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Roberto Megías-Pérez, Sergio Grimbs, Roy N D'Souza, Herwig Bernaert, Nikolai Kuhnert
Fifty-six cocoa bean samples from different origins and status of fermentation were analyzed by a validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI-TOF-MS) method. The profile of the low molecular weight carbohydrate (LMWC) was analyzed by high resolution and tandem mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides, sugar alcohols and iminosugars. This study provides, for the first time in a large set of samples, a comprehensive absolute quantitative data set for the carbohydrates identified in cocoa beans (fructose, glucose, mannitol, myo-inositol, sucrose, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose)...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Cuma Mertoglu, Aliseydi Bozkurt, Ercüment Keskin, Murat Gunay
Objective: To investigate the effect of retrograde intra-renal surgery (RIRS) on kidneys using the myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) enzyme. MIOX is a renal tubular-specific novel marker for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury. Methods: A total of twenty seven individuals that had undergone RIRS to treat kidney stones were included in the study. Biochemical tests were performed on serum samples collected immediately before RIRS (hour 0) and at the 6th and 24th hours after the surgery...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Sanjay Kalra, Bharti Kalra
This review describes the mechanistic, animal, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in midlife. It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol and randomized controlled trials conducted in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome and supports these data with the results of in vitro and animal studies on inositol in nephropathy and other related conditions. Recent advances related to biochemistry, pharmaceutical science, and genetics are discussed. It concludes that inositols have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic health in postmenopausal women...
January 2018: Journal of Mid-life Health
M G Ferrarini, S G Mucha, D Parrot, G Meiffren, J F R Bachega, G Comte, A Zaha, M F Sagot
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia. In our previous work, we reconstructed the metabolic models of this species along with two other mycoplasmas from the respiratory tract of swine: Mycoplasma hyorhinis, considered less pathogenic but which nonetheless causes disease and Mycoplasma flocculare, a commensal bacterium. We identified metabolic differences that partially explained their different levels of pathogenicity. One important trait was the production of hydrogen peroxide from the glycerol metabolism only in the pathogenic species...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Luo-Ping Yang, Xiao-Long Gu, Jin-Xiang Chen, Jie Yang, Sui-Yi Tan, Wen-Jun Duan
Two new dyhydrophaseic acid glucoside isomers, (1'S, 3'R, 5'S, 8'R, 2Z, 4E)-dihydrophaseic acid-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and (1'R, 3'S, 5'R, 8'R, 2Z, 4E)-dihydrophaseic acid-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), together with 10 known compounds [myo-inositol (1), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), 3-O-galloyl quinic acid (5), ellagic acid (6), gallic acid (7), ethyl gallate (8), scopoletin (9), ellagic acid-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), ellagic acid-4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (11), and isocorilagin (12)] were isolated from the chloroform extract of Canarium album Raeusch fruits by repeated chromatography on macroporous adsorption resin, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, Toyopearl HW-40F, and reverse-phase C18 columns, etc...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Kazuma Ogawa, Miho Aoki, Sumi Kadono, Akira Odani
90Sr, which was released into the atmosphere and the ocean following the Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disasters, is an important nuclear fission element. Compounds that inhibit the absorption of 90Sr into the bloodstream and enhance its elimination can be beneficial in decreasing the absorbed radiation dose in people exposed to 90Sr. Recently, we prepared complexes of myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate (InsP6) with zinc or lanthanum as decorporation agents. These complexes, called Zn-InsP6 and La-InsP6 respectively, are insoluble in water and can potentially chelate additional metal cations...
2018: PloS One
Maísa Azevedo Beluomini, José Luiz da Silva, Nelson Ramos Stradiotto
This paper reports on the development of an amperometric method for the determination of myo-inositol. The method involves coating of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) that was modified with nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs). The MIP was prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole on the surface of the GCE in the presence of myo-inositol molecules. The construction steps of the modified electrode were monitored via cyclic voltammetry, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy...
February 12, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Lindsey A Vandergrift, Emily A Decelle, Johannes Kurth, Shulin Wu, Taylor L Fuss, Elita M DeFeo, Elkan F Halpern, Matthias Taupitz, W Scott McDougal, Aria F Olumi, Chin-Lee Wu, Leo L Cheng
Prostate cancer alters cellular metabolism through events potentially preceding cancer morphological formation. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-based metabolomics of histologically-benign tissues from cancerous prostates can predict disease aggressiveness, offering clinically-translatable prognostic information. This retrospective study of 185 patients (2002-2009) included prostate tissues from prostatectomies (n = 365), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (n = 15), and biopsy cores from cancer-negative patients (n = 14)...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yusuke Iwata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Eric Plitman, Yukiko Mihashi, Fernando Caravaggio, Jun Ku Chung, Julia Kim, Philip Gerretsen, Masaru Mimura, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) have reported altered neurometabolite levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, results are possibly confounded by the influence of antipsychotic (AP). Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to examine neurometabolite levels in AP-naïve/free patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO to identify studies that compared neurometabolite levels in AP-naïve/free patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls (HCs)...
March 23, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Reshu Tiwari, Mohd Haris Siddiqui, Tarique Mahmood, Paramdeep Bagga, Farogh Ahsan, Arshiya Shamim
Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus affecting about 50% of patients. Its symptoms include decreased motility and severe pain in peripheral parts. The pathogenesis involved is an abnormality in blood vessels that supply the peripheral nerves, metabolic disorders such as myo-inositol depletion, and increased nonenzymatic glycation. Moreover, oxidative stress in neurons results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways, which results in the generation of free radicals. Apart from available marketed formulations, extensive research is being carried out on herbal-based natural products to control hyperglycemia and its associated complications...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Jing Zhang, Nan Yang, Yuanyuan Li, Shidong Zhu, Shengnan Zhang, Yadong Sun, Hong-Xia Zhang, Lei Wang, Hongyan Su
Myo-inositol is a vital compound in plants. As the key rate-limiting enzyme in myo-inositol biosynthesis, l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) is regarded as a determinant of the myo-inositol content in plants. The up-regulation of MIPS genes can increase the myo-inositol content, thereby enhancing the plant's resistance to a variety of stresses. However, there are few reports on the roles of myo-inositol and the identification of MIPS in woody trees. In this study, a MIPS gene, named as PeMIPS1, was characterized from Populus euphratica Oliv...
