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Aaron J Young, Jessica Foss, Hannah Gannon, Daniel P Ferris
A broad goal in the field of powered lower limb exoskeletons is to reduce the metabolic cost of walking. Ankle exoskeletons have successfully achieved this goal by correctly timing a plantarflexor torque during late stance phase. Hip exoskeletons have the potential to assist with both flexion and extension during walking gait, but the optimal timing for maximally reducing metabolic cost is unknown. The focus of our study was to determine the best assistance timing for applying hip assistance through a pneumatic exoskeleton on human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Guangyao Ying, Shanshan Zhang, Yuli Hu, Meihua Yang, Ping Chen, Xiaoru Wu, Weiying Guo, Weijun Kong
For seeking novel antibacterial agents with high efficacy and low toxicity to deal with drug resistance, the effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae from various sources on Escherichia coli were evaluated by microcalorimetry coupled with chemometrics. Firstly, the heat-flow power-time curves of E. coli growth affected by different S. miltiorrhizae samples were recorded. Then, some crucial quantitative thermo-kinetic parameters including growth rate constant, heat-flow power and heat output, etc. were obtained from theses curves and were further investigated by some powerful chemometric techniques including similarity analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, hierarchical clustering analysis and principle component analysis...
December 2017: AMB Express
Duo Chen, Suiren Wan, Jing Xiang, Forrest Sheng Bao
In the past decade, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), a powerful time-frequency tool, has been widely used in computer-aided signal analysis of epileptic electroencephalography (EEG), such as the detection of seizures. One of the important hurdles in the applications of DWT is the settings of DWT, which are chosen empirically or arbitrarily in previous works. The objective of this study aimed to develop a framework for automatically searching the optimal DWT settings to improve accuracy and to reduce computational cost of seizure detection...
2017: PloS One
Christine Janas, Marc-Philip Mast, Li Kirsamer, Carlo Angioni, Fiona Gao, Werner Mäntele, Jennifer Dressman, Matthias G Wacker
The dispersion releaser (DR) is a dialysis-based setup for the analysis of the drug release from nanosized drug carriers. It is mounted into dissolution apparatus2 of the United States Pharmacopoeia. The present study evaluated the DR technique investigating the drug release of the model compound flurbiprofen from drug solution and from nanoformulations composed of the drug and the polymer materials poly (lactic acid), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) or Eudragit(®)RSPO. The drug loaded nanocarriers ranged in size between 185...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Danielle T Lynd, Ryan L Harne
To bypass challenges of digital signal processing for acoustic beamforming applications, it is desirable to investigate repeatable mechanical approaches that accurately reposition transducers for real-time, simple guiding of acoustic energy. One promising approach is to create arrays configured on origami-inspired tessellated architectures. The low dimensionality, easy implementation, compactness, and use of straightforward folding to guide acoustic energies suggest that tessellated arrays may bypass limitations of conventional digital signal processing for beamforming...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Maria Doreth, Murtadha Abdul Hussein, Petra A Priemel, Holger Grohganz, René Holm, Heidi Lopez de Diego, Thomas Rades, Korbinian Löbmann
In situ amorphization is a concept that allows to amorphize a given drug in its final dosage form right before administration. Hence, this approach can potentially be used to circumvent recrystallization issues that other amorphous formulation approaches are facing during storage. In this study, the feasibility of microwave irradiation to prepare amorphous solid dispersions (glass solutions) in situ was investigated. Indomethacin (IND) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K12 (PVP) were tableted at a 1:2 (w/w) ratio. In order to study the influence of moisture content and energy input on the degree of amorphization, tablet formulations were stored at different relative humidity (32, 43 and 54% RH) and subsequently microwaved using nine different power-time combinations up to a maximum energy input of 90kJ...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Thomas J Hureau, Ryan M Broxterman, Joshua C Weavil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Bin Lyu, Zhen Yang, Guan Gui, Youhong Feng
This paper considers a backscatter communication (BackCom) system including a reader and N tags, where each tag receives excitation signals transmitted by the reader and concurrently backscatters information to the reader in time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) mode. In this system, we aim to maximize the total system goodput by jointly optimizing reader transmission power, time allocation, and reflection ratio for the cases of passive and semi-passive tags. For each case, an optimization problem is formulated, which is non-convex and can be solved by being decomposed into at most N feasible sub-problems based on the priority of allocated reader transmission power...
November 29, 2016: Sensors
Xiaoming Xue, Jianzhong Zhou
To make further improvement in the diagnosis accuracy and efficiency, a mixed-domain state features data based hybrid fault diagnosis approach, which systematically blends both the statistical analysis approach and the artificial intelligence technology, is proposed in this work for rolling element bearings. For simplifying the fault diagnosis problems, the execution of the proposed method is divided into three steps, i.e., fault preliminary detection, fault type recognition and fault degree identification...
