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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799757/capturing-structural-snapshots-during-photochemical-reactions-with-ultrafast-raman-spectroscopy-from-materials-transformation-to-biosensor-responses
#1
Chong Fang, Longteng Tang, Breland G Oscar, Cheng Chen
Chemistry studies the composition, structure, properties and transformation of matter. A mechanistic understanding of the pertinent processes is required to translate fundamental knowledge into practical applications. The current development of ultrafast Raman as a powerful time-resolved vibrational technique, particularly femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), has shed light on the structure-energy-function relationships of various photosensitive systems. This Perspective reviews recent work incorporating optical innovations including the broadband up-converted multicolor array (BUMA) into a tunable FSRS setup, and demonstrating its resolving power to watch metal speciation and photolysis leading to high-quality thin films, and fluorescence modulation of chimeric protein biosensors for calcium-ion imaging...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723252/test-retest-reliability-of-knee-extensor-rate-of-velocity-and-power-development-in-older-adults-using-the-isotonic-mode-on-a-biodex-system-3-dynamometer
#2
Stijn Van Driessche, Evelien Van Roie, Benedicte Vanwanseele, Christophe Delecluse
Isotonic testing and measures of rapid power production are emerging as functionally relevant test methods for detection of muscle aging. Our objective was to assess reliability of rapid velocity and power measures in older adults using the isotonic mode of an isokinetic dynamometer. Sixty-three participants (aged 65 to 82 years) underwent a test-retest protocol with one week time interval. Isotonic knee extension tests were performed at four different loads: 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of maximal isometric strength...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722622/blood-flow-occlusion-related-o-2-extraction-reserve-is-present-in-different-muscles-of-the-quadriceps-but-greater-in-deeper-regions-after-ramp-incremental-test
#3
Danilo Iannetta, Dai Okushima, Erin Calaine Inglis, Narihiko Kondo, Juan M Murias, Shunsaku Koga
It was recently demonstrated that an O2 extraction reserve, as assessed by the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived deoxygenation signal ([HHb]), exists in the superficial region of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle during an occlusion performed at the end of a ramp-incremental test. However, it is unknown whether this reserve is present and/or different in magnitude in other portions and depths of the quadriceps muscles. We tested the hypothesis that O2 extraction would exist in other regions of this muscle but greater in deep compared to more superficial portions...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705310/ultrasound-assisted-process-intensification-of-uricase-and-alkaline-protease-enzyme-co-production-in-bacillus-licheniformis
#4
Shweta V Pawar, Virendra K Rathod
Low energy ultrasound irradiation was used to enhance co-production of enzymes uricase and alkaline protease using Bacillus licheniformis NRRL 14209. Production of uricase and alkaline protease was evaluated for different ultrasound parameters such as ultrasound power, time of irradiation, duty cycle and growth stage of organisms at which irradiation is carried out. Maximum uricase production of 0.825 U/mL and alkaline protease of 0.646 U/mL have been obtained when fermentation broth was irradiated at 6 h of growth stage with 60 W power for 15 min of duration having 40% of duty cycle...
July 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700746/exploring-an-in-situ-led-illuminated-isothermal-micro-calorimetric-method-to-investigating-the-thermodynamic-behavior-of-chlorella-vulgaris-during-co-2-bio-fixation
#5
Mohammad Russel, Changrui Liu, Asraful Alam, Fei Wang, Jun Yao, Maurycy Daroch, Mahfuzur Rahman Shah, Zhongming Wang
Much endeavor has been dispensed recently to evaluate the potential of CO2 mitigation by microalgae. We introduce an alternative, novel, LED-illumination isothermal microcalorimetric method to assess the thermodynamic behaviors of microalgae for better understanding of their carbon sequestration capacity. Microalgae thermodynamic behaviors were recorded as power-time curves, and their indices such as total heat evolution (Q T ), maximum power output (Pmax ) and heat generated by per algae cell (J N/Q ) were obtained...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521722/effects-of-two-hours-of-heavy-intensity-exercise-on-the-power-duration-relationship
#6
Ida E Clark, Anni Vanhatalo, Stephen J Bailey, Lee J Wylie, Brett S Kirby, Brad W Wilkins, Andrew M Jones
INTRODUCTION: Changes in the parameters of the power-time relationship (critical power (CP) and W') during endurance exercise would have important implications for performance. We tested the hypotheses that CP and W', estimated using the end-test power (EP) and the work done above EP (WEP), respectively, during a the 3-min all-out test (3MT), can be reliably determined, and would be lower, after completing 2-h of heavy-intensity exercise. METHODS: In study 1, six cyclists completed a 3MT immediately following 2-h of heavy-intensity exercise on two occasions to establish the reliability of EP and WEP...
