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Parkinson disease treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#1
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213762/association-between-cognitive-impairment-and-urinary-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Zuzanna Tkaczynska, Andrea Pilotto, Sara Becker, Susanne Gräber-Sultan, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
Urinary dysfunction (UD) is a common non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), and might be secondary to neurodegeneration involving cortical and subcortical brain areas. The possible link between UD and cognitive deficits has never been examined in frontal cortex impairment, and is still not completely understood in PD. In the present study, 94 PD patients underwent a comprehensive motor, cognitive and non-motor assessment. It was shown that 55.3% of patients reported UD, of which 17% needed specific urological treatment...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213070/selective-a2a-receptors-blockade-reduces-degeneration-of-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-histological-study
#3
Ahmed M Fathalla, Amira M Soliman, Ahmed A Moustafa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Adenosine is a neuromodulator that inhibit the release of dopamine via a disinhibitory mechanism. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and ZM241385 (respectively, A1 and A2A receptors antagonists), on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons degradation reduction in a rotenone-induced PD model using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212331/analysis-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-related-gene-expression-changes-in-a-cellular-and-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
In-Su Kim, Sushruta Koppula, Shin-Young Park, Dong-Kug Choi
We employed transcriptome analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor related gene expression changes in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). We used a well-known Parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP⁺) to induce neuronal apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. The MPP⁺-treatment of SH-SY5Y cells was capable of inducing neuro-apoptosis, but it remains unclear what kinds of transcriptional genes are affected by MPP⁺ toxicity. Therefore the pathways that were significantly perturbed in MPP⁺ treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were identified based on genome-wide gene expression data at two time points (24 and 48 h)...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211850/subthalamic-neurons-encode-both-single-and-multi-limb-movements-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#5
Ariel Tankus, Ido Strauss, Tanya Gurevich, Anat Mirelman, Nir Giladi, Itzhak Fried, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the main target for neurosurgical treatment of motor signs of Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite the therapeutic effect on both upper and lower extremities, its role in motor control and coordination and its changes in Parkinson's disease are not fully clear. We intraoperatively recorded single unit activity in ten patients with PD who performed repetitive feet or hand movements while undergoing implantation of a deep brain stimulator. We found both distinct and overlapping representations of upper and lower extremity movement kinematics in subthalamic units and observed evidence for re-routing to a multi-limb representation that participates in limb coordination...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211816/levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-pharmacokinetics-lower-variability-than-oral-levodopa-carbidopa
#6
Ahmed A Othman, Matthew Rosebraugh, Krai Chatamra, Charles Locke, Sandeep Dutta
In a double-blind, double-dummy, double-titration Phase 3 trial in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the efficacy and safety of Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion were characterized relative to immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa (LC-oral) treatment. We present in this report the comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of LCIG and LC-oral from this pivotal study. The results presented in this report clearly demonstrate that LCIG results in lower variability and fluctuations in levodopa and carbidopa plasma concentrations compared to LC-oral...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210978/future-directions-in-imaging-neurodegeneration
#7
REVIEW
Joseph C Masdeu
Neuroimaging comprises a powerful set of instruments to diagnose various neurodegenerative disorders, clarifies their neurobiology, and monitors their treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging depicts volume changes, as well as abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the quantification of regional cerebral metabolism, characteristically altered in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diffuse Lewy-body disease, and the frontotemporal dementias...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210976/regenerative-medicine-for-parkinson-s-disease-using-differentiated-nerve-cells-derived-from-human-buccal-fat-pad-stem-cells
#8
Haruka Takahashi, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Akira Tanaka
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of human adipose stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad (hBFP-ASCs) for nerve regeneration. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons. PD is a candidate disease for cell replacement therapy because it has no fundamental therapeutic methods. We examined the properties of neural-related cells induced from hBFP-ASCs as a cell source for PD treatment. hBFP-ASCs were cultured in neurogenic differentiation medium for about 2 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210066/effects-of-interactive-metronome-training-on-postural-stability-and-upper-extremity-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-study
#9
Arim Kim, Hye-Sun Lee, Chiang-Soon Song
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interactive metronome training on the postural stability and upper extremity function of an individual with Parkinson's disease. [Subject and Methods] The participant of this case study was a 75-year-old female with Parkinson's disease diagnosed 7 years prior. This study was a single-subject research with an A-B-A design. She received IM training during the treatment phase (B phase) for 40 minutes per session. She was assessed pretest and posttest using the Berg balance scale and Wolf motor function test, and at baseline and the treatment phase using the measured box-and-block test and a Tetrax system...
