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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907845/why-do-kenyan-children-live-on-the-streets-evidence-from-a-cross-section-of-semi-rural-maternal-caregivers
#1
Michael L Goodman, Kelli Martinez, Philip H Keiser, Stanley Gitari, Sarah E Seidel
Globally, study of factors contributing to the street-migration of the tens of millions of street-involved children focus almost exclusively on children's perspectives. In this study, we assess household and maternal factors associated with street-migration of children through self-report of 1974 randomly selected women in semi-rural Kenya. Contributing new perspectives on this global phenomenon, data show a statistically significant association between increased maternal childhood adversities and street-migration of children (p<0...
November 28, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898369/training-the-elderly-in-pedestrian-safety-transfer-effect-between-two-virtual-reality-simulation-devices
#2
Pauline Maillot, Aurélie Dommes, Nguyen-Thong Dang, Fabrice Vienne
OBJECTIVES: A virtual-reality training program has been developed to help older pedestrians make safer street-crossing decisions in two-way traffic situations. The aim was to develop a small-scale affordable and transportable simulation device that allowed transferring effects to a full-scale device involving actual walking. METHODS: 20 younger adults and 40 older participants first participated in a pre-test phase to assess their street crossings using both full-scale and small-scale simulation devices...
November 26, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881469/the-role-of-intersection-and-street-design-on-severity-of-bicycle-motor-vehicle-crashes
#3
Morteza Asgarzadeh, Santosh Verma, Rania A Mekary, Theodore K Courtney, David C Christiani
BACKGROUND: Safety concerns are a major barrier to cycling. Intersection and street design variables such as intersection angles and street width might contribute to the severity of crashes and the safety concerns. In this study we examined whether these design variables were associated with bicycle-motor vehicle crashes (BMVC) severity. METHODS: Using the geographical information system and latitudes/longitudes recorded by the police using a global positioning device, we extracted intersection angles, street width, bicycle facilities, posted speed limits and annual average daily traffic from 3266 BMVC data from New York City police records...
November 9, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876062/elevated-risk-of-incarceration-among-street-involved-youth-who-initiate-drug-dealing
#4
Carly Hoy, Brittany Barker, Jackie Regan, Huiru Dong, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871098/traffic-accidents-involving-cyclists-identifying-causal-factors-using-questionnaire-survey-traffic-accident-data-and-real-world-observation
#5
Shoko Oikawa, Toshiya Hirose, Shigeru Aomura, Yasuhiro Matsui
The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of traffic accidents involving cyclists. The focus is on the characteristics of cyclist accidents and scenarios, because the number of traffic accidents involving cyclists in Tokyo is the highest in Japan. First, dangerous situations in traffic incidents were investigated by collecting data from 304 cyclists in one city in Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. The survey indicated that cyclists used their bicycles generally while commuting to work or school in the morning...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864628/provider-perspectives-on-patient-provider-communication-for-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-symptom-management
#6
Kea Turner, Cleo A Samuel, Heidi As Donovan, Ellen Beckjord, Alexandra Cardy, Mary Amanda Dew, G J van Londen
PURPOSE: Providers' communication skills play a key role in encouraging breast cancer survivors to report symptoms and adhere to long-term treatments such as adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). The purpose of this study was to examine provider perspectives on patient-provider communication regarding AET symptom management and to explore whether provider perspectives vary across the multi-disciplinary team of providers involved in survivorship care. METHODS: We conducted three one-hour focus groups with a multi-disciplinary group of health care providers including oncology specialists, primary care physicians, and non-physician providers experienced in caring for breast cancer survivors undergoing AET (n = 13)...
