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street involved youth

Annalee Yassi, Jennifer Beth Spiegel, Karen Lockhart, Lynn Fels, Katherine Boydell, Judith Marcuse
Academics from diverse disciplines are recognizing not only the procedural ethical issues involved in research, but also the complexity of everyday "micro" ethical issues that arise. While ethical guidelines are being developed for research in aboriginal populations and low-and-middle-income countries, multi-partnered research initiatives examining arts-based interventions to promote social change pose a unique set of ethical dilemmas not yet fully explored. Our research team, comprising health, education, and social scientists, critical theorists, artists and community-activists launched a five-year research partnership on arts-for-social change...
2016: Journal of Academic Ethics
Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
While risky sexual behaviours related to illicit drug use among street youth have been explored, the impacts of alcohol use have received less attention. This longitudinal study examined hazardous alcohol use among a population of street-involved youth, with particular attention to sexual and drug-related risk behaviours. Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. The outcome of interest was hazardous alcohol use defined by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...
August 18, 2016: AIDS Care
Ted R Miller, Bruce A Lawrence, Nancy N Carlson, Delia Hendrie, Sean Randall, Ian R H Rockett, Rebecca S Spicer
OBJECTIVE: To count and characterise injuries resulting from legal intervention by US law enforcement personnel and injury ratios per 10 000 arrests or police stops, thus expanding discussion of excessive force by police beyond fatalities. DESIGN: Ecological. POPULATION: Those injured during US legal police intervention as recorded in 2012 Vital Statistics mortality census, 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project nationwide inpatient and emergency department samples, and two 2015 newspaper censuses of deaths...
July 25, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Kora DeBeck, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Sabina Dobrer, Kanna Hayashi, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
David B Nicholas, Amanda S Newton, Christopher Kilmer, Avery Calhoun, Margaret A deJong-Berg, Kathryn Dong, Faye Hamilton, Anne Marie McLaughlin, Janki Shankar, Peter Smyth
Street-involved (SI) youth represent a significant proportion of urban homeless populations. While previous research has identified SI youth as substantial users of emergency department (ED) services and has examined their experiences of ED care, little is known about the experiences and perceptions of the service providers who assist these youth with health care related issues. Using grounded theory, individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with 20 community agency staff serving SI youth, 17 health service providers, two hospital administrators, and two hospital security personnel regarding their experiences in providing or facilitating ED care for SI youth...
August 2016: Social Work in Health Care
Kanna Hayashi, Ben Daly-Grafstein, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
OBJECTIVES: Street-involved youth are highly vulnerable to violence. While involvement in income-generating activities within illicit drug scenes is recognized as shaping youths' vulnerability to violence, the relative contributions of different income-generating activities remain understudied. We sought to examine the independent effects of drug dealing and sex work on experiencing violence among street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26 who used drugs in Vancouver, British Columbia, between September 2005 and May 2014...
2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Kirk Hepburn, Brittany Barker, Paul Nguyen, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth who use drugs may have limited income-generation options and are known to commonly become immersed in illicit drug markets to generate funds. However, little attention has been given to factors that may drive drug dealing initiation among this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study examines drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study from September 2005 to November 2014; a prospective cohort of 194 street-involved youth who use drugs aged 14-26, in Vancouver, Canada...
June 17, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Adam J Milam, Shani A Buggs, C Debra M Furr-Holden, Philip J Leaf, Catherine P Bradshaw, Daniel Webster
Among youth 15 to 24 years of age, homicide and nonfatal shootings are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Urban youth's attitudes and perceptions about the use of gun violence to resolve conflict present a major barrier to efforts to reduce gun homicides and nonfatal shootings. The current investigation extends the existing literature on attitudes toward guns and shootings among high-risk youth ages 18 to 24 by measuring perceived norms and viewpoints regarding gun violence in two analogous Baltimore City neighborhoods pre-implementation and 1-year post-implementation of the Safe Streets intervention (adapted from the CeaseFire/Cure Violence intervention)...
August 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Dustin Nabhan, Taylor Walden, Jenna Street, Heather Linden, Bill Moreau
BACKGROUND: To describe injury and illness incidence from the US Youth Olympic Team during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games (YOG). METHODS: Electronic health records of Team USA athletes registered for the YOG were reviewed for patient encounters during the 2014 YOG. Medical encounters were defined as all medical services provided by a healthcare provider including evaluation, treatment and prophylactic services. All medical conditions were categorised by IOC Injury and Illness reporting criteria...