January 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208963/clinical-profile-of-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-children-attending-the-out-patient-department-of-a-tertiary-paediatric-care-centre-in-chennai
#10
Sarala Premkumar, Premkumar Sundararajan, Thangavelu Sangaralingam
INTRODUCTION: The presentation of symptoms of paediatric arrhythmias vary depending on the age and underlying heart disease. Physical examination of children with important arrhythmias may be entirely normal. AIM: Aim is to study the characteristics of cardiac arrhythmias in paediatric patients in a tertiary paediatric care centre in Chennai, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants (n=60) were from birth to 12 years of age. Patients with sinus arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia and sinus bradycardia were excluded...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204825/morroniside-protects-sk-n-sh-human-neuroblastoma-cells-against-h2o2-induced-damage
#11
Jing-Xing Zhang, Rui Wang, Jin Xi, Lin Shen, An-You Zhu, Qi Qi, Qi-Yi Wang, Lun-Jun Zhang, Feng-Chao Wang, He-Zuo Lü, Jian-Guo Hu
Oxidative stress-induced cell injury has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Morroniside is an antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb Shan-Zhu-Yu. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of morroniside against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. H2O2 increased cell apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. This effect was reversed by pretreatment with morroniside at concentrations of 1-100 µM...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203480/a-novel-immunosuppressor-5r-5-hydroxytriptolide-alleviates-movement-disorder-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-6-ohda-hemiparkinsonian-rat-model
#12
Ruijun Su, Min Sun, Wei Wang, Jianliang Zhang, Li Zhang, Junli Zhen, Yanjing Qian, Yan Zheng, Xiaomin Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Promising therapies for PD still need to be explored. Immune dysfunction has been found to be involved in PD pathogenesis. Here, a novel immunosuppressor, (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT8), was used to treat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinson rats. We found that oral administration of LLDT8 significantly alleviated apomorphine-induced rotations at a dose of 125 µg/kg, and improved performance in cylinder and rotarod tests at a lower dose of 31...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202824/-disease-modifying-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Hideki Shimura, Nobutaka Hattori
Currently, treatment of Parkinson's disease aims at alleviating its symptoms. However development of disease-modifying drugs has been a remarkable advancement in recent years. Furthermore, clinical trials of immunotherapy against α-synuclein, a protein involved in the pathogenesis of and lesion expansion in Parkinson's disease, have been initiated. Here, the disease-modifying treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease including the current α-synuclein immunotherapy, gene therapy, protein injection therapy, and cell transplantation therapy, has been reviewed...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202711/structural-interface-between-lrrk2-and-14-3-3-protein
#14
Loes Stevers, Rens de Vries, Richard Doveston, Lech-Gustav Milroy, Luc Brunsveld, Christian Ottmann
Binding of 14-3-3 proteins to LRRK2 is known to be impaired by a number of Parkinson's disease (PD)-relevant mutations. Abrogation of this interaction is connected to enhanced LRRK2 kinase activity which in turn is implicated in increased ubiquitination of LRRK2, accumulation of LRRK2 into inclusion bodies and reduction of neurite length. Hence, the interaction between 14-3-3 and LRRK2 is of significant interest as a possible drug target for the treatment of PD. However, LRRK2 possesses multiple sites that upon phosphorylation can bind to 14-3-3, thus rendering the interaction relatively complex...
