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Neuro immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833142/murine-hypothalamic-destruction-with-vascular-cell-apoptosis-subsequent-to-combined-administration-of-human-papilloma-virus-vaccine-and-pertussis-toxin
#1
Satoko Aratani, Hidetoshi Fujita, Yoshiyuki Kuroiwa, Chie Usui, Shumpei Yokota, Ikuro Nakamura, Kusuki Nishioka, Toshihiro Nakajima
Vaccination is the most powerful way to prevent human beings from contracting infectious diseases including viruses. In the case of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, an unexpectedly novel disease entity, HPV vaccination associated neuro-immunopathetic syndrome (HANS), has been reported and remains to be carefully verified. To elucidate the mechanism of HANS, we applied a strategy similar to the active experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) model - one of the most popular animal models used to induce maximum immunological change in the central nervous system...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742111/response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-criteria-and-clinical-endpoints
#2
Raymond Y Huang, Patrick Y Wen
The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Working Group is an international multidisciplinary group whose goal is to improve response criteria and define endpoints for neuro-oncology trials. The RANO criteria for high-grade gliomas attempt to address the issues of pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression. Incorporation of advanced MR imaging may eventually help improve the ability of these criteria to define enhancing and nonenhancing disease better. The RANO group has also developed criteria for neurologic response and evaluation of patients receiving immunologic therapies...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724938/infection-with-plasmodium-berghei-ookinetes-alters-protein-expression-in-the-brain-of-anopheles-albimanus-mosquitoes
#3
Alejandro Alvarado-Delgado, Guillermo Perales Ortiz, Ángel T Tello-López, Sergio Encarnación, Renaud Conde, Ángel G Martínez-Batallar, Ken Moran-Francia, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: The behaviour of Anopheles spp. mosquitoes, vectors for Plasmodium parasites, plays a crucial role in the propagation of malaria to humans. Consequently, it is important to understand how the behaviour of these mosquitoes is influenced by the interaction between the brain and immunological status. The nervous system is intimately linked to the immune and endocrine systems. There is evidence that the malaria parasite alters the function of these systems upon infecting the mosquito...
October 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677784/role-of-neuro-immunological-factors-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-implications-for-novel-therapeutics-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#4
Anindya Bhattacharya, Wayne C Drevets
Mood disorders are associated with persistently high rates of morbidity and mortality, despite the widespread availability of antidepressant treatments. One limitation to extant therapeutic options has been that nearly all approved antidepressant pharmacotherapies exert a similar primary action of blocking monoamine transporters, and few options exist for transitioning treatment resistant patients to alternatives with distinct mechanisms. An emerging area of science that promises novel pathways to antidepressant and mood-stabilizing therapies has followed from evidence that immunological factors play major roles in the pathophysiology of at least some mood disorder subtypes...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673477/the-role-of-autophagy-in-the-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Xiao Liu, Haihong Qin, Jinhua Xu
Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process, whereby unwanted cytoplasmic contents are enclosed by the double-membrane autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosomes for degradation. It is responsible for the recycling of nutrients and cellular components, thus playing a pivotal role in maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as cell survival during stress conditions. Perturbations in autophagy are implicated in multiple diseases, such as cancers and neuro-degeneration diseases. Recent studies demonstrate that autophagy may participate in almost every step of immune responses, including pathogen recognition, antigen processing and presentation, immune cell development and function, and immunoregulation...
