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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781305/the-high-incidence-of-late-presenters-for-hiv-aids-infection-in-the-lodz-province-poland-in-the-years-2009-2016-we-are-still-far-from-the-unaids-90-target
#1
Kamila Wójcik-Cichy, Olga Jabłonowska, Anna Piekarska, Elżbieta Jabłonowska
The present study retrospectively analyses the prevalence of late diagnosis in patients with newly-diagnosed HIV infection in Lodz, Poland from January 2009 to December 2016, and assesses the predictive factors associated with late presenters. Late presentation is defined as a diagnosis of HIV with a CD4 count<350 cells/μL, or the occurrence of an AIDS- defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Two hundred and fifty-nine (62.86%) patients were late presenters, 178 of whom (68.72%) were advanced late presenters (CD4 cell count below 200 cells/μL)...
May 20, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780522/a-single-electrode-electrochemical-system-for-multiplex-electrochemiluminescence-analysis-based-on-a-resistance-induced-potential-difference
#2
Wenyue Gao, Kateryna Muzyka, Xiangui Ma, Baohua Lou, Guobao Xu
Developing low-cost and simple electrochemical systems is becoming increasingly important but still challenged for multiplex experiments. Here we report a single-electrode electrochemical system (SEES) using only one electrode not only for a single experiment but also for multiplex experiments based on a resistance induced potential difference. SEESs for a single experiment and multiplex experiments are fabricated by attaching a self-adhesive label with a hole and multiple holes onto an ITO electrode, respectively...
April 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780423/acute-suppurative-thyroiditis-in-an-intravenous-drug-user-with-a-preexisting-goiter
#3
Nikhil Yegya-Raman, Tabitha Copeland, Payal Parikh
Acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST) is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening cause of a rapidly enlarging neck mass. It may present similarly to subacute thyroiditis, a relatively benign and self-limiting condition. We report a case of AST in an adult intravenous (IV) drug user with a preexisting goiter who presented with a left forearm abscess that grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus . In this particular case, clinical suspicion for AST was high. As a result, early IV antibiotic therapy was initiated, and this led to rapid clinical improvement furthermore preventing airway compromise...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780094/-the-treatment-of-patients-with-elderly-onset-rheumatoid-arthritis-at-niigata-rheumatic-center
#4
Chinatsu Takai, Daisuke Kobayashi, Satoshi Ito, Akira Murasawa, Yoko Wada, Ichiei Narita, Kiyoshi Nakazono
AIM: To investigate the clinical course of patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We compared the characteristics, and clinical course of 55 patients who developed RA at over 80 years of age (elderly-onset [EO] group) with 119 patients who developed RA at 40-59 years of age (non-elderly onset [non-EO] group). We also investigated the characteristics and clinical course of 19 patients who developed RA at over 80 and who received biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs)...
2018: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779958/development-of-an-anti-epo-antibody-detection-kit-based-on-lab-on-a-chip-and-bridging-antibody-technologies
#5
Jin-Gyo Oh, Jihyun Seong, Sunmi Han, Tae-Hwe Heo
Immunogenicity is a major concern in the use of biological drugs. In particular, antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare condition that is caused by administration of recombinant erythropoietin. There are numerous assay platforms for detect EPO anti-drug antibody (ADA), and most have appropriate assay sensitivity, but in need of improvement in terms of assay turnaround time and user accessibility. Here, the new method was developed based on lab-on-a-chip technology and bridging ELISA. The FREND™ Cartridge is equipped with a microfluidic lateral flow channel, enabling easy, fast and accurate immunoassays with small sample volumes...