February 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202674/lrrk2-detection-in-human-biofluids-potential-use-as-a-parkinson-s-disease-biomarker
#15
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Taymans, Eugénie Mutez, Matthieu Drouyer, William Sibran, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a complex signalling protein that is a key therapeutic target, particularly in Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, there is now evidence showing that LRRK2 expression and phosphorylation levels have potential as markers of disease or target engagement. Indeed, reports show increases in LRRK2 protein levels in the prefrontal cortex of PD patients relative to controls, suggesting that increase in total LRRK2 protein expression is correlated with disease progression. LRRK2 phosphorylation levels are reduced in experimental systems for most disease mutants, and LRRK2 is also rapidly dephosphorylated upon LRRK2 inhibitor treatment, considered potential therapeutics...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199357/home-detection-of-freezing-of-gait-using-support-vector-machines-through-a-single-waist-worn-triaxial-accelerometer
#16
Daniel Rodríguez-Martín, Albert Samà, Carlos Pérez-López, Andreu Català, Joan M Moreno Arostegui, Joan Cabestany, Àngels Bayés, Sheila Alcaine, Berta Mestre, Anna Prats, M Cruz Crespo, Timothy J Counihan, Patrick Browne, Leo R Quinlan, Gearóid ÓLaighin, Dean Sweeney, Hadas Lewy, Joseph Azuri, Gabriel Vainstein, Roberta Annicchiarico, Alberto Costa, Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero
Among Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms, freezing of gait (FoG) is one of the most debilitating. To assess FoG, current clinical practice mostly employs repeated evaluations over weeks and months based on questionnaires, which may not accurately map the severity of this symptom. The use of a non-invasive system to monitor the activities of daily living (ADL) and the PD symptoms experienced by patients throughout the day could provide a more accurate and objective evaluation of FoG in order to better understand the evolution of the disease and allow for a more informed decision-making process in making adjustments to the patient's treatment plan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199071/effect-of-antipsychotic-type-and-dose-changes-on-tardive-dyskinesia-and-parkinsonism-severity-in-patients-with-a-serious-mental-illness-the-cura%C3%A3-ao-extrapyramidal-syndromes-study-xii
#17
Charlotte L Mentzel, P Roberto Bakker, Jim van Os, Marjan Drukker, Glenn E Matroos, Hans W Hoek, Marina A J Tijssen, Peter N van Harten
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of current treatment recommendations for parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia (TD) severity in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: We present an 18-year prospective study including all 223 patients with SMI (as defined by the 1987 US National Institute of Mental Health, which were based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria) receiving care from the only psychiatric hospital of the former Netherlands Antilles. Eight clinical assessments (1992-2009) focused on movement disorders and medication use...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197194/cortical-regulation-of-striatal-projection-neurons-and-interneurons-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#18
Jia-Jia Wu, Si Chen, Li-Si Ouyang, Yu Jia, Bing-Bing Liu, Shu-Hua Mu, Yu-Xin Ma, Wei-Ping Wang, Jia-You Wei, You-Lan Li, Zhi Chen, Wan-Long Lei
Striatal neurons can be either projection neurons or interneurons, with each type exhibiting distinct susceptibility to various types of brain damage. In this study, 6-hydroxydopamine was injected into the right medial forebrain bundle to induce dopamine depletion, and/or ibotenic acid was injected into the M1 cortex to induce motor cortex lesions. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assay showed that dopaminergic depletion results in significant loss of striatal projection neurons marked by dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, molecular weight 32 kDa, calbindin, and μ-opioid receptor, while cortical lesions reversed these pathological changes...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195385/practical-approaches-to-commencing-device-assisted-therapies-for-parkinson-s-disease-in-australia
#19
REVIEW
D R Williams, A H Evans, V S C Fung, M Hayes, R Iansek, T Kimber, J D O'Sullivan, C M Sue
BACKGROUND: In Australia 1% of individuals aged over 50 years have Parkinson's disease (PD). AIMS: Guidance for commencing device-assisted therapies (DATs) for PD in Australia was developed based on a review of European recommendations and their relevance to the local clinical setting. METHODS: An online survey and teleconference discussions were held by a group of eight local movement disorder experts to develop consensus. RESULTS: Referral to a movement disorder specialist and consideration of DAT is appropriate when motor fluctuations cause disability or reduced quality of life, response to treatment is inconsistent or motor fluctuations and dyskinesias require frequent treatment adjustment without apparent benefit and levodopa is required four or more times daily...
February 14, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#20
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
February 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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