June 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Lonnie Embleton, Hana Lee, Jayleen Gunn, David Ayuku, Paula Braitstein
IMPORTANCE: A systematic compilation of children and youth's reported reasons for street involvement is lacking. Without empirical data on these reasons, the policies developed or implemented to mitigate street involvement are not responsive to the needs of these children and youth. OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze the self-reported reasons why children and youth around the world become street-involved and to analyze the available data by level of human development, geographic region, and sex...
May 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Rebecca Zivanovic, John Omura, Evan Wood, Paul Nguyen, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
Loss of housing and income assistance among vulnerable youth has not been well described in the literature, yet it is a crucial issue for public health. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of loss of income assistance as well as eviction among street-involved youth. We collected data from a prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26. Among 770 participants, 64.3 per cent reported having housing and 77.1 per cent reported receiving income assistance at some point during the study period...
May 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
James J Logan, Ann M Jolly, Justine I Blanford
Control of sexually transmitted infections and blood-borne pathogens is challenging due to their presence in groups exhibiting complex social interactions. In particular, sharing injection drug use equipment and selling sex (prostitution) puts people at high risk. Previous work examining the involvement of risk behaviours in social networks has suggested that social and geographic distance of persons within a group contributes to these pathogens' endemicity. In this study, we examine the role of place in the connectedness of street people, selected by respondent driven sampling, in the transmission of blood-borne and sexually transmitted pathogens...
2016: PloS One
Lauren E Joly, Jennifer Connolly
Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24-0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0...
2016: Behavioral Sciences
Tessa Cheng, Thomas Kerr, Will Small, Paul Nguyen, Evan Wood, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Previous research has found a range of barriers to mainstream employment among street-involved youth; however, less is known about the characteristics of street-involved youth who engage in risky income generation and the potential role of substance use in perpetuating engagement in these activities. METHODS: Data were collected between 2005 and 2012 from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), which is a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada...
February 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Brittany Barker, Thomas Kerr, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Kora DeBeck
While the link between educational attainment and future health and wellness is well understood, little investigation has considered the potential impacts of distinct forms of childhood maltreatment on high school completion. In the present study, the relationship between five categories of childhood maltreatment (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect) and completion of high school education were examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). From September 2005 to May 2013, data were collected for the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved young people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
December 28, 2015: Health & Social Care in the Community
Mark Phillips, Lindsey Richardson, Evan Wood, Paul Nguyen, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Addiction severity has been associated with numerous social- and health-related harms. This study sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of high-intensity drug use among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting with a focus on high-risk drug use practices and health service access. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a Vancouver-based prospective cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26. We used generalized estimating equations to examine variables associated with high-intensity drug use, defined as daily use of crack cocaine, cocaine, heroin, or crystal methamphetamine...
2015: Substance Use & Misuse
Jeff M Kretschmar, Fredrick Butcher, Patrick J Kanary, Rebecca Devens
Discusses how Ohio's responded to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system by establishing the Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative. The consequences of a willful neglect of some of our most vulnerable citizens were significant and severe. Many individuals ended up on the streets, and many more found themselves in local jails. Over time, jails became de facto mental health facilities. Unfortunately, jails were, and often continue to be, ill-prepared to effectively screen, assess, and treat individuals with mental health concerns...
November 2015: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
B Barker, G T Alfred, K Fleming, P Nguyen, E Wood, T Kerr, K DeBeck
OBJECTIVES: Past research has identified risk factors associated with incarceration among adult Aboriginal populations; however, less is known about incarceration among street-involved Aboriginal youth. Therefore, we undertook this study to longitudinally investigate recent reports of incarceration among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were collected from a cohort of street-involved, drug-using youth from September 2005 to May 2013...
December 2015: Public Health
Michelle Lynk, Elizabeth McCay, Celina Carter, Andria Aiello, Faith Donald
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this secondary analysis was to identify factors associated with engagement of street-involved youth in a Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT) intervention. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional correlational study. Youth were recruited from two agencies providing services to street-involved youth in Canada. Mental health indicators were selected for this secondary analysis to gain a better understanding of characteristics that may account for levels of engagement...
2015: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Kira Tozer, Despina Tzemis, Ashraf Amlani, Larissa Coser, Darlene Taylor, Natasha Van Borek, Elizabeth Saewyc, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: The Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) project aimed to identify factors associated with the prevention of transitioning to injection drug use (IDU) among street-involved youth (youth who had spent at least 3 consecutive nights without a fixed address or without their parents/caregivers in the previous six months) aged 16-24 years in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia. METHODS: Ten focus groups were conducted by youth collaborators (peer-researchers) with street-involved youth (n = 47) from November 2009-April 2010...
2015: BMC Public Health
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