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Elizabeth Joe, Luis D Medina, John M Ringman, Joseph O'Neill
1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can reveal changes in brain biochemistry in vivo in humans and has been applied to late onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Carriers of mutations for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may show changes in levels of metabolites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T for 16 cognitively asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic mutation carriers (CDR < 1) and 11 non-carriers as part of a comprehensive cross-sectional study of preclinical ADAD...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Wei Zhou, Rui Huang, Zhiguang Zhu, Yi-Heng P Job Zhang
Thermostability and specific activity of enzymes are two of the most important properties for industrial biocatalysts. Here we developed a Petri dish-based double-layer high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy for rapid identification of desired mutants of polyphosphate glucokinase (PPGK) from a thermophilic actinobacterium Thermobifida fusca YX with both enhanced thermostability and activity. Escherichia coli colonies representing a PPGK mutant library were grown on the first-layer Phytagel™-based plates, which can remain solid for 1 h even at heat treatment temperatures of more than 100 °C...
June 8, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hayley Whitfield, Andrew M Riley, Soulla Diogenous, Himali Y Godage, Barry V L Potter, Charles A Brearley
Background and aims: In many soils inositol hexakisphosphate in its various forms is as abundant as inorganic phosphate. The organismal and geochemical processes that exchange phosphate between inositol hexakisphosphate and other pools of soil phosphate are poorly defined, as are the organisms and enzymes involved. We rationalized that simple enzymic synthesis of inositol hexakisphosphate labeled with 32 P would greatly enable study of transformation of soil inositol phosphates when combined with robust HPLC separations of different inositol phosphates...
June 2018: Plant and Soil
Enrique Almanza-Aguilera, Carl Brunius, M Rosa Bernal-Lopez, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Francisco Madrid-Gambin, Francisco J Tinahones, Ricardo Gómez-Huelgas, Rikard Landberg, Cristina Andres-Lacueva
Little is known regarding metabolic benefits of weight loss (WL) on the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients. We aimed to examine the impact of a lifestyle weight loss (LWL) treatment on the plasma metabolomic profile in MHO individuals. Plasma samples from 57 MHO women allocated to an intensive LWL treatment group (TG, hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and regular physical activity, n = 30) or to a control group (CG, general recommendations of a healthy diet and physical activity, n = 27) were analysed using an untargeted 1H-NMR metabolomics approach at baseline, after 3 months (intervention) and 12 months (follow-up)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Paul Priyodip, Seetharaman Balaji
Microbial degradation of myo -inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is crucial to deal with nutritional problems in monogastric animals as well as to prevent environmental phosphate pollution. The present study deals with the degradation of IP6 by microorganisms such as Sporosarcina spp. pasteurii, globiospora, psychrophila, Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii . These microbes were screened for phytase production under laboratory conditions. The specificity of the enzyme was tested for various phosphorylated substrates such as sodium phytate (IP6), sodium hexametaphosphate, phenyl phosphate, α-d-glucose-6 phosphate, inosine 5' monophosphate and pyridoxal 5' phosphate...