March 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364043/lower-leg-morphology-and-stretch-shortening-cycle-performance-of-dancers
#7
Paige E Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Edward K Merritt, Jeffrey M McBride
Greater levels of bone ultimate fracture load, bone stress-strain index, muscle cross-sectional area, and maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexion strength of the lower leg may be adaptations from chronic exposure to stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions. Dancers, a population that habitually performs SSC movements primarily about the ankle-joint, may serve as a novel population to gain broader understanding of SSC function. Ten female collegiate dancers and ten untrained controls underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of both lower legs and performed maximal voluntary isometric plantarflexions, countermovement hops and drop hops at 20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm on a custom-made inclined sled...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351163/comparison-of-the-force-velocity-and-power-time-curves-between-the-concentric-only-and-eccentric-concentric-bench-press-exercises
#8
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Paul Comfort, John J McMahon, Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, Amador García-Ramos
The aim of this study was to compare the temporal and mechanical variables between the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press (BP) variants. Twenty-one men (age: 22.0±4.2 years, body mass: 73.4±7.7 kg, height: 177.2±8.0 cm; one-repetition maximum [1RM]: 1.12±0.12 kg⋅kg) were evaluated during the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric BP variants using 80% 1RM. Temporal (concentric phase duration, propulsive phase duration, and time to reach the maximum values of force, velocity, and power) and mechanical variables (force, velocity, and power), determined using a linear velocity transducer, were compared between both BP variants...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334580/load-power-relationship-during-a-countermovement-jump-a-joint-level-analysis
#9
Kym J Williams, Dale W Chapman, Elissa J Phillips, Nick B Ball
Williams, KJ, Chapman, DW, Phillips, EJ, and Ball, N. Load-power relationship during a countermovement jump: A joint level analysis. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 955-961, 2018-This study aimed to investigate whether hip, knee, and ankle peak power is influenced by the relative load lifted, altering the joint and system load-power relationship during a countermovement jump (CMJ). Twenty-three male national representative athletes (age: 20.3 ± 3.1 years, squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: 133.8 ± 24.8 kg) completed 3 CMJs at relative barbell loads of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of an athlete's estimated back squat 1RM...
April 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311701/equal-fitness-paradigm-explained-by-a-trade-off-between-generation-time-and-energy-production-rate
#10
James H Brown, Charles A S Hall, Richard M Sibly
Most plant, animal and microbial species of widely varying body size and lifestyle are nearly equally fit as evidenced by their coexistence and persistence through millions of years. All organisms compete for a limited supply of organic chemical energy, derived mostly from photosynthesis, to invest in the two components of fitness: survival and production. All organisms are mortal because molecular and cellular damage accumulates over the lifetime; life persists only because parents produce offspring. We call this the equal fitness paradigm...
February 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174971/a-self-powered-biosensing-device-with-an-integrated-hybrid-biofuel-cell-for-intermittent-monitoring-of-analytes
#11
Dominika Majdecka, Sylwia Draminska, Dariusz Janusek, Paweł Krysinski, Renata Bilewicz
In this work, we propose an integrated self-powered sensing system, driven by a hybrid biofuel cell (HBFC) with carbon paper discs coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The sensing system has a biocathode made from laccase or bilirubin oxidase, and the anode is made from a zinc plate. The system includes a dedicated custom-built electronic control unit for the detection of oxygen and catechol analytes, which are central to medical and environmental applications. Both the HBFC and sensors, operate in a mediatorless direct electron transfer mode...
April 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153914/determination-of-orientin-in-trollius-chinensis-using-ultrasound-assisted-extraction-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-several-often-overlooked-sample-preparation-parameters-in-an-ultrasonic-bath
#12
Mengxia Wei, Lei Yang
The erratic pressure intensities and cavitation exhibited in an ultrasonic bath pose various during practical application. To achieve the most efficient experimental design, this manuscript aims to discover violently sites that are subject to the effect of slight changes in position on cavitation and ultrasound intensity distributed in the ultrasonic bath. In addition, optimization several often over-looked ultrasound parameters and experimental conditions, are intended to place the reaction vessel properly and operate under suitable experimental conditions to obtain the maximum yield of target analyte...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094469/atomic-force-microscopy-and-nanoindentation-investigation-of-polydimethylsiloxane-elastomeric-substrate-compliancy-for-various-sputtered-thin-film-morphologies
#13
Debashis Maji, Soumen Das
Crack free electrically continuous metal thin films over soft elastomeric substrates play an integral part in realization of modern day flexible bioelectronics and biosensors. Under nonoptimized deposition conditions, delamination, and/or cracking of the top film as well as the underlying soft substrate hinders optimal performance of these devices. Hence it is very important to understand and control not only the various deposition factors like power, time, or deposition pressure but also investigate the various interfacial physics playing a critical role in assuring thin film adhesion and substrate compliancy...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089109/explosive-lower-limb-extension-mechanics-an-on-land-vs-in-water-exploratory-comparison
#14
Brice Guignard, Jessy Lauer, Pierre Samozino, Luis Mourão, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Annie Hélène Rouard
During a horizontal underwater push-off, performance is strongly limited by the presence of water, inducing resistances due to its dense and viscous nature. At the same time, aquatic environments offer a support to the swimmer with the hydrostatic buoyancy counteracting the effects of gravity. Squat jump is a vertical terrestrial push-off with a maximal lower limb extension limited by the gravity force, which attracts the body to the ground. Following this observation, we characterized the effects of environment (water vs...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066127/in-vivo-percutaneous-microwave-ablation-in-kidneys-correlation-with-ex-vivo-data-and-ablation-work
#15
C Marcelin, J Leiner, A Nasri, F Petitpierre, Y Le Bras, M Yacoub, N Grenier, J C Bernhard, F Cornelis
PURPOSE: To compare diameters of in vivo microwave ablation (MWA) performed in swine kidneys with ex vivo diameters, and to correlate with ablation work (AW), a new metric reflecting total energy delivered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen in vivo MWA were performed in 6 swine kidneys successively using one or two antennas (MicroThermX® ). Ablation consisted in delivering power (45-120W) for 5-15minutes. Ex vivo diameters were provided by the vendors and obtained on bovine liver tissue...
