to evaluate the impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in HIV infected females at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. METHODS: The study randomly recruited 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females and 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females on antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for not less than six weeks from an HIV clinic and 40 apparently heathy control females among the hospital staff of NAUTH Nnewi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713662/subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-in-a-child-suffering-from-human-immunodeficiency-virus-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-can-this-be-another-instance-of-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#3
Ashutosh Gupta, Suman Kushwaha, Mushbiq Manzoor, Shah Faisal Ahmad Tarfarosh
We report a 12-year-old boy with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who presented with rapidly progressive difficulty in ambulation. The symptoms started to worsen when he was put on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our findings show that the dynamics of HIV-related immune suppression and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have an impact on the clinical course of Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Slow progression is expected in children on HAART but in our case, we observe a complex interaction of the virus with the immune system and modification of disease course of SSPE with ART...
June 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705213/the-therapeutic-landscape-of-hiv-1-via-genome-editing
#4
REVIEW
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako
Current treatment for HIV-1 largely relies on chemotherapy through the administration of antiretroviral drugs. While the search for anti-HIV-1 vaccine remain elusive, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) have been far-reaching and has changed HIV-1 into a manageable chronic infection. There is compelling evidence, including several side-effects of ARTs, suggesting that eradication of HIV-1 cannot depend solely on antiretrovirals. Gene therapy, an expanding treatment strategy, using RNA interference (RNAi) and programmable nucleases such as meganuclease, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas9) are transforming the therapeutic landscape of HIV-1...
July 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702826/head-and-neck-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphomas-hn-dlbcl-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-positive-patients-long-term-results-in-the-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-era
#5
Francesca De Felice, Andrea Di Mino, Lavinia Grapulin, Maria Lusia Mistrulli, Daniela Musio, Vincenzo Tombolini
To report long-term outcomes and toxicity rates after chemotherapy (CHT) followed by radiotherapy (RT) in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with head and neck diffuse large B cell lymphomas (HN-DLBCL). Clinical data concerning consecutive HIV patients treated for DLBCL located in head and neck region with CHT and RT were retrospectively reviewed. Systemic treatment consisted of combination CHT agents given with concomitant HAART and regimen was left to oncologists' discretion...
July 12, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697899/hiv-and-coronary-disease-when-secondary-prevention-is-insufficient
#6
Ana Sofia Carvalho, Rui Osório Valente, Luís Almeida Morais, Pedro Modas Daniel, Ramiro Sá Carvalho, Lurdes Ferreira, Rui Cruz Ferreira
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has created a new paradigm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but their increased risk for coronary disease is well documented. We present the case of a 57-year-old man, co-infected with HIV-2 and hepatitis B virus, adequately controlled and with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, who was admitted with non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography performed on day four of hospital stay documented two-vessel disease (mid segment of the right coronary artery [RCA, 90% stenosis] and the first marginal)...
July 8, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684301/impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-prevalence-of-oral-lesions-in-hiv-positive-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
V L de Almeida, I F P Lima, P K Ziegelmann, L R Paranhos, F R de Matos
The aim of this study was to determine whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The search was conducted in seven electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, Embase, Web of Science, and OpenGrey), without restriction on publication period or language...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683400/azidothymidine-triphosphate-impairs-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-disrupting-the-quality-control-system
#8
Ryosuke Nomura, Takeya Sato, Yuka Sato, Jeffrey A Medin, Shigeki Kushimoto, Teruyuki Yanagisawa
Highly active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) has been used to block the progression and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although it decreases morbidity and mortality, clinical use of HAART has also been linked to various adverse effects such as severe cardiomyopathy resulting from compromised mitochondrial functioning. However, the mechanistic basis for these effects remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a key component of HAART, 3ꞌ-azido-3ꞌ-deoxythymidine (AZT), particularly, its active metabolite AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP), caused mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to induction of cell death in H9c2 cells derived from rat embryonic myoblasts, which serve as a model for cardiomyopathy...
