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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434718/farnesyltransferase-inhibitors-prevent-hiv-protease-inhibitor-lopinavir-ritonavir-induced-lipodystrophy-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#1
Tomokazu Tanaka, Harumasa Nakazawa, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has successfully reduced the mortality rate of patients with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) are key components of HAART. Complications of HAART, particularly those associated with HIV PIs including lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbance, have emerged as an important public health issue. No specific treatment is available to prevent and/or treat HIV PI-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome. The present study demonstrated that a relatively low-dose of farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), tipifarnib (3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection) and lonafarnib (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection), prevented the onset of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome induced by the combination of two HIV PIs, lopinavir (50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) and ritonavir (12...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434676/plasma-levels-of-lipopolysaccharide-correlate-with-insulin-resistance-in-hiv-patients
#2
Marcelo Nardi Pedro, Daniela Oliveira Magro, Elizabete Urbano Pinaço Pinto da Silva, Dioze Guadagnini, Andrey Santos, Rogerio de Jesus Pedro, Mario José Abdalla Saad
Background: In HIV patients using HAART insulin resistance is a central pathophysiological condition that can contribute to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular complications. To examine the role of adipocyte hormones and LPS in insulin resistance in HIV patients, we investigated the role of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and LPS levels in the insulin resistance of HIV-infected patients treated with HAART. Methods: This study included 67 HIV positive individuals on HAART and ten healthy controls...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430124/incidental-global-hypometabolism-in-the-brain-of-patient-with-aids-related-dementia-seen-on-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#3
Priyanka Verma, Ramesh V Asopa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related dementia is the most severe form of neurocognitive disorder in patients with AIDS. It is relatively uncommon in postantiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and is associated with a high cerebrospinal fluid CSF/plasma viral load. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in malignancies, infections, and central nervous system lesions in HIV-infected patients and has been used to explore regional cerebral glucose metabolism patterns in HIV-positive patients with and without cognitive impairment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429030/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-nrtis-induce-pathological-pain-through-wnt5a-mediated-neuroinflammation-in-aging-mice
#4
Subo Yuan, Yuqiang Shi, Kaiwen Guo, Shao-Jun Tang
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has significantly contributed to the increase of HIV-infected survivors over 50 years of age. Unfortunately, patients are required to stay on long-term HAART, which may be causally related to the development of neurological problems such as chronic pain. Little is known about the contribution of HAART or its therapeutic agents to the pathogenesis of pain during aging. In this study, we determined the effect of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) on the development of mechanical allodynia and the potential underlying mechanism in aging mice (15...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425211/effectiveness-of-a-bioactive-food-compound-in-anthropometric-measures-of-individuals-with-hiv-aids-a-nonrandomized-trial
#5
Rosângela Dos Santos Ferreira, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury Pontes, Lígia Aurélio Bezerra Maranhão Mendonça, Karine de Cássia Freitas, Priscila Aiko Hiane
BACKGROUND: Highly Active Antiretroviral therapy (HAART) promotes anthropometric changes in lipid metabolism and glucose in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Functional foods play an important role on metabolism. Bioactive Food Compound (BFC) has shown effective results in changes arising from decompensated lipid metabolism due to the effects of HAART on HIV patients. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate anthropometric indicators and the body composition of patients undergoing HAART before and after consumption of BFC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417417/arterial-inflammation-in-young-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-cross-sectional-study-using-f-18-fdg-pet-ct
#6
Ismaheel O Lawal, Alfred O Ankrah, Gbenga O Popoola, Thabo Lengana, Mike M Sathekge
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with the risk of development of atherosclerosis at a younger age. We compared arterial inflammation in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with otherwise low-risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) using FDG PET/CT. METHODS: 242 patients aged 18-40 years with low-risk factors for CVD consisting of 121 HIV-infected patients and 121 HIV-uninfected age- and gender-matched controls were studied, mean age = 34.95 ± 5...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415435/review-of-current-cell-penetrating-antibody-developments-for-hiv-1-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Muhamad Alif Che Nordin, Sin-Yeang Teow
The discovery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 has significantly reduced the global mortality and morbidity caused by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the therapeutic strategy of HAART that targets multiple viral proteins may render off-target toxicity and more importantly results in drug-resistant escape mutants. These have been the main challenges for HAART and refinement of this therapeutic strategy is urgently needed. Antibody-mediated treatments are emerging therapeutic modalities for various diseases...
