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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336931/impact-of-crack-cocaine-use-on-the-occurrence-of-oral-lesions-and-micronuclei
#1
R P Antoniazzi, F B Lago, L C Jardim, M R Sagrillo, K L Ferrazzo, C A Feldens
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of oral lesions and micronuclei in crack cocaine users. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 106 crack users and 106 non-users matched for age, sex, and tobacco use. Socio-demographic characteristics, the consumption of psychoactive substances, and the occurrence of fundamental lesions were investigated. Cellular changes in the oral mucosa (karyolysis, karyorrhexis, 'broken egg' events, and micronuclei) were determined by exfoliative cytology for 54 participants in each group...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329438/patient-perspectives-on-how-physicians-communicate-diagnostic-uncertainty-an-experimental-vignette-study
#2
Viraj Bhise, Ashley N D Meyer, Shailaja Menon, Geeta Singhal, Richard L Street, Traber D Giardina, Hardeep Singh
Objective: We evaluated the effects of three different strategies for communicating diagnostic uncertainty on patient perceptions of physician competence and visit satisfaction. Design/Setting: Experimental vignette-based study design involving pediatric cases presented to a convenience sample of parents living in a large US city. Participants/Intervention(s): Three vignettes were developed, each describing one of three different ways physicians communicated diagnostic uncertainty to parents-(i) explicit expression of uncertainty ('not sure' about diagnosis), (ii) implicit expression of uncertainty using broad differential diagnoses and (iii) implicit expression of uncertainty using 'most likely' diagnoses...
January 10, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329016/non-linear-effects-of-the-built-environment-on-automobile-involved-pedestrian-crash-frequency-a-machine-learning-approach
#3
Chuan Ding, Peng Chen, Junfeng Jiao
Although a growing body of literature focuses on the relationship between the built environment and pedestrian crashes, limited evidence is provided about the relative importance of many built environment attributes by accounting for their mutual interaction effects and their non-linear effects on automobile-involved pedestrian crashes. This study adopts the approach of Multiple Additive Poisson Regression Trees (MAPRT) to fill such gaps using pedestrian collision data collected from Seattle, Washington. Traffic analysis zones are chosen as the analytical unit...
January 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299833/engagement-of-canadian-patients-with-rare-diseases-and-their-families-in-the-lifecycle-of-therapy-a-qualitative-study
#4
Andrea Young, Devidas Menon, Jackie Street, Walla Al-Hertani, Tania Stafinski
INTRODUCTION: Patient involvement is increasingly recognized as critical to the development, introduction and use (i.e. the lifecycle) of new and effective therapies, particularly those for rare diseases, where natural histories and the impact on patients and families are less well-understood than for common diseases. However, little is known about how patients and families would like to be involved during the lifecycle. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore ways in which Canadian patients with rare diseases and their families would like to be involved in the lifecycle of therapies and identify their priorities for involvement...
January 3, 2018: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273068/exploring-patient-and-family-involvement-in-the-lifecycle-of-an-orphan-drug-a-scoping-review
#5
REVIEW
Andrea Young, Devidas Menon, Jackie Street, Walla Al-Hertani, Tania Stafinski
BACKGROUND: Patients and their families have become more active in healthcare systems and research. The value of patient involvement is particularly relevant in the area of rare diseases, where patients face delayed diagnoses and limited access to effective therapies due to the high level of uncertainty in market approval and reimbursement decisions. It has been suggested that patient involvement may help to reduce some of these uncertainties. This review explored existing and proposed roles for patients, families, and patient organizations at each stage of the lifecycle of therapies for rare diseases (i...
December 22, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273031/knowledge-and-possession-of-take-home-naloxone-kits-among-street-involved-youth-in-a-canadian-setting-a-cohort-study
#6
Julia Goldman-Hasbun, Kora DeBeck, Jane A Buxton, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: The distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) kits has been an important strategy in reducing overdose fatalities among people who use drugs. However, little is known about the use of THN among youth who are street-involved. The present study explores knowledge and possession of THN among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth age 14-28 at enrollment in Vancouver, Canada...
