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Parkinson disease treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915226/subthalamic-nucleus-stimulation-and-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-not-always-fruitful-relationship
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni Cossu, Massimiliano Pau
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) provides efficient treatment for the alleviation of motor signs in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), but its specific effects on gait is sometimes less successful as it may even lead to an aggravation of freezing of gait. To better understand when axial symptoms can be expected to improve and when they may worsen or be resistant to STN-DBS, we propose here a narrative review that considers the recent literature evidences based on instrumental gait analysis data...
November 27, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915043/involvement-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-the-effect-of-diphenyl-diselenide-on-motor-function-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#2
Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Simone Pinton, Juliana Trevisan da Rocha, Bibiana Mozzaquatro Gai, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] is a compound with pharmacological proprieties, such as antidepressant and neuroprotective. Therefore, this study investigated whether (PhSe)2 reverses motor impairment and neurochemical alterations in a model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. For this, male Wistar rats received 20μg/3μl of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the right striatum...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914807/phosphorylation-of-p53-by-lrrk2-induces-microglial-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-mediated-neurotoxicity
#3
Dong Hwan Ho, Wongi Seol, Jin Hwan Eun, Il-Hong Son
Leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2), a major causal gene of Parkinson's disease (PD), functions as a kinase. The most prevalent mutation of LRRK2 is G2019S. It exhibits increased kinase activity compared to the wildtype LRRK2. Previous studies have shown that LRRK2 can phosphorylate p53 at T304 and T377 of threonine-X-arginine (TXR) motif in neurons. Reduction of LRRK2 expression or inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity has been shown to be able to alleviate LPS-induced neuroinflammation in microglia cells. In this study, we found that LRRK2 could also phosphorylate p53 in microglia model BV2 cells...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914023/reliability-and-validity-of-the-persian-translation-of-berg-balance-scale-in-parkinson-disease
#4
Arash Babaei-Ghazani, Hosein Mohammadi, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Seyed Amir Hasan Habibi, Bijan Forogh, Tannaz Ahadi, Bina Eftekharsadat
PURPOSE: Parkinson disease (PD) is one of the common causes of imbalance, and the balance assessment is necessary for treatment and rehabilitation of these patients. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) has been the main instrument used to evaluate balance impairment. The purpose of this study is to investigate reliability and validity of the Persian translation of BBS in Parkinson disease. METHODS: One hundred PD patients (with mean age of 56.8 ± 15.13 years) were included...
December 2, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913671/l-rrk-de-triomphe-a-solution-for-lrrk2-gtpase-activity
#5
REVIEW
Jonathon Nixon-Abell, Daniel C Berwick, Kirsten Harvey
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a central protein in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), yet its normal function has proved stubbornly hard to elucidate. Even though it remains unclear how pathogenic mutations affect LRRK2 to cause PD, recent findings provide increasing cause for optimism. We summarise here the developing consensus over the effect of pathogenic mutations in the Ras of complex proteins and C-terminal of Roc domains on LRRK2 GTPase activity. This body of work has been greatly reinforced by our own study of the protective R1398H variant contained within the LRRK2 GTPase domain...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913125/apomorphine-therapy-in-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#6
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Apomorphine infusion or injection is an important dopamine agonist non-oral therapy usually used in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with refractory motor fluctuations. The drug also has appreciable efficacy for nonmotor fluctuations and is the quickest to reverse predictable "off" periods. Current subcutaneous administration, however, is complicated by problems associated with needle-based therapies, such as skin nodule formation, skin irritation, and avoidance of this treatment option by needle-phobic subjects...
November 30, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913104/d-ala2-gip-glu-pal-is-neuroprotective-in-a-chronic-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-and-increases-bndf-expression-while-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation
#7
Yanwei Li, WeiZhen Liu, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, treatment to improve insulin resistance in T2DM may be useful for PD patients. Glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family that can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance. Several GIP analogues have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. We had shown previously that D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL, a novel long-acting GIP analogue, can play a neuroprotective role in the PD mouse model induced by acute MPTP injection...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912935/multi-dimensional-analysis-on-parkinson-s-disease-questionnaire-39-in-parkinson-s-patients-treated-with-bushen-huoxue-granule-a-multicenter-randomized-double-blinded-and-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
Min Li, Hui Ming Yang, Dong Xiao Luo, Jian Zong Chen, Heng Jun Shi
OBJECTIVES: To preliminarily assess the effects of Bushen Huoxue Granule (BHG) on Parkinson's Patients with Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39)and to provide data for further research. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study with a 3-month intervention period and a 6-month follow-up. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) of age ranging from 50 to 80 years and Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) stage I-IV of the disease...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912057/gut-microbiota-regulate-motor-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Timothy R Sampson, Justine W Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911342/impulsive-and-compulsive-behaviors-in%C3%A2-parkinson-disease-the-norwegian-parkwest-study
#10
Aleksander H Erga, Guido Alves, Jan Petter Larsen, Ole Bj Rn Tysnes, Kenn Freddy Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Impulsive and compulsive behaviors (ICBs) are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD), but data from population-based cohorts is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and associated demographic, clinical, neuropsychiatric and cognitive features of ICBs in a population-based PD cohort. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 125 patients with PD and 159 age- and gender-matched normal controls recruited from the Norwegian ParkWest study...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#11
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911006/lrrk2-levels-and-phosphorylation-in-parkinson-s-disease-brain-and-cases-with-restricted-lewy-bodies