June 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681821/risk-factors-and-frequency-of-tuberculosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-among-hiv-tuberculosis-co-infected-patients-in-southern-india
#9
Ramachandran Vignesh, Chinnambedu R Swathirajan, Sunil S Solomon, Esaki Muthu Shankar, Kailapuri G Murugavel
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) continues to be a complication in HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing IRIS to identify a possible biomarker to predict or diagnose IRIS in patients initiating HAART. A total of 175 HIV/TB co-infected patients initiating HAART were followed up longitudinally during September 2010 to May 2013 attending a HIV care clinic in Chennai...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679441/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-and-primary-drug-resistance-mutations-before-large-scale-access-to-antiretroviral-therapy-republic-of-congo
#10
Fabien Roch Niama, Nicole Vidal, Halimatou Diop-Ndiaye, Etienne Nguimbi, Gabriel Ahombo, Philippe Diakabana, Édith Sophie Bayonne Kombo, Pembe Issamou Mayengue, Simon-Charles Kobawila, Henri Joseph Parra, Coumba Toure-Kane
BACKGROUND: In this work, we investigated the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and the presence of mutations conferring antiretroviral drug resistance in 50 drug-naïve infected persons in the Republic of Congo (RoC). Samples were obtained before large-scale access to HAART in 2002 and 2004. METHODS: To assess the HIV-1 genetic recombination, the sequencing of the pol gene encoding a protease and partial reverse transcriptase was performed and analyzed with updated references, including newly characterized CRFs...
July 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679184/influence-of-hiv-virus-in-the-hospital-stay-and-the-occurrence-of-postoperative-complications-classified-according-to-the-clavien-dindo-classification-and-in-comparison-with-the-charlson-comorbidity-index-in-patients-subjected-to-urologic-and-general-surgery
#11
Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Georgios Karaolanis, Ioannis Katafigiotis, Ioannis Anastasiou, Viktoria-Varvara Palla, Athanasios Kontos, Mordechai Duvdevani, Konstantinos Kontzoglou
OBJECTIVES: From the first time that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered, till today both the quality of life and survival expectancy of HIV-infected patients have markedly improved. As the life expectancy of these patients increases due to the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) also increases the number of HIV-positive patient to be subjected to an operation. Different studies have examined the occurrence of complications in this particular group of patients and their possible susceptibility to infections or other complications that could lead to increased hospital stay, morbidity and mortality with controversial results...
June 30, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677260/correlation-of-cd4-counts-with-clinical-and-histopathological-findings-in-disseminated-histoplasmosis-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#12
Sondang P Sirait, Kusmarinah Bramono, Nathalia Hermanto
BACKGROUND: Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis (DCH) is one of the manifestations of systemic histoplasmosis infection in HIV-positive patients. Interaction between host immune status and histoplasmosis infection is still poorly understood. It is thought that immune status, represented by CD4 counts, may be correlated with clinical and histopathological findings. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the CD4 counts with the different clinical and histopathological findings in cutaneous histoplasmosis...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675993/deficient-phagocytosis-among-hiv-1-infected-adults-over-time-even-in-haart-setting
#13
Olga Tsachouridou, Lemonia Skoura, Dimitris Chatzidimitriou, Apostolia Margariti, Adamantini Georgiou, Maria Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios Bougiouklis, Pantelis Zebekakis, Symeon Metallidis
BACKGROUND: Phagocytosis is regarded to be impaired in HIV-1 infected adults, leading to high frequency and severity of several infections in this population. Data is contradictory with regards to individual facets in HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to assess the phagocytic activity during the natural course of HIV infection. METHOD: It is a longitudinal study assessing natural course and impairment of neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis in both naïve and HAART treated patients...
