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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454045/canadian-harm-reduction-policies-a-comparative-content-analysis-of-provincial-and-territorial-documents-2000-2015
#1
REVIEW
T Cameron Wild, Bernie Pauly, Lynne Belle-Isle, Walter Cavalieri, Richard Elliott, Carol Strike, Kenneth Tupper, Andrew Hathaway, Colleen Dell, Donald MacPherson, Caitlin Sinclair, Kamagaju Karekezi, Benjamin Tan, Elaine Hyshka
BACKGROUND: Access to harm reduction interventions among substance users across Canada is highly variable, and largely within the policy jurisdiction of the provinces and territories. This study systematically described variation in policy frameworks guiding harm reduction services among Canadian provinces and territories as part of the first national multimethod case study of harm reduction policy. METHODS: Systematic and purposive searches identified publicly-accessible policy texts guiding planning and organization of one or more of seven targeted harm reduction services: needle distribution, naloxone, supervised injection/consumption, low-threshold opioid substitution (or maintenance) treatment, buprenorphine/naloxone (suboxone), drug checking, and safer inhalation kits...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454044/unintended-impacts-of-regulatory-changes-to-british-columbia-methadone-maintenance-program-on-addiction-and-hiv-related-outcomes-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#2
M Eugenia Socías, Evan Wood, Ryan McNeil, Thomas Kerr, Huiru Dong, Jean Shoveller, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: In February 2014, several regulatory reforms were introduced to the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in British Columbia, Canada, including a switch to a ten-times more concentrated methadone formulation and restrictions in pharmacy delivery services. We evaluated possible unintended effects of these changes on illicit drug use patterns and HIV treatment outcomes among HIV-positive opioid users. METHODS: Data was drawn from ACCESS, a prospective community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453553/a-tool-for-discovering-drug-sensitivity-and-gene-expression-associations-in-cancer-cells
#3
Yong Qin, Anthony P Conley, Elizabeth A Grimm, Jason Roszik
The sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer drugs is a crucial factor for developing effective treatments. However, it is still challenging to precisely predict the effectiveness of therapeutics in humans within a complex genomic and molecular context. We developed an interface which allows the user to rapidly explore drug sensitivity and gene expression associations. Predictions for how expression of various genes affect anticancer drug activity are available for all genes for a set of therapeutics based on data from various cell lines of different origin in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer projects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449186/the-risk-of-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-low-dose-aspirin-users
#4
W-C Chen, K-H Lin, Y-T Huang, T-J Tsai, W-C Sun, S-K Chuah, D-C Wu, P-I Hsu
BACKGROUND: Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. AIM: To investigate the risk of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) in aspirin users. METHODS: Low-dose (75-325 mg daily) aspirin users and controls matched by age, gender and enrollment time in a 1:5 ratio were selected from 1 million randomly sampled subjects in the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Cox proportional hazard regression models were developed to evaluate the predictors of LGIB with adjustments for age, gender, comorbidities including coronary artery disease, ischaemic stroke, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyslipidemia, uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease, history of peptic ulcer bleeding, and concomitant use of clopidogrel, ticlopidine, warfarin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, steroids, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), nitrates, alendronate, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and calcium channel blockers...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448593/benzodiazepines-z-drugs-and-the-risk-of-hip-fracture-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Karen Donnelly, Robert Bracchi, Jonathan Hewitt, Philip A Routledge, Ben Carter
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures in the older person lead to an increased risk of mortality, poorer quality of life and increased morbidity. Benzodiazepine (BNZ) use is associated with increased hip fracture rate, consequently Z-drugs are fast becoming the physician's hypnotic prescription of choice yet data on their use is limited. We compared the risk of hip fracture associated with Z-drugs and BNZ medications, respectively, and examined if this risk varied with longer-term use. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448546/opium-use-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-preterm-delivery-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Siavash Maghsoudlou, Sven Cnattingius, Scott Montgomery, Mohsen Aarabi, Shahriar Semnani, Anna-Karin Wikström, Shahram Bahmanyar
BACKGROUND: Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448164/increasing-use-of-cannabis-among-arrested-drivers-in-norway
#7
Anja Valen, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Vigdis Vindenes, Hallvard Gjerde
OBJECTIVE: The availability of cannabis in Norway seems to have increased according to seizures by customs and police. On the other hand, national population surveys have not found any increase in self-reported use of cannabis. This investigation aimed at studying trends in cannabis use among suspected drug-impaired drivers apprehended by the police in Norway. METHODS: A time series observational study of cannabis use among all drivers tested for drugs during 2000-2015 was performed...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446522/improving-opioid-safety-practices-in-primary-care-protocol-for-the-development-and-evaluation-of-a-multifaceted-theory-informed-pilot-intervention-for-healthcare-providers
