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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054857/diazepam-concurrently-increases-the-frequency-and-decreases-the-amplitude-of-dopamine-transient-release-events-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#1
Scott A Schelp, Zachary D Brodnik, Dylan R Rakowski, Katherine J Pultorak, Asha T Sambells, Rodrigo A Espana, Erik B Oleson
Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed anxiolytics that pose abuse liability in susceptible individuals. While it is well established that all drugs of abuse increase brain dopamine levels and benzodiazepines are allosteric modulators of the GABAAR, it remains unclear how they alter dopamine release. Using in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, we measured diazepam (trade name valium) induced changes in the frequency and amplitude of transient dopamine release events. We found that diazepam concurrently increase the frequency and decreases the amplitude of transient dopamine release events in the awake and freely-moving rat...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053436/is-the-danish-version-of-mate-feasible-a-pilot-study-on-feasibility-and-adequacy
#2
Morten Ellegaard Hell, Kjeld Andersen, Anette Søgaard Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Assessment is pivotal to the work of healthcare professionals and social workers as it provides fundamental, systematic information that is essential when planning interventions. Many patients have addiction problems as well as psychiatric illness and they very often interact. An assessment tool addressing both areas would be beneficial for this large group of patients. This pilot study explores feasibility and adequacy of the Danish translation of the Measurements in Addiction for Triage and Evaluation (MATE) assessment in the following sectors: drug- and alcohol treatment, psychiatry and social service...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050902/housing-conditions-modulate-the-reinforcing-properties-of-cocaine-in-adolescent-mice-that-binge-on-fat
#3
M Carmen Blanco-Gandía, Sandra Montagud-Romero, María A Aguilar, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
Binge eating is a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent, excessive eating. To date, several studies have addressed the effects that bingeing on fat has on the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but they have found contradictory and highly variable results. Housing conditions could modulate these results, as most studies employ isolated animals to measure the exact amount of food that is ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of housing conditions on the response of mice to cocaine, modulated by bingeing on a high-fat diet during adolescence...
October 16, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049121/opioids-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-mistakes-made-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#4
Jane C Ballantyne
An overreliance on opioids has impacted all types of pain management, making it undoubtedly a root cause of the "epidemic" of prescription opioid abuse in the United States. Yet, an examination of the statistics that led the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to declare that prescription opioid abuse had reached epidemic levels shows that the abuse occurrences and deaths are arising outside the hospital or hospice setting, which strongly implicates the outpatient use of opioids to treat chronic pain...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049116/basic-translational-development-of-forthcoming-opioid-and-nonopioid-targeted-pain-therapeutics
#5
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Ajay Yekkirala, Tony L Yaksh
Opioids represent an efficacious therapeutic modality for some, but not all pain states. Singular reliance on opioid therapy for pain management has limitations, and abuse potential has deleterious consequences for patient and society. Our understanding of pain biology has yielded insights and opportunities for alternatives to conventional opioid agonists. The aim is to have efficacious therapies, with acceptable side effect profiles and minimal abuse potential, which is to say an absence of reinforcing activity in the absence of a pain state...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049111/risk-management-for-opioid-prescribing-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-pain-from-cancer-or-terminal-illness-inadvertent-oversight-or-taboo
#6
David J Copenhaver, Nicolas B Karvelas, Scott M Fishman
As the United States experiences an epidemic of prescription drug abuse, and guidelines on safe practices in prescribing opioids in chronic pain have subsequently emerged from professional organizations and governmental agencies, limited guidance exists for prescribers of opioids to treat pain in patients with cancer or terminal illness. Patients with active cancer or terminal illness often have pain and are frequently prescribed opioids and other controlled substances. Current studies suggest that patients with cancer have similar rates of risk for misuse, abuse, and addiction as the general public...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049083/ketamine-and-pharmacological-imaging-use-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-evaluate-mechanisms-of-action
#7
Eric A Maltbie, Gopinath S Kaundinya, Leonard L Howell
Ketamine has been used as a pharmacological model for schizophrenia as subanesthetic infusions have been shown to produce temporary schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy humans. More recently, ketamine has emerged as a potential treatment for multiple psychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant depression and suicidal ideation. However, the mechanisms underlying both the psychotomimetic and the therapeutic effects of ketamine remain poorly understood. This review provides an overview of what is known of the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of ketamine and details what functional MRI studies have yielded at a systems level focused on brain circuitry...