July 4, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671952/differences-in-serum-iga-responses-to-hiv-1-gp41-in-elite-controllers-compared-to-viral-suppressors-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Rafiq Nabi, Zina Moldoveanu, Qing Wei, Elizabeth T Golub, Helen G Durkin, Ruth M Greenblatt, Betsy C Herold, Marek J Nowicki, Seble Kassaye, Michael W Cho, Abraham Pinter, Alan L Landay, Jiri Mestecky, Pamela A Kozlowski
Mechanisms responsible for natural control of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) replication in elite controllers (EC) remain incompletely defined. To determine if EC generate high quality HIV-specific IgA responses, we used Western blotting to compare the specificities and frequencies of IgA to HIV antigens in serum of gender-, age- and race-matched EC and aviremic controllers (HC) and viremic noncontrollers (HN) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Concentrations and avidity of IgA to HIV antigens were measured using ELISA or multiplex assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658836/upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-due-to-idiopathic-oesophageal-ulceration-in-the-era-of-haart-a-vanishing-yet-pernicious-aetiology
#15
Sofia Nigar, Tagore Sunkara, Mel A Ona, Vinaya Gaduputi, Madhavi Reddy
Oesophageal ulcers are a rare cause of upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding (GIB). In patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), oesophageal diseases including oesophageal ulcers are very common. Idiopathic Oesophageal Ulcers (IOU) comprises a subgroup of oesophageal ulcers with no identifiable cause. IOU mainly present as odynophagia, retrosternal chest pain, decreased oral intake, and weight loss. Upper GIB is a rare presentation. In the era of Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART), with improvement in CD4 count, this entity is almost forgotten...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655682/distal-sensory-polyneuropathy-among-hiv-infected-patients-at-parakou-university-hospital-benin-2011
#16
T A Adoukonou, P Kouna-Ndouongo, A Kpangon, D Gnonlonfoun, B Kpacha, A Dovonou, D Houinato
Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most frequent neurological complication among HIV patients, and its risk increases with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We aimed to assess the prevalence of DSP and the factors associated with it among HIV-infected outpatients treated at Parakou University Hospital. This cross-sectional study took place from April 15 to July 15, 2011, and included 262 patients. All patients underwent a neurological examination by two neurologists with training and clinical experience in these examinations and in the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screening (BPNS), which was the primary tool used here...
June 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655306/multi-state-models-for-the-analysis-of-time-to-treatment-modification-among-hiv-patients-under-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-southwest-ethiopia
#17
Belay Birlie, Roel Braekers, Tadesse Awoke, Adetayo Kasim, Ziv Shkedy
BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has shown a dramatic change in controlling the burden of HIV/AIDS. However, the new challenge of HAART is to allow long-term sustainability. Toxicities, comorbidity, pregnancy, and treatment failure, among others, would result in frequent initial HAART regimen change. The aim of this study was to evaluate the durability of first line antiretroviral therapy and to assess the causes of initial highly active antiretroviral therapeutic regimen changes among patients on HAART...
June 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651014/a-decade-of-haart-in-latin-america-long-term-outcomes-among-the-first-wave-of-hiv-patients-to-receive-combination-therapy
#18
Marcelo J Wolff, Mark J Giganti, Claudia P Cortes, Pedro Cahn, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Jean W Pape, Denis Padgett, Juan Sierra-Madero, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Stephany N Duda, Catherine C McGowan, Bryan E Shepherd
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, the first wave of HIV-infected patients initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) 10 or more years ago. Characterizing their treatment experience and corresponding outcomes across a decade of HAART may yield insights relevant to the ongoing care of such patients and those initiating HAART more recently in similar clinical settings. METHODS: This retrospective study included adults initiating HAART before 2004 at 8 sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, and Mexico...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646196/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-nrtis-induce-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-the-cns-via-wnt5a-signaling
#19
Ting Wu, Juan Zhang, Mingxing Geng, Shao-Jun Tang, Wenping Zhang, Jianhong Shu
HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication in patients. However, patients staying on long-term HAART still develop various HIV-associated neurological disorders, even when the viral load is low. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. Emerging evidence implicated that persistent neuroinflammation plays an important role in NeuroAIDS. Although residual virus or viral proteins are commonly thought as the causal factors, we are interested in the alternative possibility that HAART critically contributes to the neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633734/cutaneous-hiv-associated-kaposi-sarcoma-a-potential-setting-for-management-by-clinical-observation
#20
Surget V Beatrous, Stratton B Grisoli, Ryan R Riahi, Philip R Cohen
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a malignancy of viral etiology whose course ranges from cutaneous limited lesions to fulminant disease with multi-organ involvement. Four clinical variants of the disease exist: classic, endemic, iatrogenic, and epidemic. Iatrogenic and epidemic variants of Kaposi sarcoma develop in the setting of immune suppression. Transplant recipients who develop iatrogenic KS typically demonstrate improvement of lesions following de-escalation of immunosuppressive therapy. Similarly, HIV-infected patients who begin highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experience immune reconstitution, which can induce KS regression...
June 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
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