March 22, 2018: Tree Physiology
Rabab Sharif, Henrik Sejersen, Garrett Frank, Jesper Hjortdal, Dimitrios Karamichos
PURPOSE: Keratoconus (KC) is a multifactorial, ectatic corneal disease. Metabolic changes in the corneal stroma with alterations in collagen fibril stability, oxidative stress, and urea cycle, have previously been reported as key players in KC pathobiology. Recently, corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) has been introduced as a treatment that can address the progressive nature of KC. While the treatment has been successful in the early days, it is not without clinical ramifications. In this study, we investigated the alterations in KC metabolic profiles due to CXL...
March 26, 2018: Eye
Qingwei Zhang, Xiaomin Song, Dorothea Bartels
Oropetium thomaeum is a desiccation tolerant grass and acquisition of desiccation tolerance is correlated with changes in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we address the question whether the changes in carbohydrate metabolism are specific to the dehydration process or whether other environmental factors such as high temperature, low temperature, hypoxia, salinity or exogenous ABA application trigger the same or different changes in the sugar metabolism. Fifteen different sugar metabolites were identified by GC/MS, including erythritol, arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, myo-inositol, sedoheptulose, sucrose, trehalose, galactinol, maltose, raffinose, manninotriose and stachyose...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Bharat P Gurale, Mysore S Shashidhar, Richa S Sardessai, Rajesh G Gonnade
A method for the preparation of benzene derivatives from myo-inositol, an abundantly available phyto chemical is described. 1,3-Bridged acetals of inososes undergo step-wise elimination leading to the formation of polyoxygenated benzene derivatives. This aromatization reaction proceeds through the intermediacy of a β-alkoxyenone, which could be isolated. This sequence of reactions starting from myo-inositol, provides a novel route for the preparation of polyoxygenated benzene derivatives including polyoxygenated biphenyl...
March 14, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Roger Mullins, David Reiter, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Objective: Brain glucose hypometabolism is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in this case-control study we used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to assess AD-related differences in the posterior cingulate/precuneal ratio of glucose, lactate, and other metabolites. Methods: J-modulated Point-Resolved Spectroscopy (J-PRESS) and Prior-Knowledge Fitting (ProFit) software was used to measure glucose and other metabolites in the posterior cingulate/precuneus of 25 AD, 27 older controls, and 27 younger control participants...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Yongming Pan, Jianqin Xu, Cheng Chen, Fangming Chen, Ping Jin, Keyan Zhu, Chenyue W Hu, Mengmeng You, Minli Chen, Fuliang Hu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) and neuronal loss. One of the risk factors for AD is high cholesterol levels, which are known to promote Aβ deposition. Previous studies have shown that royal jelly (RJ), a product of worker bees, has potential neuroprotective effects and can attenuate Aβ toxicity. However, little is known about how RJ regulates Aβ formation and its effects on cholesterol levels and neuronal metabolic activities...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Min Liu, Yen-Lin Chen, Yao-Haur Kuo, Mei-Kuang Lu, Chia-Ching Liao
Sapindus mukorossi is a deciduous plant and has recently been recognized to have anticancer property. In the present study, we discovered that S. mukorossi leaf and stem aqueous extract (SaM) contained two polysaccharides mainly made of myo-inositol, galactose, glucose, and fructose and the aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor property the aqueous extract SaM. In vitro treatment of SaM diminished proliferative potential of lung adenocarcinomic cells and induced intracellular oxidative stress, as well as necrotic cell death...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Philippine C Geiszler, Aslihan Ugun-Klusek, Karen Lawler, Marie-Christine Pardon, Ding Yuchun, Li Bai, Clare A Daykin, Dorothee P Auer, Lynn Bedford
Metabolite profiling is an important tool that may better capture the multiple features of neurodegeneration. With the considerable parallels between mouse and human metabolism, the use of metabolomics in mouse models with neurodegenerative pathology provides mechanistic insight and ready translation into aspects of human disease. Using 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we have carried out a temporal region-specific investigation of the metabolome of neuron-specific 26S proteasome knockout mice characterised by progressive neurodegeneration and Lewy-like inclusion formation in the forebrain...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ewelina Stefanovic, Olivia McAuliffe
BACKGROUND: Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei are present in many diverse environments, including dairy and plant materials and the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. Their adaptation to various niches is correlated to intra-species diversity at the genomic and metabolic level. In this study, we compared the genome sequences of three L. paracasei strains isolated from mature Cheddar cheeses, two of which (DPC4206 and DPC4536) shared the same genomic fingerprint by PFGE, but demonstrated varying metabolic capabilities...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ryan B Gil, Alberto Ortiz, Maria D Sanchez-Niño, Katerina Markoska, Eva Schepers, Raymond Vanholder, Griet Glorieux, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Silke S Heinzmann
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a recognized global health problem. While some CKD patients remain stable after initial diagnosis, others can rapidly progress towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This makes biomarkers capable of detecting progressive forms of CKD extremely valuable, especially in non-invasive biofluids such as urine. Screening for metabolite markers using non-targeted metabolomic techniques like nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is increasingly applied to CKD research...
March 14, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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