June 2018: 3 Biotech
Frances C Robertson, Martha J Holmes, Mark F Cotton, Els Dobbels, Francesca Little, Barbara Laughton, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Abnormalities of the basal ganglia are frequently seen in HIV-infected (HIV+) children despite antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation during childhood. Assessment of metabolites associated with neuronal integrity or with glial proliferation can present a sensitive description of metabolic events underlying basal ganglia structural changes. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine differences in creatine, choline, N -acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate, and myo-inositol between HIV+ children and HIV-unexposed controls, as well as between HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and HIV-unexposed controls at age 7 and at age 9...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska, Agnieszka Nikolajuk, Remigiusz Filarski, Radoslaw Majewski, Eugeniusz Tarasów
Context: We previously demonstrated that insulin infusion altered the metabolite concentrations in cerebral tissues, assessed with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in young subjects with high insulin sensitivity, but not with low insulin sensitivity. Fat overload is an important factor leading to insulin resistance. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) elevation on the metabolites in cerebral tissues, assessed with 1H-MRS...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
A Santamaria, A Alibrandi, A Di Benedetto, B Pintaudi, F Corrado, F Facchinetti, R D'Anna
BACKGROUND: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance that; begins or it is first recognized during pregnancy. Insulin sensitizing substances as Myo-inositol have been considered for the prevention of GDM and related complications. OBJECTIVE: Since previous studies failed to show a clear reduction of GDM complications, the aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and metabolic outcomes in women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus supplemented with myo-inositol since first trimester...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ian Marshall, Michael J Thrippleton, Mark E Bastin, Daisy Mollison, David A Dickie, Francesca M Chappell, Scott I K Semple, Annette Cooper, Sue Pavitt, Gavin Giovannoni, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Bhavana S Solanky, Christopher J Weir, Nigel Stallard, Clive Hawkins, Basil Sharrack, Jeremy Chataway, Peter Connick, Siddharthan Chandran
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy yields metabolic information and has proved to be a useful addition to structural imaging in neurological diseases. We applied short-echo time Spectroscopic Imaging in a cohort of 42 patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Linear modelling with respect to brain tissue type yielded metabolite levels that were significantly different in white matter lesions compared with normal-appearing white matter, suggestive of higher myelin turnover (higher choline), higher metabolic rate (higher creatine) and increased glial activity (higher myo-inositol) within the lesions...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Lianna Y Lee, Alyson E Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Activated almonds are raw almonds that have been soaked in water for 12-24 hours at room temperature sometimes followed by a 24-hour drying period at low temperature (50°C ± 5°C). This treatment is thought to enhance the nutrient bioavailability of almonds by degrading nutrient inhibitors, such as phytic acid or D-myo-inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 ), through the release of phytase or passive diffusion of InsP6 into the soaking water. Over a wide pH range, InsP6 is a negatively charged compound that limits the absorption of essential nutrients by forming insoluble complexes with minerals such as iron and zinc...
May 28, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Krishnendu Pramanik, Shreyasi Kundu, Sandipan Banerjee, Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolases (i.e., phytases) are known to be a very important enzyme responsible for solubilization of insoluble phosphates. In the present study, Enterobacter phytases have characterized by different phylogenetic, structural and functional parameters using some standard bio-computational tools. Results showed that majority of the Enterobacter phytases are acidic in nature as most of the isoelectric points were under 7.0. The aliphatic indices predicted for the selected proteins were below 40 indicating their thermostable nature...
June 2018: 3 Biotech
Kazuhiro Fukano, Kunio Ozawa, Masaya Kokubu, Tetsu Shimizu, Shinsaku Ito, Yasuyuki Sasaki, Akira Nakamura, Shunsuke Yajima
For about 70 years, L-glucose had been considered non-metabolizable by either mammalian or bacterial cells. Recently, however, an L-glucose catabolic pathway has been discovered in Paracoccus laeviglucosivorans, and the genes responsible cloned. Scyllo-inositol dehydrogenase is involved in the first step in the pathway that oxidizes L-glucose to produce L-glucono-1,5-lactone with concomitant reduction of NAD+ dependent manner. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ternary complex of scyllo-inositol dehydrogenase with NAD+ and L-glucono-1,5-lactone at 1...
2018: PloS One
Kristin Harfeldt, Louise Alexander, Julia Lam, Sven Månsson, Hans Westergren, Peter Svensson, Pia C Sundgren, Per Alstergren
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic pain including temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain involves a complex interplay between peripheral and central sensitization, endogenous modulatory pathways, cortical processing and integration and numerous psychological, behavioral and social factors. The aim of this study was to compare spectroscopic patterns of N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (MI), glutamate (Glu), and the combination of Glu and glutamine in the posterior insula in patients with chronic generalized or regional chronic TMD pain (gTMD and rTMD, respectively) compared to healthy individuals (HI) in relation to clinical findings of TMD pain...