#8
Pamela Leece, Daniel Z Buchman, Michael Hamilton, Caitlyn Timmings, Yalnee Shantharam, Julia Moore, Andrea D Furlan
INTRODUCTION: In North America, drug overdose deaths are reaching unprecedented levels, largely driven by increasing prescription opioid-related deaths. Despite the development of several opioid guidelines, prescribing behaviours still contribute to poor patient outcomes and societal harm. Factors at the provider and system level may hinder or facilitate the application of evidence-based guidelines; interventions designed to address such factors are needed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using implementation science and behaviour change theory, we have planned the development and evaluation of a comprehensive Opioid Self-Assessment Package, designed to increase adherence to the Canadian Opioid Guideline among family physicians...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446207/memory-is-preserved-in-older-adults-taking-at1-receptor-blockers
#9
Jean K Ho, Daniel A Nation
BACKGROUND: Prior work suggests that some but not all antihypertensive treatments may benefit cognition and risk for Alzheimer's disease, independent of stroke. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been highlighted as one antihypertensive drug class that may confer greatest benefit. METHODS: The participants comprised 1626 nondemented adults, aged 55-91 years, recruited from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative sites. Three groups were compared: ARB users (HTN-ARBs), other antihypertensive drug users (HTN-Other), and normotensives...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444484/effectiveness-of-drug-camps-in-treatment-of-substance-abuse-in-thailand
#10
Manop Kanato, Poonrut Leyatikul
Various drug camps have been introduced in Thailand since the 2000s. This study explored the effects of drug camps in Thailand. Four provinces were selected to represent different region throughout Thailand. Assessments of 2679 drug users were carried out longitudinally, age ranging from 11 to 67 years old; assessments occurred before camp, after camps, and after a 1 year follow-up. Two hundred twenty-six camps organizers, community leaders, and lay people were selected as key informants. Twenty communities were observed prospectively and 400 lay people were studied...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444126/cimbinator-a-web-based-tool-for-drug-synergy-analysis-in-small-and-large-scale-datasets
#11
Åsmund Flobak, Miguel Vazquez, Astrid Lægreid, Alfonso Valencia
Motivation: Drug synergies are sought to identify combinations of drugs particularly beneficial. User-friendly software solutions that can assist analysis of large-scale datasets are required. Results: CImbinator is a web-service that can aid in batch-wise and in-depth analyzes of data from small-scale and large-scale drug combination screens. CImbinator offers to quantify drug combination effects, using both the commonly employed median effect equation, as well as advanced experimental mathematical models describing dose response relationships...
April 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444044/comments-on-the-organization-of-pharmaceutical-services-by-health-region-in-brazil-s-unified-health-system
#12
Suetônio Queiroz Araújo, Karen Sarmento Costa, Vera Lucia Luiza, Carmen Lavras, Eucilene Alves Santana, Noemia Urruth Leão Tavares
This study aimed to describe and characterize the pharmaceutical services provided in Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS) from the point of view of the healthcare networks that are organized by region in the QualiSUS-Rede Project. This was a cross-sectional study, with data collected from December 2013 to July 2015, in public health establishments that carried out delivery or warehousing of medications (n = 4,938), in 465 municipalites, and the Federal District, in 43'Health Regions'. The results show the existence of at least one management service supporting the health network, and warehousing of medications in all the regions (> 90%)...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443684/genetic-variants-of-hiv-type-1-in-msm-in-russia
#13
Elena Kazennova, Vita Laga, Konstantin Gromov, Natalya Lebedeva, Eugenia Zhukova, Alexander Pronin, Liliya Grezina, Nataliya Dement'eva, Andrey Shemshura, Marina Bobkova
The MSM population infected with HIV is poorly studied in Russia due to stigma and discrimination. In the first years of the HIV epidemic, the only HIV genetic variant that circulated among MSM was subtype B, usually acquired abroad. Meanwhile, the massive epidemic of HIV in Russia was caused by a highly homogenic subtype A variant, AFSU (A6), and spread mainly among drug users. In this study, 155 HIV pol sequences from MSM collected during the period of 2006-2016 were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis found that 19...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443614/cocaine-cue-induced-dopamine-release-in-recreational-cocaine-users
#14
Sylvia M L Cox, Yvonne Yau, Kevin Larcher, France Durand, Theodore Kolivakis, J Scott Delaney, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Marco Leyton
It has been proposed that the acquisition of drug seeking is related to the development of conditioned dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. As drug use continues and becomes habit-like, conditioned responses have been shown to shift to the dorsal striatum. Here, using the PET [(11)C]raclopride method and highly personalized cocaine cues, we report the first evidence in humans of the dorsal dopamine response prior to the onset of addiction.