February 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413205/common-gastrointestinal-complications-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-aids-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Vincent P Hall
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS into a manageable chronic illness. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) can experience multiple physical symptoms or problems related to HIV infection and treatment. A common problem for PLWHA continues to be diarrhea and nausea and vomiting (NV). Diarrhea and NV can negatively impact the quality of life and adherence to medication therapy among PLWHA and are common reasons to change or discontinue HAART regimens...
March 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411625/mortality-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-modern-haart-era
#9
Danielle M Smith, Kate A Salters, Oghenowede Eyawo, Conrado Franco-Villalobos, Shahab Jabbari, Sam M Wiseman, Natasha Press, Julio S G Montaner, S F Paul Man, Mark Hull, Robert S Hogg
People living with HIV (PLWHA) with adequate access to modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are living longer and experiencing reduced AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. However, increases in non-AIDS related conditions, such as certain cancers, have accompanied these therapeutic advances over time. As such, our study objective was to determine the impact of HIV on all-cause and lung cancer-specific mortality amongst PLWHA with diagnoses of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and HIV-negative individuals with NSCLC...
February 7, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411528/alterations-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-patients-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome
#10
Youlian Zhou, Zhitao Ou, Xiaoping Tang, Yongjian Zhou, Haoming Xu, Xianfei Wang, Kang Li, Jie He, Yanlei Du, Hong Wang, Ye Chen, Yuqiang Nie
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation and changes in the gut microbiota. Here, we aim to investigate the gut microbiota patterns of HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected individuals in populations from South China. We enrolled 33 patients with HIV (14 participants treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] for more than 3 months; the remaining 19 individuals had not received treatment) and 35 healthy controls (HC) for a cross-sectional comparison of gut microbiota using stool samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398759/tubercular-mycobacterial-spindle-cell-pseudotumour-a-case-report
#11
Deba Prasad Dhibar, Kamal Kant Sahu, Surjit Singh, Amanjit Bal, Abhijit Chougale, Varun Dhir
Pseudotumour is a benign inflammatory lesion. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumour (MSP) is a rare pseudotumour. It is a benign proliferation of spindle-shaped histiocytes containing acid-fast mycobacterium, commonly reported in immunocompromised patients. MSP is usually associated with mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Here, we present the case of a 38-year-old gentleman with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who presented with low-grade fever for 1-month duration. Clinically, he had generalised lymphadenopathy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392418/comparative-effects-of-acute-methionine-loading-on-the-plasma-sulfur-amino-acids-in-nac-supplemented-hiv-patients-and-healthy-controls
#12
Roberto Carlos Burini, Maria Doroteia Borges-Santos, Fernando Moreto, Yong- Ming Yu
In this study, an acute overloading of methionine (MetLo) was used to investigate the trassulfuration pathway response comparing healthy controls and HIV+ patients under their usual diet and dietary N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) supplementation. MetLo (0.1 g Met/kg mass weight) was given after overnight fasting to 20 non-HIV+ control subjects (Co) and 12 HIV+ HAART-treated patients. Blood samples were taken before and after the MetLo in two different 7-day dietary situations, with NAC (1 g/day) or with their usual diet (UD)...