November 18, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800177/epidemiological-features-of-pediatric-ocular-trauma-in-egypt
#7
Ebrahim Abdullah Yehia Al Wadeai, Amr Abdellatif Osman, Tamer A Macky, Mahmoud M Soliman
Purpose. To review the epidemiology of serious pediatric ocular trauma presenting to Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University. Methods. Children with serious ocular trauma during a six-month period were examined and their data was analyzed. Results. Eighty eyes of 75 patients were included in this study, with 64% males (P < 0.001) and average age of 5 years (5 months-15 years). There were 67 (83.75%) open globe injuries, 11 (13.75%) closed globe injuries, and 2 (2.5%) chemical injuries. Of the open globe injuries, 24 (30%) were ruptured globes and 43 (53...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781322/stillbirth-and-intrauterine-fetal-death-contemporary-demographic-features-of-1000-cases-from-an-urban-population
#8
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, A E Heazell, I Jeffrey, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: Of 780 000 births annually in the UK, around 3300 are stillborn, a rate of approximately 4 per 1000 births. Traditional epidemiological associations are based on historic data. The aim of this study was to document contemporary demographic findings in a large series of > 1000 deaths in utero in London and compare these with national datasets. METHODS: From a dedicated database, including > 400 data fields per case, of fetal, infant and pediatric autopsies performed at Great Ormond Street Hospital and St George's Hospital, London, we extracted information on all intrauterine deaths, excluding terminations of pregnancy, from 2005 to 2013, inclusive...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752825/harnessing-technology-and-citizen-science-to-support-neighborhoods-that-promote-active-living-in-mexico
#9
Lisa G Rosas, Deborah Salvo, Sandra J Winter, David Cortes, Juan Rivera, Nicole M Rodriguez, Abby C King
Middle- and low-income countries bear 80 % of the global chronic disease burden. Population-level, multi-sectoral approaches to promoting healthful lifestyles that take into local physical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural characteristics of both the environment and the population are needed. The "Nuestra Voz (Our Voice)" is one such approach that involves neighborhood residents acting as "citizen scientists" to systematically gather information on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity in their neighborhoods and then use their data to collectively advocate for local environmental- and policy-level changes to support active living...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746760/distinguishing-representations-as-origin-and-representations-as-input-roles-for-individual-neurons
#10
Jonathan C W Edwards
It is widely perceived that there is a problem in giving a naturalistic account of mental representation that deals adequately with the issue of meaning, interpretation, or significance (semantic content). It is suggested here that this problem may arise partly from the conflation of two vernacular senses of representation: representation-as-origin and representation-as-input. The flash of a neon sign may in one sense represent a popular drink, but to function as a representation it must provide an input to a 'consumer' in the street...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746590/from-placenta-to-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-the-role-of-adipokines
#11
REVIEW
Chiara Sartori, Pietro Lazzeroni, Silvia Merli, Viviana Dora Patianna, Francesca Viaroli, Francesca Cirillo, Sergio Amarri, Maria Elisabeth Street
Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741501/using-administrative-data-to-identify-u-s-army-soldiers-at-high-risk-of-perpetrating-minor-violent-crimes
#12
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Eric D Hill, Maria Petukhova, Ben Y Reis, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
Growing concerns exist about violent crimes perpetrated by U.S. military personnel. Although interventions exist to reduce violent crimes in high-risk populations, optimal implementation requires evidence-based targeting. The goal of the current study was to use machine learning methods (stepwise and penalized regression; random forests) to develop models to predict minor violent crime perpetration among U.S. Army soldiers. Predictors were abstracted from administrative data available for all 975,057 soldiers in the U...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736735/evaluation-of-the-performance-of-accelerometer-based-gait-event-detection-algorithms-in-different-real-world-scenarios-using-the-marea-gait-database
#13
Siddhartha Khandelwal, Nicholas Wickström
Numerous gait event detection (GED) algorithms have been developed using accelerometers as they allow the possibility of long-term gait analysis in everyday life. However, almost all such existing algorithms have been developed and assessed using data collected in controlled indoor experiments with pre-defined paths and walking speeds. On the contrary, human gait is quite dynamic in the real-world, often involving varying gait speeds, changing surfaces and varying surface inclinations. Though portable wearable systems can be used to conduct experiments directly in the real-world, there is a lack of publicly available gait datasets or studies evaluating the performance of existing GED algorithms in various real-world settings...
September 28, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697901/cytokinin-acts-through-the-auxin-influx-carrier-aux1-to-regulate-cell-elongation-in-the-root
#14
Ian H Street, Dennis E Mathews, Maria V Yamburkenko, Ali Sorooshzadeh, Roshen T John, Ranjan Swarup, Malcolm J Bennett, Joseph J Kieber, G Eric Schaller
Hormonal interactions are critical for plant development. In Arabidopsis, cytokinins inhibit root growth through effects on cell proliferation and cell elongation. Here we define key mechanistic elements in a regulatory network by which cytokinin inhibits root cell elongation in concert with the hormones auxin and ethylene. The auxin importer AUX1 functions as a positive regulator of cytokinin responses in the root, AUX1 mutants specifically affecting the ability of cytokinin to inhibit cell elongation but not cell proliferation...
