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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691801/a-brief-history-of-the-opioid-epidemic-and-strategies-for-pain-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Mark R Jones, Omar Viswanath, Jacquelin Peck, Alan D Kaye, Jatinder S Gill, Thomas T Simopoulos
The opioid epidemic has resulted from myriad causes and will not be solved by any simple solution. Consequent to a staggering increase in opioid-related deaths in the USA, various governmental inputs and stakeholder strategies have been proposed and implemented with varying success. This article summarizes the history of opioid use and explores the causes for the present day epidemic. Recent trends in opioid-related data demonstrate an almost fourfold increase in overdose deaths from 1999 to 2008. Tragically, opioids claimed over 64,000 lives just last year...
April 24, 2018: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690558/abuse-of-prescription-drugs-in-the-context-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake...
April 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690521/the-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-2-subunit-activates-a-neuronal-tlr4-signal-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-that-regulates-alcohol-and-nicotine-abuse
#3
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Harry June, Laure Aurelian
Alcoholism initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking, known as binge drinking, which is one form of excessive drinking (NIAAA Newsletter, 2004) that is related to impulsivity and anxiety (Ducci et al., 2007; Edenberg et al., 2004) and is also predictive of smoking status. The predisposition of non-alcohol exposed subjects to initiate binge drinking is controlled by neuroimmune signaling that includes an innately activated neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal. This signal also regulates cognitive impulsivity, a heritable trait that defines drug abuse initiation...
April 21, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688694/in-situ-determination-of-illegal-drugs-in-oral-fluid-by-portable-capillary-electrophoresis-with-deep-uv-excited-fluorescence-detection
#4
Piret Saar-Reismaa, Enn Erme, Merike Vaher, Maria Kulp, Mihkel Kaljurand, Jekaterina Mazina-Scaron Inkar
The present study demonstrates the potential of a portable capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument, coupled to deep UV fluores-cence detector (FD) with a 230-255 nm excitation wavelength range, for the determination of the abuse of illegal drugs in oral fluids in situ. CE was introduced in this study due its exceptional power of separation and resolution, short analysis time and abil-ity for miniaturization for on-site assessment of different substances. The deep UV fluorescence detector was equipped with five interchangeable emission filters, in the emission wavelength range from 278 to 600 nm, and was successfully employed for deter-mination of natively fluorescing illegal drugs, such as cocaine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxeamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), para-methoxy-N-methylamphetamine (PMMA), amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD)...
April 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687402/verbal-and-spatial-working-memory-among-drug-using-hiv-infected-men-and-women
#5
Eileen Martin, M K Keutmann, J S Fogel, P M Maki, R Gonzalez, J Vassileva, L H Rubin, D Hardy
Working memory (WM) is a critical component of many neurocognitive functions. The literature has demonstrated consistently that WM impairment is more frequent and severe among substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) infected with HIV compared with uninfected SDIs; however, the SDIs who participated in these previous studies were primarily male. There are few published data on WM performance among HIV+ women with or without substance use disorders, and essentially no direct comparisons of WM performance between HIV+ men and women, regardless of substance use...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684910/forensic-applications-of-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#6
REVIEW
Volodymyr Pauk, Karel Lemr
Achievements of supercritical fluid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection made in the field of forensic science during the last decade are reviewed. The main topics include analysis of traditional drugs of abuse (e.g. cannabis, methamphetamine) as well as new psychoactive substances (synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and phenethylamines), doping agents (anabolic steroids, stimulants, diuretics, analgesics etc.) and chemical warfare agents. Control of food authenticity, detection of adulteration and identification of toxic substances in food are also pointed out...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683809/role-of-d1-like-and-d2-like-dopamine-receptors-within-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-stress-induced-and-drug-priming-induced-reinstatement-of-morphine-seeking-in-rats
#7
Sharareh Farahimanesh, Marzieh Moradi, Farzaneh Nazari-Serenjeh, Shahram Zarrabian, Abbas Haghparast