May 17, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778626/factors-underlying-risk-taking-in-heroin-dependent-individuals-feedback-processing-and-environmental-contingencies
#6
Daniella M Saleme, Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon, Abdrabo Soliman, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Ahmed A Moustafa
Evidence suggests that factors influencing risk-taking include whether decisions are made based on emotions (affective systems) or cognitions (deliberative systems), the processing of feedback (e.g., deciding to attend a rehabilitation facility for opioid addiction treatment after an intervention held by a family member), and attention to environmental contingencies (e.g., considering the probability of an outcome such as the likelihood of contracting tetanus from a shared needle; or the gains and losses associated with a decision, such as the benefits and costs of taking drugs)...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778489/trends-in-non-medical-prescription-opioids-and-heroin-co-use-among-adults-2003-2014
#7
Sasha Mital, Michael Windle, Hannah L F Cooper, Natalie D Crawford
BACKGROUND: Patterns in non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) and heroin use have recently shifted, with evidence that NMPO-only users transition to NMPO and heroin co-use. Co-use is associated with increased risk of morbidity and overdose, highlighting the need for further investigation. This study aims to quantify, describe, and explore trends in co-use. METHODS: Using data from the 2003-2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we compared co-use to NMPO- and heroin-only use across demographic, substance use and mental health characteristics with chi-squared tests...
May 16, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778306/proton-pump-inhibitors-prescriptions-in-france-main-trends-from-2006-to-2016-on-french-health-insurance-database
#8
Quentin Boucherie, Franck Rouby, Diane Frankel, Patrice Roll, Joelle Micallef
Because national data on proton pump inbibitors (PPIs) consumption in France are scarce and because there is a growing literature on potential adverse drug reaction induced by this pharmacological class, we would like to more describe the main evolution of PPI use and the main characteristics of its users in France. We used a 1/97th representative sample of beneficiaries of the French health insurance called "échantillon généraliste des bénéficiaires" (EGB) to describe PPIs' use over time (duration of use by year) from 2006 to 2016...
March 7, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777648/reasons-for-discontinuation-of-implanon-among-users-in-buffalo-city-metropolitan-municipality-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Khungelwa Patricia Mrwebi, Daniel Ter Goon, Eyitayo Omolara Owolabi, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Eunice Seekoe, Anthony Idowu Ajayi
Early discontinuation of implanon, a long-acting, reversible contraceptive among reproductive age women in South Africa is a serious public health concern. The aim of this study was to examine the reasons for discontinuation of implanon among its previous users. This descriptive cross-sectional study involved 188 consecutively selected participants in two large family planning clinics in Buffalo Metropolitan Municipality, East London, South Africa. Descriptive statistics was conducted using SPSS version 22...
March 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#10
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771680/factors-associated-with-time-between-using-a-drug-and-injection-initiation-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kermanshah-iran
#11
Mehdi Noroozi, Mohammad Hassan Farhadi, Bahram Armoon, Ali Farhoudian, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Asaad Sharhani, Salah Eddin Karimi, Mohammad Sayadnasiri, Omid Rezaei, Hesam Ghiasvand
Background The transition from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically increases the risk of transmitting HIV and other blood borne infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the transition from first illicit drug use to first injection among drug users. Methods Using snowball sampling and convenience sampling through needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), we recruited 500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kermanshah, between September and December 2014...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#12
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770839/are-multidose-drug-dispensing-systems-initiated-for-the-appropriate-patients
#13
Bram J Mertens, H F Kwint, Rob J van Marum, Marcel L Bouvy
PURPOSE: It is unknown if multidose drug dispensing (MDD) systems are initiated for the appropriate patients. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the medication management problems of patients who were about to start with a MDD system (MDD patients) and patients who continued manually dispensed medication (non-MDD users) in order to identify if the appropriate patients receive a MDD system. METHODS: Patient interviews (semi-structured) were conducted by 44 community pharmacists at the patient's home...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770330/the-prediction-of-drug-disease-correlation-based-on-gene-expression-data
#14
Hui Cui, Menghuan Zhang, Qingmin Yang, Xiangyi Li, Michael Liebman, Ying Yu, Lu Xie
The explosive growth of high-throughput experimental methods and resulting data yields both opportunity and challenge for selecting the correct drug to treat both a specific patient and their individual disease. Ideally, it would be useful and efficient if computational approaches could be applied to help achieve optimal drug-patient-disease matching but current efforts have met with limited success. Current approaches have primarily utilized the measureable effect of a specific drug on target tissue or cell lines to identify the potential biological effect of such treatment...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770249/snorkel-rapid-training-data-creation-with-weak-supervision
#15
Alexander Ratner, Stephen H Bach, Henry Ehrenberg, Jason Fries, Sen Wu, Christopher Ré
Labeling training data is increasingly the largest bottleneck in deploying machine learning systems. We present Snorkel, a first-of-its-kind system that enables users to train state-of- the-art models without hand labeling any training data. Instead, users write labeling functions that express arbitrary heuristics, which can have unknown accuracies and correlations. Snorkel denoises their outputs without access to ground truth by incorporating the first end-to-end implementation of our recently proposed machine learning paradigm, data programming...