January 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022389/the-composition-and-metabolism-of-faecal-microbiota-is-specifically-modulated-by-different-dietary-polysaccharides-and-mucin-an-isothermal-microcalorimetry-study
#16
K Adamberg, K Kolk, M Jaagura, R Vilu, S Adamberg
The metabolic activity of colon microbiota is specifically affected by fibres with various monomer compositions, degree of polymerisation and branching. The supply of a variety of dietary fibres assures the diversity of gut microbial communities considered important for the well-being of the host. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different oligo- and polysaccharides (galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, levan, inulin, arabinogalactan, xylan, pectin and chitin), and a glycoprotein mucin on the growth and metabolism of faecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC)...
January 29, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912659/power-time-curve-comparison-between-weightlifting-derivatives
#17
Timothy J Suchomel, Christopher J Sole
This study examined the power production differences between weightlifting derivatives through a comparison of power-time (P-t) curves. Thirteen resistance-trained males performed hang power clean (HPC), jump shrug (JS), and hang high pull (HHP) repetitions at relative loads of 30%, 45%, 65%, and 80% of their one repetition maximum (1RM) HPC. Relative peak power (PPRel), work (WRel), and P-t curves were compared. The JS produced greater PPRel than the HPC (p < 0.001, d = 2.53) and the HHP (p < 0.001, d = 2...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904833/fluorination-of-vertically-aligned-carbon-nanotubes-from-cf4-plasma-chemistry-to-surface-functionalization
#18
Claudia Struzzi, Mattia Scardamaglia, Jean-François Colomer, Alberto Verdini, Luca Floreano, Rony Snyders, Carla Bittencourt
The surface chemistry of plasma fluorinated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (vCNT) is correlated to the CF4 plasma chemical composition. The results obtained via FTIR and mass spectrometry are combined with the XPS and Raman analysis of the sample surface showing the dependence on different plasma parameters (power, time and distance from the plasma region) on the resulting fluorination. Photoemission and absorption spectroscopies are used to investigate the evolution of the electronic properties as a function of the fluorine content at the vCNT surface...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869849/metabolic-pathway-and-role-of-individual-species-in-the-bacterial-consortium-for-biodegradation-of-azo-dye-a-biocalorimetric-investigation
#19
Bhuvanesh Kumar Shanmugam, Sivanesh Nanjan Easwaran, Rachita Lakra, Perinkulam Ravi Deepa, Surianarayanan Mahadevan
In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the functional role and metabolic behaviour of the monoculture (Staphylococcus lentus (SL), Bacillus flexus (BF) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)) in the bacterial biocenosis for biotransformation of an azo dye. The power-time profile obtained from consortia depicted three distinct peaks, which correlated well with the individual bacterial growth (PA > SL > BF), indicating the synergistic relation and division of labour in the biocenosis. The heat release pattern was used to identify the sequential behaviour of microbial consortia in real time...
December 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837602/insights-on-correlation-dimension-from-dynamics-mapping-of-three-experimental-nonlinear-laser-systems
#20
Christopher J McMahon, Joshua P Toomey, Deb M Kane
BACKGROUND: We have analysed large data sets consisting of tens of thousands of time series from three Type B laser systems: a semiconductor laser in a photonic integrated chip, a semiconductor laser subject to optical feedback from a long free-space-external-cavity, and a solid-state laser subject to optical injection from a master laser. The lasers can deliver either constant, periodic, pulsed, or chaotic outputs when parameters such as the injection current and the level of external perturbation are varied...
2017: PloS One
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