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441950/development-of-a-web-based-patient-decision-aid-for-initiating-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs-using-user-centred-design-methods
#15
Ingrid Nota, Constance H C Drossaert, Heleen C Melissant, Erik Taal, Harald E Vonkeman, Cees J Haagsma, Mart A F J van de Laar
BACKGROUND: A main element of patient-centred care, Patient Decision Aids (PtDAs) facilitate shared decision-making (SDM). A recent update of the International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) emphasised patient involvement during PtDA development, but omitted a methodology for doing so. This article reports on the value of user-centred design (UCD) methods for the development of a PtDA that aims to support inflammatory arthritis patients in their choice between disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)...
April 26, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441185/exploring-factors-associated-with-patients-adherence-to-antihypertensive-drugs-among-people-with-primary-hypertension-in-the-united-kingdom
#16
Amanj I Kurdi, Li-Chia Chen, Rachel A Elliott
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors associated with adherence to antihypertensive drugs overall (therapy adherence) and to particular classes (class adherence) in hypertensive patients. METHODS: The current retrospective cohort study included adults with primary hypertension identified in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from April 2006 to March 2013. Individuals were followed from the date of first-ever antihypertensive drug class (class adherence) prescribed and from the date of the first-ever antihypertensive drug (therapy adherence) issued to the earliest of study end, patient leaving the database, or death...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441106/jwh-122-consumption-adverse-effects-a-case-of-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-five-year-follow-up
#17
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are a heterogeneous group of psychotropic drugs functionally related to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These substances, marketed as cannabis substitutes, have been associated with numerous cases of severe intoxication and death across the world. In our article, we describe a case of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder developing in a natural cannabis user after consumption of JWH-122, a naphthoylindole largely used since 2010. Clinical symptomatology persisted for about four years and was alleviated through treatment with clonazepam...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440070/chiral-analysis-of-amphetamines-in-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-compliance-monitoring-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-patients-under-elvanse%C3%A2-therapy-and-identification-after-controlled-low-dose-application
#18
Tina M Binz, Elena Williner, Petra Strajhar, Patrick C Dolder, Matthias E Liechti, Markus R Baumgartner, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Amphetamine (AMP) is used as illicit drug but also for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Respective drugs most often contain the enantiomer (S)-AMP as active compound or (S)-AMP is formed from the prodrug lisdexamfetamine (Elvanse®) whereas the illicit drug is usually traded as racemate ((R/S)-AMP). A differentiation between the use of the medically prescribed drug and the abuse of illicit street amphetamine is of great importance e.g. in retrospective consumption monitoring by hair analysis...
April 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439922/illicit-drug-use-among-new-zealand-gay-and-bisexual-men-prevalence-and-association-with-sexual-health-behaviours
#19
Peter Saxton, David Newcombe, Arslan Ahmed, Nigel Dickson, Anthony Hughes
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Data are lacking on drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand. We establish a baseline estimate of drug use and investigate associations with sexual health and HIV risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of GBM was conducted in gay community settings and online. Participants were asked their frequency of using nine drugs (poppers, cannabis, ecstasy, methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, LSD, gamma hydroxybutyrate and ketamine) in the previous 6 months...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438467/the-role-of-impulsivity-in-psychostimulant-and-stress-induced-dopamine-release-review-of-human-imaging-studies
#20
REVIEW
Wendy M Bosker, Irene Neuner, N Jon Shah
Drug addiction is a debilitating disorder and its pivotal problem is the high relapse rate. To solve this problem, the aim is to prevent people from becoming addicted in the first place. One of the key questions that is still unanswered is why some people become addicted to drugs and others, who take drugs regularly, do not. In recent years extensive research has been done to untangle the many factors involved in this disorder. Here, we review some of the factors that are related to dopamine, i.e., impulsivity and stress (hormones), and aim to integrate this into a neurobiological model...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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