November 16, 2016: ISA Transactions
Qingbao Yu, Lei Wu, David A Bridwell, Erik B Erhardt, Yuhui Du, Hao He, Jiayu Chen, Peng Liu, Jing Sui, Godfrey Pearlson, Vince D Calhoun
The topological architecture of brain connectivity has been well-characterized by graph theory based analysis. However, previous studies have primarily built brain graphs based on a single modality of brain imaging data. Here we develop a framework to construct multi-modal brain graphs using concurrent EEG-fMRI data which are simultaneously collected during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) resting states. FMRI data are decomposed into independent components with associated time courses by group independent component analysis (ICA)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yuting Wang, Zhongjiang Wang, Cíntia Ladeira Handa, Jing Xu
The effect of power, time and temperature of ultrasound on the structure of β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S), and on the antioxidant activity of their hydrolysates were investigated. All ultrasound treated 7S and 11S fractions showed an increase in the α-helix and β-turn proportions, and a decrease in β-sheet and random coil proportions. The polarity of 7S and 11S microenvironment increased after ultrasound treatment. Ultrasound treatment significantly increased the reduction capacity and iron chelating capacity of 7S and 11S hydrolysates...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Rasesh B Joshi, Nicolas Gaspard, Irina I Goncharova, Robert B Duckrow, Dominique Duncan, Jason L Gerrard, Dennis D Spencer, Lawrence J Hirsch, Hitten P Zaveri
OBJECTIVE: We examined low-frequency amplitude modulations of band power time-series, i.e. the second spectrum, of the intracranial EEG (icEEG) for evidence of support for spatial relationships between different parts of the brain and within the default mode network (DMN). METHODS: We estimated magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) of the running power in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands for one-hour background icEEG epochs recorded from 9 patients...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Paige E Rice, Courtney L Goodman, Christopher R Capps, N Travis Triplett, Travis M Erickson, Jeffrey M McBride
The purpose of this study was to compare force- and power-time curve variables during jumping between Division I strength-matched male and female basketball athletes. Males (n = 8) and females (n = 8) were strength matched by testing a one-repetition maximum (1RM) back squat. 1RM back squat values were normalised to body mass in order to demonstrate that strength differences were a function of body mass alone. Subjects performed three countermovement jumps (CMJ) at maximal effort. Absolute and relative force- and power-time curve variables from the CMJs were analysed between males and females...
April 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
Yuan Mei, Boyu Xu, Hao Chi, Tao Jin, Shilie Zheng, Xiaofeng Jin, Xianmin Zhang
Photonic time stretch (PTS) has been intensively investigated in recent decades due to its potential application to ultra-wideband analog-to-digital conversion. A high-speed analog signal can be captured by an electronic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with the help of the PTS technique, which slows down the speed of signal in the photonic domain. Unfortunately, the process of the time stretch is not linear due to the nonlinear modulation of the electro-optic intensity modulator in the PTS system, which means the undesired harmonics distortion...
September 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Ramsey A Al-Hakim, Fereidoun G Abtin, Scott J Genshaft, Erin Kutay, Robert D Suh
PURPOSE: To investigate pulmonary microwave ablation metrics including ablation work, ablation resistance score, and involution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review was performed of 98 pulmonary tumor ablations using the NeuWave Certus Microwave Ablation System (NeuWave Medical, Madison, Wisconsin) in 71 patients (32 men and 39 women; mean age, 64.7 y ± 11.5). Ablation work was defined as sum of (power) * (time) * (number of antennas) for all phases during an ablation procedure...
September 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Jing-Mei Li, Hao-Yun Cheng, Yi-Hsuan Chiu, Yung-Jung Hsu
For the first time a ZnO nanorod-based Z-scheme heterostructure system was proposed and realized for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting. The samples were prepared by depositing a thin layer of SnO2 on the Au surface of Au particle-decorated ZnO nanorods. For ZnO-Au-SnO2 nanorods, the embedded Au can mediate interfacial charge transfer by promoting electron transfer from the conduction band of SnO2 to the valence band of ZnO. This vectorial charge transfer resulted in the situation that the photoexcited electrons accumulated at ZnO while the photogenerated holes concentrated at SnO2, giving ZnO-Au-SnO2 substantially high redox powers...
August 25, 2016: Nanoscale
Bart Johnson, Walid Atia, Dale C Flanders, Mark Kuznetsov, Brian D Goldberg, Nate Kemp, Peter Whitney
A back-to-back comparison of a tunable narrow-band-filtered SLED (TSLED) and a swept laser are made for OCT applications. The two sources are similar in terms of sweep speed, tuning range and coherence length. A fundamental issue with a TSLED is that the RIN is proportional to 1/linewidth, meaning that the longer the coherence length, the higher the RIN and clock jitter. We show that the TSLED has an SNR limit that causes noise streaks at points of high reflection in images. The laser, which is shot noise limited, does not exhibit this effect...
May 16, 2016: Optics Express
Haiying Li, Arthur C Graesser
We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the contexts of power phase, the nation's education level, power duration, and age. The study was guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which includes a central route (represented by formal discourse) versus a peripheral route (represented by informal discourse) to persuasion...
September 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Debarpan Guhathakurta, Anirban Dutta
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates cortical neural activity and hemodynamics. Electrophysiological methods (electroencephalography-EEG) measure neural activity while optical methods (near-infrared spectroscopy-NIRS) measure hemodynamics coupled through neurovascular coupling (NVC). Assessment of NVC requires development of NIRS-EEG joint-imaging sensor montages that are sensitive to the tDCS affected brain areas. In this methods paper, we present a software pipeline incorporating freely available software tools that can be used to target vascular territories with tDCS and develop a NIRS-EEG probe for joint imaging of tDCS-evoked responses...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Simon Avrillon, Boris Jidovtseff, François Hug, Gaël Guilhem
PURPOSE: Muscle strengthening is commonly based on the use of isoinertial loading, whereas variable resistances such as pneumatic loading may be implemented to optimize training stimulus. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of the ratio between pneumatic and isoinertial resistance on the force-velocity relationship during ballistic movements. METHODS: A total of 15 participants performed two concentric repetitions of ballistic bench press movements with intention to throw the bar at 30%, 45%, 60%, 75%, and 90% of the maximal concentric repetition, with five resistance ratios including 100%, 75%, 50%, 25% or 0% of pneumatic resistance, the additional load being isoinertial...
June 27, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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