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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220988/-the-gaze-heuristic-biography-of-an-adaptively-rational-decision-process
#1
Robert P Hamlin
This article is a case study that describes the natural and human history of the gaze heuristic. The gaze heuristic is an interception heuristic that utilizes a single input (deviation from a constant angle of approach) repeatedly as a task is performed. Its architecture, advantages, and limitations are described in detail. A history of the gaze heuristic is then presented. In natural history, the gaze heuristic is the only known technique used by predators to intercept prey. In human history the gaze heuristic was discovered accidentally by Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter command just prior to World War II...
February 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213582/a-scale-up-mock-up-comparison-of-student-learning-gains-in-high-and-low-tech-active-learning-environments
#2
Paula A G Soneral, Sara A Wyse
Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey data from instructors and students to prioritize the most salient SCALE-UP classroom features, we created a low-tech "Mock-up" version of this classroom and tested the impact of these features on student learning, attitudes, and satisfaction using a quasi--experimental setup...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212952/the-challenge-of-conditional-reimbursement-stopping-reimbursement-can-be-more-difficult-than-not-starting-in-the-first-place
#3
E J van de Wetering, Job van Exel, Werner B F Brouwer
BACKGROUND: Conditional reimbursement of new health technologies is increasingly considered as a useful policy instrument. It allows gathering more robust evidence regarding effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new technologies without delaying market access. Nevertheless, the literature suggests that ending reimbursement and provision of a technology when it proves not to be effective or cost-effective in practice may be difficult. OBJECTIVES: To investigate how policymakers and the general public in the Netherlands value removing a previously reimbursed treatment from the basic benefits package relative to not including a new treatment...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163748/weight-loss-technology-for-people-with-treated-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Kuat Oshakbayev, Bibazhar Dukenbayeva, Gulnar Togizbayeva, Aigul Durmanova, Meruyert Gazaliyeva, Abdul Sabir, Aliya Issa, Alisher Idrisov
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in worldwide despite the development of new treatment methods. Aim of the study was to evaluate a weight loss method on body composition, glycemic, lipid and hormone profiles, blood pressure and reactive oxygen species in people with treated type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A 24-week open, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial including 272 adult patients with treated type 2 diabetes was performed...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138858/strategies-to-increase-adenoma-detection-rates
#5
REVIEW
Eelco C Brand, Michael B Wallace
The adenoma detection rate (ADR), i.e., the proportion of average risk patients with at least one adenoma detected during screening colonoscopy, is inversely associated with the development of interval colorectal cancer. Increasing the ADR is therefore an important proxy for increase in quality and efficacy of (screening) colonoscopy. Several potentially modifiable factors, such as, procedural and technological factors, and quality improvement programs, and their effect on the ADR will be reviewed. Procedural factors, such as, bowel preparation, withdrawal time, and position changes of the patient are associated with the ADR...
January 30, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125722/antimicrobial-use-and-veterinary-care-among-agro-pastoralists-in-northern-tanzania
#6
Mark A Caudell, Marsha B Quinlan, Murugan Subbiah, Douglas R Call, Casey J Roulette, Jennifer W Roulette, Adam Roth, Louise Matthews, Robert J Quinlan
Frequent and unregulated use of antimicrobials (AM) in livestock requires public health attention as a likely selection pressure for resistant bacteria. Studies among small-holders, who own a large percentage of the world's livestock, are vital for understanding how practices involving AM use might influence resistance. We present a cultural-ecological mixed-methods analysis to explore sectors of veterinary care, loosely regulated AM use, and human exposure to AMs through meat and milk consumption across three rural to peri-urban Tanzanian ethnic groups (N = 415 households)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118369/autonomic-modulation-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-during-a-computer-task-a-prospective-control-trial
#7
Mayra Priscila Boscolo Alvarez, Talita Dias da Silva, Francis Meire Favero, Vitor Engrácia Valenti, Rodrigo Daminello Raimundo, Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei, David M Garner, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle weakness that can lead to disability. Owing to functional difficulties faced by individuals with DMD, the use of assistive technology is essential to provide or facilitate functional abilities. In DMD, cardiac autonomic dysfunction has been reported in addition to musculoskeletal impairment. Consequently, the objective was to investigate acute cardiac autonomic responses, by Heart Rate Variability (HRV), during computer tasks in subjects with DMD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087399/advances-with-using-crispr-cas-mediated-gene-editing-to-treat-infections-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus
#8
REVIEW
Buhle Moyo, Kristie Bloom, Tristan Scott, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infections with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) account for the majority of cases of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for the infections have limitations and improved efficacy is necessary to prevent complications in carriers of the viruses. In the case of HBV persistence, the replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is particularly problematic. Licensed therapies have little effect on cccDNA and HBV replication relapses following treatment withdrawal...