October 18, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048188/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-d-amphetamine-self-administration-following-nicotine-exposure
#8
Dustin J Stairs, Sarah E Ewin, Megan M Kangiser, Markus N Pfaff
Adolescent nicotine exposure has been shown to lead to further psychostimulant use in adulthood. Previous preclinical research in rats has shown that environmental enrichment may protect against drug abuse vulnerability. The current study was designed to examine whether environmental enrichment can block the ability of adolescent nicotine exposure to increase d-amphetamine self-administration in adulthood. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in either enriched conditions (ECs) or isolated conditions (ICs) and then injected with saline or nicotine (0...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046747/ventricular-fibrillation-due-to-overdose-of-loperamide-the-poor-man-s-methadone
#9
Amr Salama, Yana Levin, Pramod Jha, Richard Alweis
Loperamide is an over-the-counter antidiarrheal agent that is considered by many patients to be safe, but has been used as a drug of abuse due to its opioid properties. However, cardiotoxicity has been reported, prompting the FDA to release a warning regarding the arrhythmogenic potential of loperamide. We present a case of a 38-year-old female presenting with cardiac arrest thought to be secondary to abuse of the loperamide that she was using to alleviate the heroin withdrawal symptoms. Cardiac ischemia and other drug toxicities were ruled out...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046744/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-patients-with-acute-drug-intoxication-admitted-to-icu
#10
Jose Orsini, Nanda Din, Ershad Elahi, Anthony Gomez, Salil Rajayer, Ryan Malik, Elie Jean
Background: Drug overdose continues to be the most common cause of acute poisoning worldwide. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence over the past decade, probably as a result of the emergence of new synthetic designer drugs. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with acute drug intoxication admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: A single center, prospective, observational study was conducted among all adult patients with clinical signs suggestive of acute drug intoxication admitted from the Emergency Department (ED) to ICU during a 6-month period (September to March)...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046178/a-psychiatric-formulary-for-long-duration-spaceflight
#11
Eric Friedman, Brian Bui
Behavioral health is essential for the safety, well-being, and performance of crewmembers in both human spaceflight and Antarctic exploration. Over the past five decades, psychiatric issues have been documented in orbital spaceflight. In Antarctica, literature suggests up to 5% of wintering crewmembers could meet criteria for a psychiatric illness, including mood disorders, stressor-related disorders, sleep-wake disorders, and substance-related disorders. Experience from these settings indicates that psychiatric disorders on deep space missions must be anticipated...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045302/neurosteroid-levels-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-a-history-of-cannabis-use-disorders
#12
Brittany L Mason, Erin Van Enkevort, Francesca Filbey, Christine E Marx, John Park, Alyson Nakamura, Prabha Sunderajan, E Sherwood Brown
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: In animal models, levels of the neurosteroid pregnenolone increase after tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration and pregnenolone appears to attenuate the brain effects of THC. Given these interactions between pregnenolone and THC, we evaluated baseline neurosteroid levels in participants with a history of a cannabis use disorders (CUDs). METHODS/PROCEDURES: Bipolar depressed participants were enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of add-on pregnenolone for depression and before receiving pregnenolone or placebo...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045260/encopresis-plus
#13
DePorres Cormier, Marie Reilly, Amy Young, Marilyn Augustyn
Dexter is a 12-year-old boy who presents with his maternal grandmother for follow-up to primary care for secondary encopresis. Dexter presented, 18 months ago, with a 3-month history of secondary encopresis. At that time, a comprehensive assessment revealed functional constipation resulting in encopresis. Dexter's symptoms resolved with a combination of medication management and behavioral strategies; laxatives were discontinued 12 months ago.Dexter's grandmother reports that for the past 6 months, her grandson developed encopresis once again...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040840/experiences-of-structural-vulnerability-among-exotic-dancers-in-baltimore-maryland-co-occurring-social-and-economic-antecedents-of-hiv-sti-risk
#14
Meredith L Brantley, Katherine H A Footer, Sahnah Lim, Deanna Kerrigan, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Women who grow up in economic scarcity often face limited opportunities for upward mobility, as a result of challenges securing stable housing, quality education, and steady employment. Chronic instability may limit the capacity of women to protect themselves against HIV/STI-related harm when engaging in sexual activity or drug use. Characterizing the structural contexts that facilitate HIV/STI risk among women are critical to effective design and implementation of drug and sexual harm reduction interventions...