April 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
C M Fleet, J Y Yen, E A Hill, G E Gillaspy
Co-suppressed MIPS2 transgenic lines allow bypass of the embryo lethal phenotype of the previously published triple knock-out and demonstrate the effects of MIPS on later stages of development. Regulation of inositol production is of interest broadly for its effects on plant growth and development. The enzyme L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (MIPS, also known as IPS) isomerizes D-glucose-6-P to D-inositol 3-P, and this is the rate-limiting step in inositol production. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the MIPS enzyme is encoded by three different genes, (AtMIPS1, AtMIPS2 and AtMIPS3), each of which has been shown to produce proteins with biochemically similar properties but differential expression patterns...
May 18, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Federica Fraticelli, Claudio Celentano, Isaia Al Zecca, Giacoma Di Vieste, Basilio Pintaudi, Marco Liberati, Marica Franzago, Marta Di Nicola, Ester Vitacolonna
AIMS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder of pregnancy. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of different dosages of inositol stereoisomers supplementation on insulin resistance levels and several maternal-fetal outcomes in GDM women. METHODS: Participants were randomly allocated to receive daily: 400 mcg folic acid (control treatment), 4000 mg myo-inositol plus 400 mcg folic acid (MI treatment), 500 mg D-chiro-inositol plus 400 mcg folic acid (DCI treatment) or 1100/27...
May 17, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Sophie A Lee, Devanaboyina Nagalakshmi, Mantina V L N Raju, Savaram V Rama Rao, Michael R Bedford
A total of 2,376 one-day-old Ross broiler chickens were used to investigate the effect of myo-inositol (MYO) and phytase supplementation on performance and bone mineralization variables in broilers fed diets formulated to have varying concentrations of available phosphorus (P). The trial was designed as a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial; with and without phytase superdosing (0 or 1,500 FTU/kg), MYO (0 or 3 g/kg), and dietary P (low, moderate or high). At 21 d, dietary phytase and MYO had no consistent benefit on bone mineralization variables...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
Yanliang Wang, Erik Lysøe, Tegan Armarego-Marriott, Alexander Erban, Lisa Paruch, Andre van Eerde, Ralph Bock, Jihong Liu-Clarke
Root and root-released organic anions play important roles in uptake of phosphorus (P), an essential macronutrient for food production. Oat, ranking sixth in the world's cereal production, contains valuable nutritional compounds and can withstand poor soil conditions. Our aim was to investigate root transcriptional and metabolic responses of oat grown under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. We conducted a hydroponic experiment and measured root morphology and organic anion exudation, and analysed changes in the transcriptome and metabolome...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Georg Oeltzschner, Helge J Zöllner, Marc Jonuscheit, Rotem S Lanzman, Alfons Schnitzler, Hans-Jörg Wittsack
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate potential effects of acute caffeine intake on J-difference-edited MRS measures of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). METHODS: J-difference-edited Mescher-Garwood PRESS (MEGA-PRESS) and conventional PRESS data were acquired at 3T from voxels in the anterior cingulate and occipital area of the brain in 15 healthy subjects, before and after oral intake of a 200-mg caffeine dose. MEGA-PRESS data were analyzed with the MATLAB-based Gannet tool to estimate GABA+ macromolecule (GABA+) levels, while PRESS data were analyzed with LCModel to estimate levels of glutamate, glutamate+glutamine, N-acetylaspartate, and myo-inositol...
May 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Mario Montanino Oliva, Giovanna Buonomo, Marco Calcagno, Vittorio Unfer
BACKGROUND: Myo-inositol (MI), successfully used in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), was administered with α-LA to exploit its action of favouring the passage of other molecules through biological barriers, and also considering its anti-inflammatory effect. METHODS: PCOS patients, according to the Rotterdam ESHRE-ASRM criteria, with anovulation and infertility > 1 year, were included in this open and prospective study. The preliminary phase was aimed at determining a set of MI-resistant PCOS patients...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Giovanni Monastra, Simonetta Ferruzza, Yula Sambuy, Giulia Ranaldi, Daniela Ferrari
BACKGROUND: . Myo-inositol is a natural molecule with important therapeutic applications and an impaired oral absorption may result in a reduced clinical effect. Aim of this study was to determine if the combined oral administration of α-lactalbumin and myo-inositol in healthy subjects, could increase the plasma level of myo-inositol administered alone. In vitro studies on human differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells were also conducted to identify the mechanisms involved in myo-inositol absorption...
May 8, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
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