September 24, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644129/differentiation-of-spermatogonia-stem-cells-into-functional-mature-neurons-characterized-with-differential-gene-expression
#6
Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein, Amir Shojaei, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ESCs are not usable clinically due to immunological and ethical limitations. The identification of an alternative safe cell source opens novel options via autologous transplantation in neuro-regeneration circumventing these problems. Here, we examined the neurogenic capacity of embryonic stem-like cells (ES-like cells) derived from the testis using neural growth factor inducers and utilized them to generate functional mature neurons...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637745/clinical-outcomes-of-melanoma-brain-metastases-treated-with-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-anti-pd-1-therapy-anti-ctla-4-therapy-braf-mek-inhibitors-braf-inhibitor-or-conventional-chemotherapy
#7
K A Ahmed, Y A Abuodeh, M I Echevarria, J A Arrington, D G Stallworth, C Hogue, A O Naghavi, S Kim, Y Kim, B G Patel, S Sarangkasiri, P A S Johnstone, S Sahebjam, N I Khushalani, P A Forsyth, L B Harrison, M Yu, A B Etame, J J Caudell
BACKGROUND: The effect of immunologic and targeted agents on intracranial response rates in patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBMs) is not yet clearly understood. This report analyzes outcomes of intact MBMs treated with single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and anti-PD-1 therapy, anti-CTLA-4 therapy, BRAF/MEK inhibitors(i), BRAFi, or conventional chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were included if MBMs were treated with single-session SRS within 3 months of receiving systemic therapy...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590316/thrombomodulin-dependent-protein-c-activation-is-required-for-mitochondrial-function-and-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
J Wolter, L Schild, F Bock, A Hellwig, I Gadi, M M Al-Dabet, S Ranjan, R Rönicke, P P Nawroth, K-U Petersen, C Mawrin, K Shahzad, B Isermann
: Essentials The role of protein C (PC) activation in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) is unknown. PC activation is required for mitochondrial function in the central nervous system. Impaired PC activation aggravates EAE, which can be compensated for by soluble thrombomodulin. Protection of myelin by activated PC or solulin is partially independent of immune-modulation. SUMMARY: Background Studies with human samples and in rodents established a function of coagulation proteases in neuro-inflammatory demyelinating diseases (e...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559330/narcolepsy-following-yellow-fever-vaccination-a-case-report
#9
Richard E Rosch, Michael Farquhar, Paul Gringras, Deb K Pal
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare, but important differential diagnosis for daytime sleepiness and atonic paroxysms in an adolescent. A recent increase in incidence in the pediatric age group probably linked to the use of the Pandemrix influenza vaccine in 2009, has increased awareness that different environmental factors can "trigger" narcolepsy with cataplexy in a genetically susceptible population. Here, we describe the case of a 13-year-old boy with narcolepsy following yellow fever vaccination. He carries the HLA DQB1*0602 haplotype strongly associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542559/acute-to-chronic-pain-transition-in-extremity-trauma-a-narrative-review-for-future-preventive-interventions-part-1
#10
Mélanie Bérubé, Manon Choinière, Yves G Laflamme, Céline Gélinas
BACKGROUND: Several studies have been conducted over the last decade that describe the issue of pain and prognostic factors of acute to chronic pain transition post extremity trauma (ET). However, no thorough interventions to prevent chronic pain development in ET patients have yet been proposed. OBJECTIVES: This first part of a series of two articles aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of literature on the epidemiology of pain post-ET, the impact of persistent pain on ET patients and the relevant biological transformations involved in acute to chronic pain transition...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542331/neuro-immune-interactions-in-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-reflex
#11
REVIEW
Colin Reardon
Communication between the nervous and immune systems can significantly alter immune cell function in a number of inflammatory diseases. Elegant studies have defined a basic functional circuit in a "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" that highlights a unique role for the vagus nerve, and has brought about a resurgence in the field of neuro-immunology. This research has further identified that in addition to tonic signals that can restrain immune cell activation; the anti-inflammatory reflex arc is amiable to targeted stimulation as a therapeutic modality...
October 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514726/association-between-obesity-and-asthma-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-clinical-profile
#12
Magdalena Muc, Anabela Mota-Pinto, Cristina Padez
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, and obese asthmatics have lower disease control and increased symptom severity. Several putative links have been proposed, including genetics, mechanical restriction of the chest and the intake of corticosteroids. The most consistent evidence, however, comes from studies of cytokines produced by the adipose tissue called adipokines. Adipokine imbalance is associated with both proinflammatory status and asthma. Although reverse causation has been proposed, it is now acknowledged that obesity precedes asthma symptoms...
August 12, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510612/pediatrics-in-21-st-century-and-beyond
#13
Meharban Singh
Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456886/longstanding-spastic-paraparesis-in-a-patient-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-and-seropositive-for-aquaporin-4-antibody-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
João Dias Ferreira, Ana Castro Caldas, João Correia de Sá, Ruth Geraldes
Nervous system involvement in Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has been associated to neuro-immunological deregulation, particularly in interferon-alpha treated patients. We present a case of optic and brainstem demyelinating disorder associated with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies. A 48 year-old woman, with previous diagnosis of non-treated hepatitis C, presented with a 10-year history of long-standing gait disturbance. Neurological examination disclosed a grade 4 spastic paraparesis, lower limb hyperreflexia, right positive Hoffmann sign, bilateral Babinski sign and spastic gait only possible with bilateral support...
