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"Muscle architecture"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882331/demonstration-of-extended-field-of-view-ultrasound-s-potential-to-increase-the-pool-of-muscles-for-which-in-vivo-fascicle-length-is-measurable
#1
Amy N Adkins, Patrick W Franks, Wendy M Murray
Static, B-mode ultrasound is the most common method of measuring fascicle length in vivo. However, most forearm muscles have fascicles that are longer than the field-of-view of traditional ultrasound (T-US). As such, little work has been done to quantify in vivo forearm muscle architecture. The extended field-of-view ultrasound (EFOV-US) method, which fits together a sequence of B-mode images taken from a continuous ultrasound scan, facilitates direct measurements of longer, curved fascicles. Here, we test the validity and reliability of the EFOV-US method for obtaining fascicle lengths in the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869034/plasticity-and-function-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-relation-to-disuse-and-rehabilitation-influence-of-ageing-and-surgery
#2
Charlotte Suetta
In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859831/automatic-reconstruction-of-the-muscle-architecture-from-the-superficial-layer-fibres-data
#3
Josef Kohout, David Cholt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of a muscle plays a significant role in determining the force contribution of muscle fascicles to skeletal movement. This parameter is typically calculated from the lengths of muscle fibres selectively sampled from the superficial layer of the muscle. However, recent studies have found that the length of fibres in the superficial layer often differs significantly (p < 0.5) from the length of fibres in the deep layer...
October 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801950/can-chronic-stretching-change-the-muscle-tendon-mechanical-properties-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Sandro R Freitas, Bruno Mendes, Guillaume Le Sant, Ricardo J Andrade, Antoine Nordez, Zoran Milanovic
PURPOSE: It is recognized that stretching is an effective method to chronically increase the joint range of motion. However, the effects of stretching training on the muscle-tendon structural properties remain unclear. This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to determine whether chronic stretching alter the muscle-tendon structural properties. METHODS: Published papers regarding longitudinal stretching (static, dynamic and/or PNF) intervention (either randomized or not) in humans of any age and health status, with more than 2 weeks in duration and at least 2 sessions per week, were searched in PubMed, PEDro, ScienceDirect and ResearchGate databases...
August 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797897/ultrasonographic-quantification-of-architectural-response-in-tibialis-anterior-to-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation
#5
Emilie Simoneau-Buessinger, Sébastien Leteneur, Alix Bisman, François Gabrielli, Jennifer Jakobi
While muscle contraction in voluntary efforts has been widely investigated, little is known about contraction during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). The aim of this study was to quantify in vivo muscle architecture of agonist and antagonist muscles at the ankle joint during NMES. Muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles of the tibialis anterior (TA) and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were assessed via ultrasonography in 8 healthy young males. Measures were obtained during maximal NMES and torque-matched voluntary dorsiflexion contractions...
October 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793853/equine-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-exercise-and-training-evidence-of-differential-regulation-of-autophagosomal-and-mitochondrial-components
#6
Kenneth Bryan, Beatrice A McGivney, Gabriella Farries, Paul A McGettigan, Charlotte L McGivney, Katie F Gough, David E MacHugh, Lisa M Katz, Emmeline W Hill
BACKGROUND: A single bout of exercise induces changes in gene expression in skeletal muscle. Regular exercise results in an adaptive response involving changes in muscle architecture and biochemistry, and is an effective way to manage and prevent common human diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disorders and type II diabetes. However, the biomolecular mechanisms underlying such responses still need to be fully elucidated. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of skeletal muscle tissue in a large cohort of untrained Thoroughbred horses (n = 51) before and after a bout of high-intensity exercise and again after an extended period of training...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783537/investigation-of-the-hd-semg-probability-density-function-shapes-with-varying-muscle-force-using-data-fusion-and-shape-descriptors
#7
Mariam Al Harrach, Sofiane Boudaoud, Vincent Carriou, Jeremy Laforet, Adrien J Letocart, Jean-François Grosset, Frédéric Marin
This work presents an evaluation of the High Density surface Electromyogram (HD-sEMG) Probability Density Function (PDF) shape variation according to contraction level. On that account, using PDF shape descriptors: High Order Statistics (HOS) and Shape Distances (SD), we try to address the absence of a consensus for the sEMG non-Gaussianity evolution with force variation. This is motivated by the fact that PDF shape information are relevant in physiological assessment of the muscle architecture and function, such as contraction level classification, in complement to classical amplitude parameters...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737609/the-effects-of-supplementary-low-load-blood-flow-restriction-training-on-morphological-and-performance-based-adaptations-in-team-sport-athletes