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a major source of dopamine neurons projecting to cortical and limbic regions has a crucial role in reward as well as stress processes. Dopamine is a predominant neurotransmitter in the reward system, which plays an important role in both drug priming-induced and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking. It has been shown that this neurotransmitter has a role in stress-induced relapse to drug seeking. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of intra-VTA administration of SCH-23390, as a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, and sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on drug priming-induced and food deprivation (FD)-induced reinstatement...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683043/toxicological-hair-analysis-pre-analytical-analytical-and-interpretive-aspects
#8
Himanshu Khajuria, Biswa Prakash Nayak, Ashish Badiye
Background and aims Hair analysis for drug detection is one of the widely accepted imperative techniques in the field of forensic toxicology. The current study was designed to investigate the efficacy of chromatography for detection of drugs of abuse in hair. Method A comprehensive review of articles from last two decades on hair analyses via PubMed and similar resources was performed. Issues concerning collection, decontamination and analytical techniques are summarised. Physiochemical nature of hair, mechanism of drug incorporation and its stability in hair are briefly discussed...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682999/age-of-cannabis-use-onset-and-adult-drug-abuse-symptoms-a-prospective-study-of-common-risk-factors-and-indirect-effects
#9
Charlie Rioux, Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Sophie Parent, Frank Vitaro, Richard Ernest Tremblay, Jean Richard Séguin
The present study examined 1) whether the associations between cannabis use (CU) age of onset and drug abuse by 28 y remain when controlling for risk factors in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood; and 2) the developmental pathways from early risk factors to drug abuse problems. Participants from a longitudinal sample of boys of low socioeconomic status ( N = 1,030) were followed from 6 to 28 y. We examined the self-reported CU onset between the ages of 13 and 17 y and drug abuse symptoms by 28 y. The odds of developing any drug abuse symptoms by 28 y were reduced by 31% for each year of delayed CU onset (OR = 0...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682921/alcohol-drinking-among-primary-school-children-in-trinidad-and-tobago-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors
#10
Chinwendu F Agu, Daniel C Oshi, Steve Weaver, Wendel D Abel, Tania Rae, Tana F Ricketts Roomes, Sarah N Oshi
Background: Underage alcohol use is a pervasive problem with serious health, social and safety consequences. This study was undertaken to assess alcohol use by primary school children in Trinidad and Tobago, and to identify associated risk factors. Methods: We analysed data collected from 40 primary schools in Trinidad and Tobago by the National Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Programme (NADAPP). The sample comprised of children aged 8 -15 years old, in standards 3, 4 and 5. Result: Out of the 2052 children, 648 (31...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682627/a-complier-average-causal-effect-analysis-of-the-stimulant-reduction-intervention-using-dosed-exercise-study
#11
Thomas Carmody, Tracy L Greer, Robrina Walker, Chad D Rethorst, Madhukar H Trivedi
Objective: Exercise is a promising treatment for substance use disorders, yet an intention-to-treat analysis of a large, multi-site study found no reduction in stimulant use for exercise versus health education. Exercise adherence was sub-optimal; therefore, secondary post-hoc complier average causal effects (CACE) analysis was conducted to determine the potential effectiveness of adequately dosed exercise. Method: The STimulant use Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise study was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12 kcal/kg/week (KKW) exercise dose versus a health education control conducted at nine residential substance use treatment settings across the U...
June 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681143/alcohol-consumption-and-sexual-risk-behaviour-among-jamaican-adolescents
#12
Chinwendu F Agu, Daniel C Oshi, Wendel D Abel, Tania Rae, Sarah N Oshi, Tana Ricketts-Roomes, Ijeoma A Meka, Joy Harrison, Uche Dimkpa, Steve Weaver
Alcohol consumption has significant health, social and economic implications. Alcohol is the most prevalent psychoactive substance used by Jamaican adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol is associated with sexual risk behaviour among Jamaican adolescents. Methods: The data from National Secondary School Survey (NSS) conducted in 2013 was analysed. Descriptive statistics consisting of frequencies, percentages and Pearson’s Chi square was done. Multivariate analysis was done using binary logistic regression...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680636/modifiable-risk-factors-for-prescription-medicine-sharing-behaviours
#13
Kebede Beyene, Trudi Aspden, Rob McNeill, Janie Sheridan
BACKGROUND: Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as giving one's own medicine to someone else (lending) or taking someone else's medicine (borrowing). Medicines can be shared for non-medical purposes (recreational sharing or drug abuse) or for their intended therapeutic benefits (non-recreational sharing, e.g. sharing antibiotics to self-treat); the latter is the focus of this research. Limited research evidence is available about modifiable risk factors for non-recreational medicine sharing and addressing this issue was the main aim of this research...