December 22, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258607/burden-and-correlates-of-mental-health-diagnoses-among-sex-workers-in-an-urban-setting
#7
Nitasha Puri, Kate Shannon, Paul Nguyen, Shira M Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: Women involved in both street-level and off-street sex work face disproportionate health and social inequities compared to the general population. While much research has focused on HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among sex workers, there remains a gap in evidence regarding the broader health issues faced by this population, including mental health. Given limited evidence describing the mental health of women in sex work, our objective was to evaluate the burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among this population in Vancouver, Canada...
December 19, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212504/socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-cessation-of-injection-drug-use-among-street-involved-youth
#8
Derek C Chang, Scott E Hadland, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Although the initiation of injection drug use has been well characterized among at-risk youth, factors that support or impede cessation of injection drug use have received less attention. We sought to identify socioeconomic factors associated with cessation of injection drug use among street-involved youth. METHODS: From September 2005 to May 2015, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada...
December 7, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197242/alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-in-drivers-involved-in-road-traffic-crashes-in-the-milan-area-a-comparison-with-normal-traffic-reveals-the-possible-inadequacy-of-current-cut-off-limits
#9
Davide Ferrari, Monica Manca, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Locatelli
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs in Italy is regulated by the articles 186 and 187 of the National Street Code. Epidemiological studies on drivers involved in road traffic crashes (RTC) provide useful information about the use/abuse of these substances in the general population. Comparison with case control studies may reveal important information like the cut-off limits adequacy. METHODS: Data from 1587 blood tests for alcohol and 1258 blood tests for illicit drugs on drivers involved in RTC around Milan between 2012 and 2016, were analyzed and compared with a published random survey (DRUID) from the European Community...
November 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190175/going-beyond-prescription-pain-relievers-to-understand-the-opioid-epidemic-the-role-of-illicit-fentanyl-new-psychoactive-substances-and-street-heroin
#10
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Jo Ann LeQuang, Robert Taylor, Robert B Raffa
The opioid epidemic is associated with morbidity and mortality, and it has taken a vast toll on American society. While prescription opioid abuse is part of the opioid problem, it is by no means the entirety of it. Opioid abuse appears to have entered a technology-driven new world of clandestine labs all over the globe and many new synthetic analog, counterfeit, and adulterated drugs that arrive via the internet faster than the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) can catalog and outlaw them. To deal with opioid abuse, it must be recognized that it is more - far more - than a subset of chronic pain patients who become addicted...
November 30, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188544/keystrokes-mouse-clicks-and-gazing-at-the-computer-how-physician-interaction-with-the-ehr-affects-patient-participation
#11
Richard L Street, Lin Liu, Neil J Farber, Yunan Chen, Alan Calvitti, Nadir Weibel, Mark T Gabuzda, Kristin Bell, Barbara Gray, Steven Rick, Shazia Ashfaq, Zia Agha
BACKGROUND: Evidence is mixed regarding how physicians' use of the electronic health record (EHR) affects communication in medical encounters. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the different ways physicians interact with the computer (mouse clicks, key strokes, and gaze) vary in their effects on patient participation in the consultation, physicians' efforts to facilitate patient involvement, and silence. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study of video and event recordings of primary care and specialty consultations...
November 29, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178251/seizure-and-cognitive-outcomes-after-resection-of-glioneuronal-tumors-in-children
#12
Andrew M Faramand, Nicola Barnes, Sue Harrison, Roxanna Gunny, Tom Jacques, Zubair M Tahir, Sophia M Varadkar, Helen J Cross, William Harkness, Martin M Tisdall
OBJECTIVE: Glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) are well-recognized causes of chronic drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children. Our practice involves an initial period of radiological surveillance and antiepileptic medications, with surgery being reserved for those with radiological progression or refractory seizures. We planned to analyze the group of patients with low-grade GNTs, aiming to identify factors affecting seizure and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 150 children presenting to Great Ormond Street Hospital with seizures secondary to GNTs...
