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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104604/hiv-infection-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-mice
#1
Patrick Geraghty, Eran Hadas, Boe-Hyun Kim, Abdoulaye J Dabo, David J Volsky, Robert Foronjy
Cigarette smoke usage is prevalent in HIV+ patients and, despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), these individuals develop an accelerated form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies investigating the mechanisms of COPD development in HIV have been limited by the lack of suitable mouse models. Here we describe a model of HIV induced COPD in wild type mice using EcoHIV, a chimeric HIV capable of establishing chronic infection in immunocompetent mice. A/J mice were infected with EcoHIV and subjected to whole body cigarette smoke exposure...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103790/microrna-146a-rs2910164-is-associated-with-severe-preeclampsia-in-black-south-african-women-on-haart
#2
Niren Ray Maharaj, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Siddharthiya Pillay, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
BACKGROUND: South African (SA) Black women have a high prevalence of preeclampsia and HIV, both conditions associated with increased inflammation. miR-146a is an inflammatory-associated miR and a common single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2910164) has been associated with several disease conditions. To date, this SNP has not been investigated in SA Black women. We therefore aimed to investigate the miR-146a G > C SNP in SA Blacks with preeclampsia, and further examine possible association among preeclamptic (PE) women with HIV infection on HAART...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102939/what-is-the-relationship-between-increased-access-to-haart-relationship-status-and-fertility-decisions-amongst-hiv-positive-women-a-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Abigail Burgess, Edward Purssell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between fertility decisions, to have already had a child or to desire to have one in the future, and the prognostic factors of; access to antiretrovirals, the time since these became widely available (year of the study) and relationship status. BACKGROUND: There have been significant advances in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) with the advent of antiretroviral therapy which has been used to successfully reduce the rate of mother to child transmission; leading researchers to hypothesise that HIV positive women may desire to have children more so now than in the past...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100903/rhodoccocus-equi-pneumonia-and-paradoxical-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids
#4
Ritika Zijoo, Ahmed Dirweesh, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CASE REPORT A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099739/associations-between-hiv-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-and-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-among-maternal-deaths-in-south-africa-2011-2013
#5
Hannah M Sebitloane, Jagidesa Moodley, Benn Sartorius
OBJECTIVE: To explore potential relationships between HIV and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A retrospective secondary analysis of maternal-deaths data from the 2011-2013 Saving Mothers Report from South Africa. The incidence of HIV infection amongst individuals who died owing to HDP was determined and comparisons were made based on HIV status and the use of HAART. RESULTS: Among 4452 maternal deaths recorded in the Saving Mothers report, a lower risk of a maternal deaths being due to HDP was observed among women who had HIV infections compared with women who did not have HIV (relative risk [RR] 0...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095491/pro-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-pregnant-women-with-and-without-preeclampsia
#6
Niren Ray Maharaj, Alisa Phulukdaree, Savania Nagiah, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Charlette Tiloke, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia and HIV/AIDS are inflammatory conditions that contribute significantly to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. The immune reconstitution effects of HAART on inflammatory mediators has not been adequately studied in pregnancy and may impact on the inflammatory cytokine network in women with co-morbid preeclampsia. Our study evaluated changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 in HIV infected preeclamptic women on HAART. METHODS: A prospective experimental study was conducted at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital between July 2013 and September 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094666/stage-iv-advanced-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-with-achieving-cure-by-using-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-alone-a-case-report
#7
Do Hyoung Lim, Ji-Young Rhee, Keon Woo Park
After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there has been a decrease in the incidence of lymphoma among the HIV-infected population and also significantly improved survival rates. We describe a remarkable case of an HIV-infected patient with advanced stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), completely regressed with the use of HAART alone. He remained disease-free for 6 years and he achieved cure without chemotherapy. Although several cases of low-grade lymphoma with complete regression were reported, we could not find any case of stage IV high-grade malignant lymphoma with HAART alone in complete remission for over 5 years from our review of the literature...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093460/a-double-edged-sword-does-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-contribute-to-syphilis-incidence-by-impairing-immunity-to-treponema-pallidum
#8
REVIEW
Michael L Rekart, Wilfred Ndifon, Robert C Brunham, Jonathan Dushoff, Sang Woo Park, Sanjana Rawat, Caroline E Cameron
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Recently, the world has experienced a rapidly escalating outbreak of infectious syphilis primarily affecting men who have sex with men (MSM); many are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection. The prevailing hypothesis is that HAART availability and effectiveness have led to the perception among both individuals who are HIV-1 infected and those who are uninfected that HIV-1 transmission has become much less likely, and the effects of HIV-1 infection less deadly...
January 16, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093459/syphilis-and-hiv-is-haart-at-the-heart-of-this-epidemic
#9
EDITORIAL
Susan Tuddenham, Maunank Shah, Khalil G Ghanem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090819/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-rates-with-pyrimethamine-based-therapy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Mark P Connolly, Elizabeth Goodwin, Carina Schey, Jacqueline Zummo
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection and can be a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. This study evaluated the rate of relapse associated with pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy (i.e. secondary prophylaxis) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDs treated prior to and after the common use (i.e. 1996) of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (pre-HAART and post-HAART, respectively). PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched to 6 June 2016 using search terms: pyrimethamine, Daraprim, Fansidar, Metakelfin, Fansimef, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, encephalitis, cerebral, toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmic, and gondii...