February 1, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390909/colpocytological-abnormalities-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-pregnant-women-prevalence-persistence-and-progression
#13
Carmine Carriero, Fabiana Divina Fascilla, Paola Cramarossa, Achiropita Lepera, Stefano Bettocchi, Antonella Vimercati
In this retrospective case-control study, we analyse data of 48 HIV-positive pregnant patients, versus a control group of 99 HIV-negative pregnant women, followed as outpatients by our department from 2009 to 2014. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence, persistence and progression of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in each group and to correlate colpo-cytological lesions to the socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory findings in the HIV + pregnant women. In our study we observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390523/efficacy-of-eculizumab-in-an-adult-patient-with-hiv-associated-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Marine Freist, Cyril Garrouste, Nora Szlavik, Paul Coppo, Alexandre Lautrette, Anne Elisabeth Heng
INTRODUCTION: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive patients has become a rare cause of kidney injury since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Plasma exchange and antiretroviral therapy were previously recommended but often failed to achieve remission. We report a case of HUS in a HIV-positive patient treated successfully with eculizumab. CASE SUMMARY: A 52-year-old woman presented to hospital with acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and hypoxemia...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381563/cytomegalovirus-encephalitis-in-the-post-haart-era-is-there-a-gold-standard-for-treatment
#15
Maria E Ceballos, Ignacio Rodriguez, Patricio Sandoval, Eduardo Abbot, Jaime Labarca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380908/type-specific-persistence-and-clearance-rates-of-hpv-genotypes-in-the-oral-and-oropharyngeal-mucosa-in-an-hiv-aids-cohort
#16
Itzel Castillejos-García, Velia Ramírez-Amador, Adela Carrillo-García, Alejandro García-Carrancá, Marcela Lizano, Gabriela Anaya-Saavedra
BACKGROUND: Oral high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections are frequent and persistent among HIV-positive population and are associated with an increased risk for head and neck cancer (HNC). In this study, we sought to determine the incidence, persistence, and clearance of HPV-infections in oral and oropharyngeal samples from HIV/AIDS subjects. METHODS: A longitudinal, observational, and analytical study was performed with an ongoing cohort of HIV/AIDS subjects in Mexico City (September 2013-February 2015)...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380667/skin-diseases-in-the-era-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-a-retrospective-study-of-534-patients
#17
Jennifer Tan, Ana Pina, João Borges-Costa
BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the shift in their dermatologic profile becomes less characteristic of AIDS-defining illnesses. METHODS: Retrospective review of mucocutaneous pathology among patients seen at HIV-Dermatology Clinic from January 2009 to December 2013. RESULTS: Among 534 patients, there were 68.4% males and 31.6% females, with 8.7-year average duration of infection; 82...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379004/pneumomediastinum-and-pneumothorax-associated-with-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-pneumonia
#18
Fermín López-Rivera, Xavier Colón Rivera, Hernán A González Monroig, Juan Garcia Puebla
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death from infectious disease in the United States (US). Although most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are secondary to bacterial infection, up to one-third of cases are secondary to viral infection, most commonly due to rhinovirus and influenza virus. Pneumonia due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is rare, and there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis and clinical complications. This report is of a fatal case of HSV pneumonia associated with bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373764/-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-secondary-to-cytomegalovirus-encephalitis-a-case-report
#19
Luis Guillermo Uribe, María Alejandra Pérez, Camilo Andrés Lara, Natalia Rueda, Javier Augusto Hernández
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the opportunistic microorganisms with the highest prevalence in immunocompromised patients. Reactivation has decreased after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Encephalitis has been reported in the coinfection as one of the most frequent presentations.We present the case of a young adult patient with HIV infection and rapid neurological deterioration due to classic clinical symptoms and signs of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, with no risk factors for thiamine deficiency, with images by nuclear magnetic resonance typical of the syndrome, and identification of cytomegalovirus in cerebrospinal fluid...
December 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372000/highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-alters-sperm-parameters-and-testicular-antioxidant-status-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#20
Ibukun P Oyeyipo, Bongekile T Skosana, Frans P Everson, Hans Strijdom, Stefan S du Plessis
The efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to an increase demand for therapeutic use, thereby necessitating investigation into drug toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of HAART on sperm parameters and testicular oxidative stress in lean and obese rats. Wistar rats (males, n = 40, weighing 180~200 g) were assigned randomly into 4 groups and treated accordingly for 16 weeks as follows: Control (C): lean group fed with standard rat chow; Diet induced obesity (DIO): obese animals fed a high caloric diet; C + ART: lean animals treated with HAART; DIO + ART: obese animals treated with HAART...
January 2018: Toxicological Research
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