November 26, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176996/mental-neurologic-and-substance-use-mns-disorders-among-street-homeless-people-in-ethiopia
#13
Getinet Ayano, Dawit Assefa, Kibrom Haile, Asrat Chaka, Haddish Solomon, Petros Hagos, Zegeye Yohannis, Kelemua Haile, Lulu Bekana, Melkamu Agidew, Seife Demise, Belachew Tsegaye, Melat Solomon
Background: About 25-60% of the homeless population is reported to have some form of mental disorder. To our knowledge, there are no studies aimed at the screening, diagnosis, treatment, care, rehabilitation, and support of homeless people with mental, neurologic, and substance use (MNS) disorders in general in Ethiopia. This is the first study of its kind in Africa which was aimed at screening, diagnosis, care, treatment, rehabilitation, and support of homeless individuals with possible MNS disorder...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162759/pattern-and-profile-of-children-using-substances-in-india-insights-and-recommendations
#14
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, V K Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
India has one of the largest proportion of children and adolescents in the world, but the threat posed by child substance use remains under-researched. Only recently a large study, the first of its kind in India, was carried out with a sample of nearly 4000 children using substances (school-going, out-of-school as well as street children) across more than a hundred cities/towns. We discuss (i) the existing knowledge on the prevalence of child substance abuse in India; (ii) perspectives and insights gained from the recent nation-wide study on its pattern and profile; and (iii) recommendations for substance use prevention and treatment among children in the Indian context...
July 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160606/the-relationship-between-hazardous-alcohol-use-and-violence-among-street-involved-youth
#15
Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Sabina Dobrer, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kora Debeck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol is a major contributor to premature disability and death among youth, often due to physical trauma, violence, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the association between hazardous alcohol use and experiences of violence among a cohort of street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit substances in Vancouver, Canada...
December 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120973/acute-intoxications-and-fatalities-from-illicit-fentanyl-and-analogues-an-update
#16
Simona Pichini, Renata Solimini, Paolo Berretta, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò
Illicit fentanyl and its analogues are very dangerous synthetic opioids, with high abuse potential and severe adverse effects including coma and death. They are used as adulterants in street heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine, or as heroin substitutes sold to unaware users with a high risk of overdoses. Fentanyl and its analogues have also been identified in counterfeit medicinal products, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and alprazolam tablets, or as components of speedball mixtures together with cocaine or other stimulants...
November 8, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108022/risk-factors-for-hiv-infection-among-female-sex-workers-in-bangui-central-african-republic
#17
Jean De Dieu Longo, Marcel Mbeko Simaleko, Henri Saint-Calvaire Diemer, Gérard Grésenguet, Gilles Brücker, Laurent Belec
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were i) to categorize female sex workers (FSW) according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui; ii) to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as outcome, and iii) to investigate factors associated with HIV status. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work in Bangui among 345 sexually active women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023135/dietary-patterns-and-dietary-adequacy-of-street-children-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#18
Lawrence P Greksa, A B M Rafiqul Islam, Rie Okamoto, Kinuko Omori
The negative impact of poverty on the biological well-being of children is well established. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the stress of full-time street life on the dietary patterns and dietary adequacy of street children living in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This was accomplished by comparing the nutritional patterns of full-time street children with those of other poor children in Dhaka who also spend their days on the streets but who return to their families at night. There were few differences between groups, possibly due to street children being a select group...
October 12, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982829/development-and-evaluation-of-the-ohcities-instrument-assessing-alcohol-urban-environments-in-the-heart-healthy-hoods-project
#19
Xisca Sureda, Albert Espelt, Joan R Villalbí, Alba Cebrecos, Lucía Baranda, Jamie Pearce, Manuel Franco
OBJECTIVES: To describe the development and test-retest reliability of OHCITIES, an instrument characterising alcohol urban environment in terms of availability, promotion and signs of consumption. DESIGN: This study involved: (1) developing the conceptual framework for alcohol urban environment by means of literature reviewing and previous alcohol environment research experience; (2) pilot testing and redesigning the instrument; (3) instrument digitalisation; (4) instrument evaluation using test-retest reliability...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960672/engaging-street-involved-youth-using-an-evidence-based-intervention-a-preliminary-report-of-findings
#20
Joanna Lynch, Elizabeth McCay, Andria Aiello, Faith Donald
PROBLEM: Street-involved youth experience many barriers to accessing health and social services. There is a literature gap in the literature regarding evidence-based interventions to facilitate engagement with street-involved youth. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study of preliminary findings from a large mixed-methods study was undertaken to assess the impact of a resilience-based motivational intervention. This intervention was grounded in frameworks including strengths-based and resilience-based communication using the Seven C's Model of Resilience, positive youth development, and motivational interviewing that are particularly relevant to youth...
May 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
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