January 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071894/noninvasive-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-with-raman-spectroscopy
#9
Rishikesh Pandey, Santosh Kumar Paidi, Tulio A Valdez, Chi Zhang, Nicolas Spegazzini, Ramachandra Rao Dasari, Ishan Barman
The successful development of a noninvasive blood glucose sensor that can operate reliably over sustained periods of time has been a much sought after but elusive goal in diabetes management. Since diabetes has no well-established cure, control of elevated glucose levels is critical for avoiding severe secondary health complications in multiple organs including the retina, kidney and vasculature. While fingerstick testing continues to be the mainstay of blood glucose detection, advances in electrochemical sensing-based minimally invasive approaches have opened the door for alternate methods that would considerably improve the quality of life for people with diabetes...
January 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053072/the-promise-of-new-technologies-to-reduce-refine-or-replace-animal-use-while-reducing-risks-of-drug-induced-liver-injury-in-pharmaceutical-development
#10
Frank D Sistare, William B Mattes, Edward L LeCluyse
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) has contributed more to marketed pharmaceutical withdrawals and clinical development failures than any other human organ toxicity. DILI seen in animal studies also frequently leads to the discontinuation of promising drug candidates very early in the pipeline. This manuscript reviews and critically assesses the current regulatory expectations; the current drug development approaches, strategies, and gaps; and the numerous exciting opportunities becoming available to address these gaps through technological advances...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017642/immunity-duration-of-a-recombinant-adenovirus-type-5-vector-based-ebola-vaccine-and-a-homologous-prime-boost-immunisation-in-healthy-adults-in-china-final-report-of-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1-trial
#11
Jing-Xin Li, Li-Hua Hou, Fan-Yue Meng, Shi-Po Wu, Yue-Mei Hu, Qi Liang, Kai Chu, Zhe Zhang, Jun-Jie Xu, Rong Tang, Wen-Juan Wang, Pei Liu, Jia-Lei Hu, Li Luo, Rong Jiang, Feng-Cai Zhu, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: The 2013-15 Ebola virus disease epidemic in west Africa greatly accelerated the development of Ebola vaccine. We aimed to analyse the immune persistence induced by one shot of an adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola virus vaccine up to 6 months and the effect of boosting with a homologous vector in healthy adults in China. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 clinical trial in one site in Jiangsu Province, China, 120 healthy adults aged 18-60 years received an initial dose of intramuscular adenovirus type-5 Ebola virus vaccine of 4·0 × 10(10) viral particles, 1·6 × 10(11) viral particles, or placebo, and were followed up to day 168...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989403/-speaking-about-life-and-death-in-neonatology-how-can-communication-with-families-be-optimized
#12
T Pennaforte, A Moussa, A Janvier
Technological progress and improved clinical knowledge have increased survival of neonates who would previously have died. Survival is sometimes accompanied by a risk of short- or long-term adverse outcomes, which may lead to complex decisions about withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining interventions. These decisions are among the most difficult decisions in pediatric practice. They also involve communicating with parents and are emotionally charged. Many articles examining end-of-life decisions in neonatology state the need for healthcare providers to be caring, compassionate, and human without offering clear, practical advice...
February 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983691/evaluation-of-google-glass-technical-limitations-on-their-integration-in-medical-systems
#13
Antonio Martinez-Millana, Jose-Luis Bayo-Monton, Aroa Lizondo, Carlos Fernandez-Llatas, Vicente Traver
Google Glass is a wearable sensor presented to facilitate access to information and assist while performing complex tasks. Despite the withdrawal of Google in supporting the product, today there are multiple applications and much research analyzing the potential impact of this technology in different fields of medicine. Google Glass satisfies the need of managing and having rapid access to real-time information in different health care scenarios. Among the most common applications are access to electronic medical records, display monitorizations, decision support and remote consultation in specialties ranging from ophthalmology to surgery and teaching...
December 15, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956364/proton-sensing-transistor-systems-for-detecting-ion-leakage-from-plasma-membranes-under-chemical-stimuli
#14
Yuki Imaizumi, Tatsuro Goda, Daniel F Schaffhauser, Jun-Ichi Okada, Akira Matsumoto, Yuji Miyahara
: The membrane integrity of live cells is routinely evaluated for cytotoxicity induced by chemical or physical stimuli. Recent progress in bioengineering means that high-quality toxicity validation is required. Here, we report a pH-sensitive transistor system developed for the continuous monitoring of ion leakage from cell membranes upon challenge by toxic compounds. Temporal changes in pH were generated with high reproducibility via periodic flushing of HepG2 cells on a gate insulator of a proton-sensitive field-effect transistor with isotonic buffer solutions with/without NH4Cl...