#12
Nicolas Dzamko, Amanda M Gysbers, Rina Bandopadhyay, Marc F Bolliger, Akiko Uchino, Ye Zhao, Masaki Takao, Sandrine Wauters, Wilma D J van de Berg, Junko Takahashi-Fujigasaki, R Jeremy Nichols, Janice L Holton, Shigeo Murayama, Glenda M Halliday
BACKGROUND: Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a promising target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease; however, little is known about the expression of LRRK2 in human brain and if/how LRRK2 protein levels are altered in Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVES: We measured the protein levels of LRRK2 as well as its phosphorylation on serines 910, 935, and 973 in the postmortem brain tissue of Parkinson's disease patients and aged controls with and without Lewy bodies...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911002/what-is-quality-of-life-and-how-do-we-measure-it-relevance-to-parkinson-s-disease-and-movement-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Pablo Martinez-Martin
Health-related quality of life is a patient-reported outcome that complements clinical evaluation and provides information about disease activity and effects of the treatment. The objective of this review is to present the conceptual framework, the measures, and some of their most relevant applications in the field of Parkinson's disease and movement disorders. Health-related quality of life is a subjective, individual, and multidimensional construct, and its main dimensions are physical, mental, and social, besides global perceptions of health and personal domains...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908790/mpp-inhibits-mglur1-5-mediated-long-term-depression-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-calpain-activation
#14
Junyao Li, Hui Chen, Shengbing Wu, Yuefa Cheng, Qinglin Li, Jing Wang, Guoqi Zhu
Neurotoxins are harmful to nervous system and cause either neuronal cell death or impairment of synaptic activity, which contributes to Parkinson's disease or other neuronal disorders. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity was proposed as a cellular model for memory processing. In this study, we reported a novel effect of neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), on metabotropic glutamate receptor 1/5 agonist, 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and MPP(+) incubation blocked DHPG-induced hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906991/association-between-history-of-dental-amalgam-fillings-and-risk-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#15
Yung-Chuang Hsu, Cheng-Wei Chang, Hsin-Lin Lee, Chuan-Chung Chuang, Hsien-Chung Chiu, Wan-Yun Li, Jorng-Tzong Horng, Earl Fu
The impact of dental amalgam on the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still uncertain, although a positive association between dental amalgam and PD has been found in a few case-control studies. The patients with amalgam fillings restored between 2000 and 2008 were identified by using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The same number of patients who had no new amalgam filling restored was matched by sex, age, and treatment date. Both cohorts were followed up from the treatment date until the date of diagnosis of PD, death, or the end of the year 2008...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906525/the-clinical-utility-of-qsm-disease-diagnosis-medical-management-and-surgical-planning
#16
REVIEW
Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Yan Zhang, Jingwei Zhang, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Ajay Gupta, Yi Wang
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR technique that depicts and quantifies magnetic susceptibility sources. Mapping iron, the dominant susceptibility source in the brain, has many important clinical applications. Herein, we review QSM applications in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disease. To assist in early disease diagnosis, QSM can identify elevated iron levels in the motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate of Huntington's disease patients, and in the basal ganglia of Wilson's disease patients...
December 1, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905361/-heterogeneity-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
O V Babkina, M G Poluektov, O S Levin
For the recent years, a special attention is given to the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including sleep/wake disorders representing one of the leading symptoms. Daytime sleepiness occurs in 30-55% of patients depending on duration and stage of the disease, leading to severe maladjustment. This symptom seems to be multifactorial by nature and identification of it's causes could have a great importance for the therapy. The main factors of the development of daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease and key points of the pathogenesis of «primary» daytime sleepiness are discussed...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904575/alpha-synuclein-structure-functions-and-interactions
#18
REVIEW
Fatemeh Nouri Emamzadeh
At present, when a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is made, serious damage has already been done to nerve cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta. The diagnosis of PD in its earlier stages, before this irreversible damage, would be of enormous benefit for future treatment strategies designed to slow or halt the progression of this disease that possibly prevents accumulation of toxic aggregates. As a molecular biomarker for the detection of PD in its earlier stages, alpha-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key component of Lewy bodies, in which it is found in an aggregated and fibrillar form, has attracted considerable attention...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904494/anti-apoptotic-effect-of-shudipingchan-granule-in-the-substantia-nigra-of-rat-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Qing Ye, Xiao-Lei Yuan, Jing He, Jie Zhou, Can-Xing Yuan, Xu-Ming Yang
Levodopa is the gold-standard treatment for Parkinson's disease. However, although it alleviates the clinical symptoms, it cannot delay the progressive apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons or prevent motor complications in the long term. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Shudipingchan granule on neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, established by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine into the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area. We then administered levodopa (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally, twice daily) with or without Shudipingchan granule (7...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903866/nigral-dopaminergic-pak4-prevents-neurodegeneration-in-rat-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
So-Yoon Won, Mee-Hee Park, Soon-Tae You, Seung-Won Choi, Hyong-Kyu Kim, Catriona McLean, Suk-Chul Bae, Sang Ryong Kim, Byung Kwan Jin, Kun Ho Lee, Eun-Young Shin, Eung-Gook Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. No neuroprotective treatments have successfully prevented the progression of this disease. We report that p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) is a key survival factor for DA neurons. We observed PAK4 immunoreactivity in rat and human DA neurons in brain tissue, but not in microglia or astrocytes. PAK4 activity was markedly decreased in postmortem brain tissue from PD patients and in rodent models of PD...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
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