July 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453459/the-role-of-macrophages-in-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-antidepressant-drugs
#15
Katarzyna Nazimek, Spencer Strobel, Paweł Bryniarski, Michael Kozlowski, Iwona Filipczak-Bryniarska, Krzysztof Bryniarski
Depression is a common disease influencing patients' quality of life, whose etiology involves complex interactions of environmental, genetic and immunological factors. The latter factors include proinflammatory activation of monocytes and macrophages and increased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, altogether formulated as the "macrophage theory of depression". Our current review summarizes the impact of the most commonly used antidepressant drugs on the immune response with special emphasis on the role of macrophages in the clinically observed effects...
July 14, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402496/central-nervous-system-immunological-ivory-tower-or-not
#16
Ioana A Marin, Jonathan Kipnis
The view of the nervous system being the victim of destructive inflammation during autoimmunity, degeneration, or injury has been rapidly changing. Recent studies are supporting the idea that the immune system provides support for the nervous system at various levels. Though cell patrolling through the nervous system parenchyma is limited compared with other tissues, immune cell presence within the central nervous system (CNS; microglia), as well as around it (in the meningeal spaces and choroid plexus) has been shown to be important for brain tissue maintenance and function...
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376875/the-role-of-autosuggestion-in-geriatric-patients-quality-of-life-a-study-on-psycho-neuro-endocrine-immunology-pathway
#17
Nina Kemala Sari, Siti Setiati, Akmal Taher, Martina Wiwie, Samsuridjal Djauzi, Jacub Pandelaki, Jan Sudir Purba, Mohamad Sadikin
BACKGROUND There has been no study conducted about the effect of autosuggestion on quality of life for geriatric patients. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of autosuggestion for geriatric patients' quality of life and its impact on psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune pathway. METHODS Sixty geriatric patients aged ≥60 years in a ward were randomly assigned to either receive autosuggestion or not. Autosuggestion was recorded in a tape to be heard daily for 30 days. Both groups received the standard medical therapy...
July 4, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251756/a-non-aggressive-highly-efficient-enzymatic-method-for-dissociation-of-human-brain-tumors-and-brain-tissues-to-viable-single-cells
#18
Ilan Volovitz, Netanel Shapira, Haim Ezer, Aviv Gafni, Merav Lustgarten, Tal Alter, Idan Ben-Horin, Ori Barzilai, Tal Shahar, Andrew Kanner, Itzhak Fried, Igor Veshchev, Rachel Grossman, Zvi Ram
BACKGROUND: Conducting research on the molecular biology, immunology, and physiology of brain tumors (BTs) and primary brain tissues requires the use of viably dissociated single cells. Inadequate methods for tissue dissociation generate considerable loss in the quantity of single cells produced and in the produced cells' viability. Improper dissociation may also demote the quality of data attained in functional and molecular assays due to the presence of large quantities cellular debris containing immune-activatory danger associated molecular patterns, and due to the increased quantities of degraded proteins and RNA...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244951/acupuncture-stimulation-analyzed-from-multiple-aspects-of-western-medical-science
#19
Betül Battaloğlu Inanç
Skin is the biggest and most important organ of us. It has a large surface area and it is easily accessible. While we touch skin, piezoelectric stimulation starts, fundamental property of biological tissues, pressure electrification. And after this stimulation, ferroelectric and pyroelectric effects occur. While we insert the acupuncture needle into skin, we have created a conscious trauma and damage. After this, inflammatory phase, proliferation and tissue formation phase and tissue remodeling phase start...
2016: Acupuncture & Electro-therapeutics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129634/novel-imaging-tools-for-investigating-the-role-of-immune-signalling-in-the-brain
#20
Jonathan Henry W Jacobsen, Lindsay M Parker, Arun V Everest-Dass, Erik P Schartner, Georgios Tsiminis, Vasiliki Staikopoulos, Mark R Hutchinson, Sanam Mustafa
The importance of neuro-immune interactions in both physiological and pathophysiological states cannot be overstated. As our appreciation for the neuroimmune nature of the brain and spinal cord grows, so does our need to extend the spatial and temporal resolution of our molecular analysis techniques. Current imaging technologies applied to investigate the actions of the neuroimmune system in both health and disease states have been adapted from the fields of immunology and neuroscience. While these classical techniques have provided immense insight into the function of the CNS, they are however, inherently limited...
April 26, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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