October 3, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685802/less-empathic-and-more-reactive-the-different-impact-of-childhood-maltreatment-on-facial-mimicry-and-vagal-regulation
#15
Martina Ardizzi, Maria Alessandra Umiltà, Valentina Evangelista, Alessandra Di Liscia, Roberto Ravera, Vittorio Gallese
Facial mimicry and vagal regulation represent two crucial physiological responses to others' facial expressions of emotions. Facial mimicry, defined as the automatic, rapid and congruent electromyographic activation to others' facial expressions, is implicated in empathy, emotional reciprocity and emotions recognition. Vagal regulation, quantified by the computation of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA), exemplifies the autonomic adaptation to contingent social cues. Although it has been demonstrated that childhood maltreatment induces alterations in the processing of the facial expression of emotions, both at an explicit and implicit level, the effects of maltreatment on children's facial mimicry and vagal regulation in response to facial expressions of emotions remain unknown...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685082/chemical-composition-and-allelopathic-potential-of-essential-oils-from-citharexylum-spinosum-l-grown-in-tunisia
#16
Asma El Ayeb-Zakhama, Lamia Sakka-Rouis, Guido Flamini, Hichem Ben Jannet, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri
Citharexylum spinosum L. (Verbenaceae) also known as C. quadrangulare Jacq. or C. fruticosum L. is an exotic tree introduced many years ago in Tunisia, specially used as a street and park ornamental tree. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits; drupes) collected from trees grown in the area of Monastir (Tunisia). In total, 84 compounds, representing 90.1-98.4% of the whole oil composition, were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses...
September 29, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681022/what-factors-determine-the-choice-of-public-engagement-undertaken-by-health-technology-assessment-decision-making-organizations
#17
Sally Wortley, Jackie Street, Wendy Lipworth, Kirsten Howard
Purpose Public engagement in health technology assessment (HTA) is increasingly considered crucial for good decision making. Determining the "right" type of engagement activity is key in achieving the appropriate consideration of public values. Little is known about the factors that determine how HTA organizations (HTAOs) decide on their method of public engagement, and there are a number of possible factors that might shape these decisions. The purpose of this paper is to understand the potential drivers of public engagement from an organizational perspective...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672561/changes-in-bicycling-over-time-associated-with-a-new-bike-lane-relations-with-kilocalories-energy-expenditure-and-body-mass-index
#18
Barbara B Brown, Douglas Tharp, Calvin P Tribby, Ken R Smith, Harvey J Miller, Carol M Werner
Although bicycling has been related to positive health indicators, few studies examine health-related measures associated with non-competitive community cycling before and after cycling infrastructure improvements. This study examined cycling changes in a neighborhood receiving a bike lane, light rail, and other "complete street" improvements. Participants wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) data loggers for one week in both 2012 and 2013, pre- and post- construction completion. Participants sampled within 2 km of the complete street improvements had the following patterns of cycling: never cyclists (n=434), continuing cyclists (n= 29), former cyclists (n=33, who bicycled in 2012 but not 2013), and new cyclists (n=40, who bicycled in 2013 but not 2012)...
September 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672313/comparison-of-pharmacist-and-public-views-and-experiences-of-community-pharmacy-medicines-related-services-in-england
#19
Ruth M Rodgers, Shivaun M Gammie, Ruey Leng Loo, Sarah A Corlett, Janet Krska
BACKGROUND: Services provided by community pharmacists designed to support people using medicines are increasing. In England, two national services exist: Medicine Use Reviews (MUR) and New Medicines Service (NMS). Very few studies have been conducted seeking views of the public, rather than service users, on willingness to use these services or expectations of these services, or determined whether views align with pharmacist perceptions. OBJECTIVE: To compare the perceptions of pharmacists and the general public on medicines-related services, particularly MUR and NMS services...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664812/mental-health-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-children-and-adolescents-in-street-situations-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#20
Cynthia Watters, Paul O'Callaghan
This article reviews the available quantitative literature on mental health and psychosocial interventions among children and adolescents in street situations (CASS) in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search five databases as well as grey literature. There were four inclusion criteria; studies had to involve a description of an external (i.e. outside of the home) mental health or psychosocial intervention/treatment, must be focused in LAMIC, must be focused on CASS, and must empirically evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention described...
October 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
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