#8
Brendan R Scott, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Paul S R Goods
Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725197/skeletal-muscle-remodeling-in-response-to-eccentric-vs-concentric-loading-morphological-molecular-and-metabolic-adaptations
#9
REVIEW
Martino V Franchi, Neil D Reeves, Marco V Narici
Skeletal muscle contracts either by shortening or lengthening (concentrically or eccentrically, respectively); however, the two contractions substantially differ from one another in terms of mechanisms of force generation, maximum force production and energy cost. It is generally known that eccentric actions generate greater force than isometric and concentric contractions and at a lower metabolic cost. Hence, by virtue of the greater mechanical loading involved in active lengthening, eccentric resistance training (ECC RT) is assumed to produce greater hypertrophy than concentric resistance training (CON RT)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717622/semitendinosus-muscle-architecture-during-maximum-isometric-contractions-in-individuals-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-and-controls
#10
Evagelos Karagiannidis, Eleftherios Kellis, Nikiforos Galanis, Baltzopoulos Vasilios
BACKGROUND: The most widely used graft as a replacement in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is the semitendinosus (ST) tendon graft. After harvesting for ACL reconstruction, the hamstring tendon regenerates in most people and becomes similar to normal. The effect of graft harvest on muscle morphology and function remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the morphology of the ST during isometric contraction after harvesting the ST tendon for ACL reconstruction...
January 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701320/changes-in-microvascular-density-differentiate-metabolic-health-outcomes-in-monkeys-with-prior-radiation-exposure-and-subsequent-skeletal-muscle-ecm-remodeling
#11
Katherine M Fanning, Bianca Pfisterer, Ashley T Davis, Tennille D Presley, Ian M Williams, David H Wasserman, J Mark Cline, Kylie Kavanagh
Radiation exposure accelerates the onset of age-related diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neoplasia and thus lends insight into in vivo mechanisms common to these disorders. Fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur with aging, overnutrition, and following irradiation, are both risk factors for type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Our prior work demonstrated that monkeys with whole-body radiation exposure five to nine years prior had an increased incidence of skeletal muscle insulin resistance and T2DM...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621488/effects-of-intradialytic-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-on-strength-and-muscle-architecture-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-failure-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Jociane Schardong, Thiago Dipp, Camila Bassani Bozzeto, Marília Godoy da Silva, Gabriela Leivas Baldissera, Raíssa de Castro Ribeiro, Bruna Pan Valdemarca, Alexandre Severo do Pinho, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rodrigo Della Méa Plentz
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle strength and architecture, functional capacity, and endothelial function in patients with chronic kidney failure (CKF) on hemodialysis (HD). Twenty-one patients with CKF on HD were randomized into a control group (CG; n = 10) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (NMESG; n = 11) who received NMES in the quadriceps muscle for 8 weeks, 3 times/week (20-34 min) during HD sessions. The muscle strength of the lower limbs was evaluated by dynamometry and sit-and-stand test (SST); muscle architecture through ultrasonography; functional capacity by the distance covered in a 6-min walk test and the endothelial function by flow-mediated dilatation technique of the brachial artery...
June 16, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585258/masticatory-muscle-architecture-in-a-water-rat-from-australasia-murinae-hydromys-and-its-implication-for-the-evolution-of-carnivory-in-rodents
#13
P-H Fabre, A Herrel, Y Fitriana, L Meslin, L Hautier
Murines are well known for their generalist diet, but several of them display specializations towards a carnivorous diet such as the amphibious Indo-Pacific water-rats. Despite the fact that carnivory evolved repeatedly in this group, few studies have investigated associated changes in jaw muscle anatomy and biomechanics. Here, we describe the jaw muscles and cranial anatomy of a carnivorous water-rat, Hydromys chrysogaster. The architecture of the jaw musculature of six specimens captured both on Obi and Papua were studied and described using dissections...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577041/determining-skeletal-muscle-architecture-with-laplacian-simulations-a-comparison-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#14
Geoffrey G Handsfield, Bart Bolsterlee, Joshua M Inouye, Robert D Herbert, Thor F Besier, Justin W Fernandez
Determination of skeletal muscle architecture is important for accurately modeling muscle behavior. Current methods for 3D muscle architecture determination can be costly and time-consuming, making them prohibitive for clinical or modeling applications. Computational approaches such as Laplacian flow simulations can estimate muscle fascicle orientation based on muscle shape and aponeurosis location. The accuracy of this approach is unknown, however, since it has not been validated against other standards for muscle architecture determination...