November 2017: Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770215/heterogeneity-in-geographical-trends-of-hiv-epidemics-among-key-populations-in-pakistan-a-mathematical-modeling-study-of-survey-data
#16
Dessalegn Y Melesse, Leigh Anne Shafer, Faran Emmanuel, Tahira Reza, Baseer K Achakzai, Sofia Furqan, James F Blanchard
Background: Assessing patterns and trends in new infections is key to better understanding of HIV epidemics, and is best done through monitoring changes in incidence over time. In this study, we examined disparities in geographical trends of HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWIDs), female sex workers (FSWs) and hijra /transgender/male sex workers (H/MSWs), in Pakistan. Methods: The UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) mathematical model was used to explore geographical trends in HIV epidemics...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769132/toots-tastes-and-tester-shots-user-accounts-of-drug-sampling-methods-for-gauging-heroin-potency
#17
Sarah G Mars, Jeff Ondocsin, Daniel Ciccarone
BACKGROUND: Internationally, overdose is the primary cause of death among people injecting drugs. However, since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States (US) have risen sixfold, paralleled by a rise in the death rate attributed to synthetic opioids, particularly the fentanyls. This paper considers the adaptations some US heroin injectors are making to protect themselves from these risks. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, a team of ethnographers collected data through semi-structured interviews and observation captured in field notes and video recording of heroin preparation/consumption...
May 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768586/gender-stereotypes-in-psychosocial-care-for-female-crack-and-powder-cocaine-users
#18
Érika Barbosa de Oliveira Silva, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo Pereira, Lúcia Helena Garcia Penna
The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768112/-marvin-the-paranoid-android-the-case-of-an-alpha-pvp-user-in-the-expanding-galaxy-of-nps
#19
Simonato Pierluigi, Bulsis Laura, Negri Attilio, Bansal Gurjeet K, Pessa Gloria, Mioni Davide, Giuseppe Borgherini, Martinotti Giovanni, Schifano Fabrizio, Giulia Perini, Corazza Ornella
Alpha-PVP can be defined as a novel psychoactive substance (NPS)-more specifically, a novel synthetic cathinone with unpredictable stimulant effects in humans. "Marvin" arrived at a Dual Diagnosis Unit at Parco dei Tigli, Italy. He underwent a 30-day rehabilitation program to overcome his problematic Alpha-PVP use as a psychonaut. We conducted an online search to understand the properties of Alpha-PVP and its presence in scientific literature, reviewing official reports and the online drug market (e...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768038/use-and-characteristics-of-antipsychotic-methylphenidate-combination-therapy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-a-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Oliver Scholle, Tobias Banaschewski, Dirk Enders, Edeltraut Garbe, Oliver Riedel
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have comorbidities that are potential indications for antipsychotics (APs). Some studies have suggested that the combined use of methylphenidate (MPH) and APs is increasing in this population group. Longitudinal analyses and in-depth investigations on the substance level are lacking. This study aimed to estimate the cumulative proportion of concomitant AP/MPH use in children and adolescents with ADHD over a follow-up of up to 9 years and to describe patient characteristics stratified by specific AP drug...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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