December 9, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871910/pharmacological-studies-on-the-nop-and-opioid-receptor-agonist-pwt2-dmt-1-n-ofq-1-13
#15
Maria Camilla Cerlesi, Huiping Ding, Mark F Bird, Norikazu Kiguchi, Federica Ferrari, Davide Malfacini, Anna Rizzi, Chiara Ruzza, David G Lambert, Mei-Chuan Ko, Girolamo Calo, Remo Guerrini
An innovative chemical strategy named peptide welding technology (PWT) has been developed for the facile synthesis of tetrabranched peptides. [Dmt(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 acts as a universal agonist for nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and classical opioid receptors. The present study investigated the pharmacological profile of the PWT derivative of [Dmt(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)NH2 (PWT2-[Dmt(1)]) in several assays in vitro and in vivo after spinal administration in monkeys subjected to the tail withdrawal assay. PWT2-[Dmt(1)] mimicked the effects of [Dmt(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 displaying full agonist activity, similar affinity/potency and selectivity at human recombinant N/OFQ (NOP) and opioid receptors in receptor binding, stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding, calcium mobilization in cells expressing chimeric G proteins, and BRET studies for measuring receptor/G-protein and receptor/β-arrestin 2 interaction...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826213/management-of-moderate-to-severe-chronic-low-back-pain-with-buprenorphine-buccal-film-using-novel-bioerodible-mucoadhesive-technology
#16
REVIEW
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Robert B Raffa, Charles Fleischer, Gianpietro Zampogna, Robert Taylor
With a global prevalence of ~9%-12%, low back pain (LBP) is a serious public health issue, associated with high costs for treatment and lost productivity. Chronic LBP (cLBP) involves central sensitization, a neuropathic pain component, and may induce maladaptive coping strategies and depression. Treating cLBP is challenging, and current treatment options are not fully satisfactory. A new BioErodible MucoAdhesive (BEMA(®)) delivery system for buprenorphine has been developed to treat cLBP. The buccal buprenorphine (BBUP) film developed for this product (Belbuca™) allows for rapid delivery and titration over a greater range of doses than was previously available with transdermal buprenorphine systems...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801708/pediatric-critical-care-transport-as-a-conduit-to-terminal-extubation-at-home-a-case-series
#17
Corina Noje, Meghan L Bernier, Philomena M Costabile, Bruce L Klein, Sapna R Kudchadkar
OBJECTIVES: To present our single-center's experience with three palliative critical care transports home from the PICU for terminal extubation. DESIGN: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients transported between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014. SETTING: All cases were identified from our institutional pediatric transport database. PATIENTS: Patients were terminally ill children unable to separate from mechanical ventilation in the PICU, who were transported home for terminal extubation and end-of-life care according to their families' wishes...
January 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778263/effects-of-electroacupuncture-intervention-on-expression-of-cyclooxygenase-2-and-microglia-in-spinal-cord-in-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#18
Li-Li Ji, Meng-Wei Guo, Xiu-Jun Ren, Dong-Yu Ge, Gen-Mao Li, Ya Tu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 and microglia in spinal cord by using rat model of neuropathic pain, and to probe into the relationship between COX 2 and microglia. METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, including normal control group, model group, sham group, EA 1 group (distant acupoints + local acupoints), EA 2 group (local acupoints), and EA 3 group (distant acupoints)...
October 24, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771632/the-need-and-potential-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine
#19
Julie Garon, Walter Orenstein, T Jacob John
As the polio endgame progresses, the world will increasingly rely on inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for protection against polio (wild and vaccine-related) and for risk mitigation during the phased removal of oral polio vaccine (OPV). IPV has already been introduced in most countries and strategies are underway to ensure the remaining OPV-only using countries succeed in introducing IPV in light of operational challenges. Questions remain as to the ideal dosing schedule for IPV in developing countries as well as the length of time for IPV to be administered beyond certification of eradication of wild polioviruses and total OPV withdrawal...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720268/development-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-from-sabin-strains-a%C3%A2-progress-report
#20
REVIEW
Hiromasa Okayasu, Carolyn Sein, Ahd Hamidi, Wilfried A M Bakker, Roland W Sutter
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has seen significant progress since it began in 1988, largely due to the worldwide use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In order to achieve polio eradication the global cessation of OPV is necessary because OPV contains live attenuated poliovirus, which in rare circumstances could re-gain wild poliovirus (WPV) characteristics with potential to establish transmission. The GPEI endgame strategy for the period 2013-2018 recommends the globally synchronised sequential cessation of the Sabin strains contained in the OPV, starting with type 2 Sabin...
November 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
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