April 6, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680493/teens-drugs-vegas-toxicological-surveillance-of-illicit-prescription-and-illegal-drug-abuse-in-adolescents-12-17-years-using-post-mortem-data-in-clark-county-nevada-from-2005-to-2015
#14
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Andrew A Mahesan, Eric Charles Belanger
Illegal drug abuse, particularly prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States. Research on adolescent drug abuse is based on national self-reported data. Using local coroner data, quantitative prevalence of illegal substance toxicology and trends can be assessed to aid directed outreach and community-based prevention initiatives. Retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases aged 12-17 years referred to the Office of the Medical Examiner, Clark County from 2005 to 2015 (n = 526)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679289/cross-state-dependency-of-learning-between-tramadol-and-mk-801-in-the-mouse-dorsal-hippocampus-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-no-signaling-pathway
#15
Majid Jafari-Sabet, Shiva Amiri, Ramin Ataee
RATIONALE: Tramadol, an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, as a psychoactive drug, is frequently abused by human beings. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of drug-associated learning and memory formation may help prevent drug addiction and relapse. Previous study revealed that dorsal hippocampus (CA1) plays a crucial role in the retrieval of tramadol-associated memory and that its role depends on the expression of CA1 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (Jafari-Sabet et al...
April 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678774/glial-cells-modulate-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-morphine-dependent-rats
#16
Azadeh Elahi-Mahani, Soomaayeh Heysieattalab, Narges Hosseinmardi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Fatemeh Sadat Seyedaghamiri, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Drugs of abuse mediate adaptive mechanisms leading to alterations in the synaptic plasticity that has been shown to underlie addictive behaviors. Glial cells play a critical role in modulation of synaptic strength and are potentially involved in drug addiction. Chronic administration of morphine has been shown to increase glial cell activation; therefore, it is possible that altered neuroplasticity induced by drugs of abuse is in part mediated by the activity of glial cells. We investigated the effect of hippocampal glial inhibition on synaptic plasticity in morphine treated rats...
April 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678427/the-psychological-impact-of-adult-traumatic-brachial-plexus-injury
#17
Zoe A Landers, Rishabh Jethanandani, Steve K Lee, Carol A Mancuso, Mavis Seehaus, Scott W Wolfe
PURPOSE: There is a high incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide risk, and psychological distress after orthopedic trauma and hand and upper-extremity injury. Although patients with traumatic adult brachial plexus injury are particularly vulnerable to psychologic distress, minimal clinical data exist about this cohort of patients. In this study, we sought to discover the prevalence of depression, PTSD, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse. METHODS: Between February, 2013 and July, 2014, during scheduled preoperative and/or postoperative appointments, the social worker at a metropolitan brachial plexus center conducted psychosocial assessments and questionnaire assessments of 21 patients evaluating for PTSD, depression, and substance use using 3 validated scales: PTSD Checklist-Specific, Patient Health Questionnaire-8, and National Institute on Drug Abuse Quick Screen...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678119/exchange-sex-among-people-receiving-medical-care-for-hiv-in-the-united-states-medical-monitoring-project-2009-2013
#18
Oluwatosin Olaiya, Lina Nerlander, Christine L Mattson, Linda Beer
Many studies of persons who exchange sex for money or drugs have focused on their HIV acquisition risk, and are often limited to select populations and/or geographical locations. National estimates of exchange sex among people living with HIV (PLWH) who are in medical care, and its correlates, are lacking. To address these gaps, we analyzed data from the Medical Monitoring Project, a surveillance system that produces nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of PLWH receiving medical care in the United States, to estimate the weighted prevalence of exchange sex overall, and by selected socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics...
April 20, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677591/lifestyle-factors-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-population-based-incident-case-control-study
#19
Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Saharnaz Nedjat, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Ingrid van der Mei
OBJECTIVE: Although low sun exposure, low vitamin D, and smoking are established risk factor of multiple sclerosis (MS), there is less evidence on the role of the other lifestyle factors. We examined the association of sun exposure, physical activity, drug abuse, and alcohol intake with MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was population-based incident case-control study in Iran with 547 incident cases and 1057 general population controls (7/8/2013-17/2/2015). Logistic regression was used to analyse the data...
March 31, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677414/a-multistep-approach-to-address-clinican-knowledge-attitudes-and-behavior-around-opioid-prescribing
#20
Sara Kohlbeck, Brenna Akert, Caroline Pace, Amy Zosel
INTRODUCTION: The Wisconsin Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) was implemented in 2013 to reduce the misuse, abuse, and diversion of controlled substance prescriptions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate provider knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding the Wisconsin PDMP before and after study interventions. METHODS: An initial survey of clinicians, a focus group, pre- and posttests for an educational session, and a 3-month follow-up survey were utilized...
March 2018: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
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