October 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040114/association-of-adverse-childhood-experiences-with-co-occurring-health-conditions-in-early-childhood
#15
Melissa A Bright, Lindsay A Thompson
OBJECTIVE: To understand how adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with co-occurring physical, mental and developmental problems during early childhood. METHOD: A subsample of 19,957 children aged 2-5 years were selected from the 2011-2012 National Survey for Child Health. Outcomes included 18 health conditions organized in singular condition domains (physical, mental, and developmental), and combinations of condition domains (e.g., physical plus mental, mental plus developmental, etc...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039413/vta-mtor-signaling-regulates-dopamine-dynamics-cocaine-induced-synaptic-alterations-and-reward
#16
Xiaojie Liu, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Casey R Vickstrom, Qing-Song Liu
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates long-term synaptic plasticity, learning and memory by controlling dendritic protein synthesis. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has been shown to attenuate the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Using viral vectors to selectively delete mTOR in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in adult male mTOR(loxP/loxP) mice, we investigated the role of mTOR in regulating neuronal morphology, basal synaptic transmission, dopamine dynamics and cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and rewarding effects...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038946/cognitive-and-behavioral-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-update-ii-behavioral-disorders
#17
Luigi Trojano, Costanza Papagno
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can experience several behavioral symptoms, such as apathy, agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movements, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, and REM sleep behavioral disorders. Psychoses and hallucinations, depression and anxiety disorders, and difficulties in recognizing and experiencing emotions also impair behavior and can cause severe psychosocial problems in patients with PD. Symptoms can be present since early stages of the disease, sometimes even before the appearance of classical motor symptoms, likely in relation to dopamine depletion in basal ganglia and/or to dysfunctions of other neurotrasmitter systems, and others can develop later, in some cases in relation to dopaminergic treatment...
October 16, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038716/relationship-between-a-network-s-indicators-and-basic-factors-with-high-risk-behavior-of-injection-among-injecting-drug-users-idu-via-the-multiple-membership-multilevel-model
#18
Ali Karamoozian, Yunes Jahani, Armita Shahesmaeili, Moghaddameh Mirzaee
BACKGROUND: Among various methods and types of drug abuse, injection receives a great deal of importance because of its related dangerous behavior and health consequences. It seemed that some of the network's indicators affect dangerous behavior of injection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between a network's indicators and basic factors with high-risk behavior of injection among injecting drug users (IDU) via the multiple memberships multilevel model...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038246/cb1-dependent-long-term-depression-in-ventral-tegmental-area-gaba-neurons-a-novel-target-for-marijuana
#19
Lindsey Friend, Jared Weed, Philip Sandoval, Teresa Nufer, Isaac Ostlund, Jeffrey G Edwardsa
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is necessary for reward behavior with dopamine cells critically involved in reward signaling. Dopamine cells in turn are innervated and regulated by neighboring inhibitory GABA cells. Using whole cell electrophysiology in juvenile-adolescent GAD67-GFP male mice we examined excitatory plasticity in fluorescent VTA GABA cells. A novel CB1-dependent long-term depression (LTD) was induced in GABA cells that was dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037790/glucocorticoid-receptor-in-rat-nucleus-accumbens-its-roles-in-propofol-addictions
#20
Binbin Wu, Wenxuan Lin, Hong Wang, Taha Abdullah, Benfu Wang, Ying Su, Ren-Shan Ge, Qingquan Lian
Propofol has been demonstrated as a drug of abuse in humans. Our previous study indicated that dexamethasone, a potent agonist of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), inhibited propofol-maintained rat self-administration behaviors by systematic injection. However, the direct effect of GR in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on propofol self-administration behavior has not been explored. The propofol-maintained self-administration was established in rats after a successive 3-h daily self-administration of propofol for 14days...
October 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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