January 16, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086758/toxoplasmosis-associated-iris-involving-the-cns-a-case-report-with-longitudinal-analysis-of-t-cell-subsets
#11
Rita Rb-Silva, Claudia Nobrega, Eugénia Reiriz, Soraia Almeida, Rui Sarmento-Castro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Ana Horta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system (CNS-IRIS) is challenging due to heterogeneous manifestations, absence of biomarkers to identify this condition, risk of long-term sequelae and high mortality...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065185/predictors-of-immunodeficiency-related-death-in-a-cohort-of-low-income-people-living-with-hiv-a-competing-risks-survival-analysis
#12
M F P M Albuquerque, D N Alves, C C Bresani Salvi, J D L Batista, R A A Ximenes, D B Miranda-Filho, H R L Melo, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064549/mother-to-child-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-on-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-with-premature-rupture-of-membranes-at-term
#13
George Uchenna Eleje, Emeka Stephen Edokwe, Joseph Ifeanyichukwu Ikechebelu, Chinyere Ukamaka Onubogu, Ebele Francesca Ugochukwu, Princeston Chukwuemeka Okam, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe
PURPOSE: To determine mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate and associated risk factors of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) among HIV-infected pregnant women with term premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in comparison with those without PROM at term. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All optimally managed HIV-positive pregnant women of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) who had PROM at term were enrolled. Maternal HIV-1 viral load was not assessed...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064418/novel-antiretroviral-drugs-in-patients-with-renal-impairment-clinical-and-pharmacokinetic-considerations
#14
Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically increased the survival of HIV-infected patients from Western countries reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections and AIDS-related malignancies, and improving the patients' quality of life compared with the pre-HAART era. HIV is thus now considered in the West as a chronic disease, with the majority of HIV-infected patients successfully reaching an optimal immune and virological outcome a few months after starting HAART. However, this switch from acute to chronic disease has been accompanied by an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), reported in up to 60% of HIV-infected patients...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053556/assessment-of-the-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-renal-and-liver-functions-among-hiv-infected-patients-a-retrospective-study
#15
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Mikiyas Gebremichael, Gebrehawaria Birhane, Wabe Kedir, Belete Biadgo
BACKGROUND: The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved quality of life in prolonging survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on treatment in developed as well as developing countries. However, the main shortcoming of HAART in long-term use is its potential to cause liver and kidney derangements that may be life threatening. The drugs are actively accumulated in the proximal renal tubule resulting in functional disturbance with mitochondrial injury being one of the most important targets recognized...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049455/effectiveness-of-isoniazid-preventative-therapy-in-reducing-incidence-of-active-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-public-health-facilities-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-historical-cohort-study
#16
Mahlet Semu, Teferi Gedif Fenta, Girmay Medhin, Dawit Assefa
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic has exacerbated tuberculosis disease especially in Sub-Saharan African countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have recommended Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) for HIV infected patients to reduce the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Ethiopia has been implementing IPT since 2007. However, effectiveness of IPT in averting occurrence of active tuberculosis among HIV infected patients has not been assessed...
January 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043197/zidovudine-versus-tenofovir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-for-the-initial-treatment-of-hiv-infection-in-the-ethnic-minority-region-of-liangshan-prefecture-sichuan-province-china
#17
Cedric P Cheung, Wen Hong Lai, Jonathan Shuter
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir (TDF)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), as recommended by the World Health Organization guidelines for HIV-naive patients, has been limited in resource-constrained settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zidovudine-(ZDV) versus TDF-based HAART in the Yi minority region of Sichuan Province, China at a single HIV treatment center. METHODS: The primary end point was the attainment of an HIV viral load <50 copies/mL...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043176/pilot-feasibility-study-of-heart2haart-a-smartphone-application-to-assist-with-adherence-among-substance-users-living-with-hiv
#18
Seth Himelhoch, Julie Kreyenbuhl, Jessica Palmer-Bacon, Michael Chu, Clayton Brown, Wendy Potts
BACKGROUND: Smartphones with programmable apps may offer innovative interactive interventions for improving adherence among people living with HIV with substance use problems. METHODS: This pilot randomized controlled trial sought to primarily determine the usability and feasibility of using a smartphone-based intervention called Heart2HAART as an adjunct to directly observed treatment with adherence counseling compared to directly observed treatment with adherence counseling alone among those with HIV and a history of substance use over a three-month time frame...
January 3, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042354/simplification-of-haart-therapy-on-ambulatory-hiv-patients-in-malaysia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Tineshwaran Velvanathan, Farida Islahudin, Benedict L Sim, Nur A Taha
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of fixed-dose combination (FDC) containing emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir (TDF), and efavirenz (EFV) versus a free-dose combination (FRC) of the same three drugs on clinical outcomes, adherence and quality of life in Malaysian outpatients with HIV. METHODS: HIV patients (n=120) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the infectious disease clinic of Hospital Sungai Buloh were randomized to either FDC (n=60) or FRC (n=60)...
October 2016: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039275/qualitative-and-quantitative-hiv-antibodies-and-viral-reservoir-size-characterization-in-vertically-infected-children-with-virological-suppression
#20
Josephine Brice, Mariam Sylla, Sophie Sayon, Fatoumata Telly, Djeneba Bocar-Fofana, Robert Murphy, Sidonie Lambert-Niclot, Eve Todesco, Maxime Grude, Francis Barin, Souleymane Diallo, Deenan Pillay, Anne Derache, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Almoustapha Issiaka Maiga
BACKGROUND: Absence of detectable viraemia after treatment cessation in some vertically HIV-infected (VHIV) children suggests that early initiation of HAART could lead to functional cure. OBJECTIVES: We described the factors associated with HIV antibody levels and the viral reservoir size in HAART-treated VHIV children. METHODS: Study included 97 VHIV children with virological suppression, in Bamako, Mali. The anti-gp41 antibody activities and HIV serostatus were assessed...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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