June 2, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573481/copper-pyrithione-a-booster-biocide-induces-abnormal-muscle-and-notochord-architecture-in-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#15
Kelly M Almond, Louis D Trombetta
The metal pyrithiones, principally zinc (ZnPT) and copper (CuPT), are replacing tributyltin (TBT) as antifouling agents. Zebrafish embryos were exposed within the first hour after fertilization to 12 and 64 µg/L of CuPT for 24 h. Morphological abnormalities in notochord and muscle architecture were observed at 96 h post fertilization (hpf). TEM revealed abnormal electron dense deposits in the notochord sheath and muscle fiber degeneration in animals treated with 12 µg/L of CuPT. Embryos that were exposed to 64 µg/L of CuPT displayed severe muscle fiber degeneration including abnormal A and I band patterning and altered z disk arrangement...
June 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536534/a-bio-realistic-finite-element-model-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-masticatory-loadings-on-mouse-mandible-related-tissues
#16
Alexander Tsouknidas, Lucia Jimenez-Rojo, Evangelos Karatsis, Nikolaos Michailidis, Thimios A Mitsiadis
Mice are arguably the dominant model organisms for studies investigating the effect of genetic traits on the pathways to mammalian skull and teeth development, thus being integral in exploring craniofacial and dental evolution. The aim of this study is to analyse the functional significance of masticatory loads on the mouse mandible and identify critical stress accumulations that could trigger phenotypic and/or growth alterations in mandible-related structures. To achieve this, a 3D model of mouse skulls was reconstructed based on Micro Computed Tomography measurements...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488136/bilateral-differences-in-muscle-fascicle-architecture-are-not-related-to-the-preferred-leg-in-jumping-athletes
#17
Jeroen Aeles, Sietske Lenchant, Liesbeth Vanlommel, Benedicte Vanwanseele
PURPOSE: In many sports, athletes have a preferred leg for sport-specific tasks, such as jumping, which leads to strength differences between both legs, yet the underlying changes in force-generating mechanical properties of the muscle remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the muscle architecture of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) is different between both legs in well-trained jumping athletes and untrained individuals. In addition, we investigated the effect of two ankle joint positions on ultrasound muscle architecture measurements...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484857/muscle-architectural-properties-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#18
Naomichi Ogihara, Motoharu Oishi, Ryogo Kanai, Hikaru Shimada, Takahiro Kondo, Kimika Yoshino-Saito, Junichi Ushiba, Hideyuki Okano
The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is a small New World monkey that has recently gained attention as an important experimental animal model in the field of neuroscience as well in rehabilitative and regenerative medicine. This attention reflects the closer phylogenetic relationship between humans and common marmosets compared to that between humans and other experimental animals. When studying the neuronal mechanism behind various types of neurological motor disorders using the common marmoset, possible differences in muscle parameters (e...
July 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459795/four-weeks-of-nordic-hamstring-exercise-reduce-muscle-injury-risk-factors-in-young-adults
#19
João Breno de A R Alvares, Vanessa Bernardes Marques, Marco Aurélio Vaz, Bruno Manfredini Baroni
The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a field-based exercise designed for knee-flexor eccentric strengthening, aimed at muscle strains prevention. However, possible effects of NHE programmes on other hamstring injury risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a NHE training programme on multiple hamstring injury risk factors. Twenty physically active young adults were allocated into two equal sized groups: control group (CG) and training group (TG). The TG was engaged in a 4-week NHE programme, twice a week, 3 sets of 6-10 repetitions; while CG received no exercise intervention...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443020/bgp-15-protects-against-oxaliplatin-induced-skeletal-myopathy-and-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-mice
#20
James C Sorensen, Aaron C Petersen, Cara A Timpani, Dean G Campelj, Jordan Cook, Adam J Trewin, Vanesa Stojanovska, Mathew Stewart, Alan Hayes, Emma Rybalka
Chemotherapy is a leading intervention against cancer. Albeit highly effective, chemotherapy has a multitude of deleterious side-effects including skeletal muscle wasting and fatigue, which considerably reduces patient quality of life and survivability. As such, a defense against chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction is required. Here we investigate the effects of oxaliplatin (OXA) treatment in mice on the skeletal muscle and mitochondria, and the capacity for the Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, BGP-15, to ameliorate any pathological side-effects induced by OXA...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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