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"Muscle architecture"

Valentina Mazzoli, Lukas M Gottwald, Eva S Peper, Martijn Froeling, Bram F Coolen, Nico Verdonschot, Andre M Sprengers, Pim van Ooij, Gustav J Strijkers, Aart J Nederveen
PURPOSE: 3D time-resolved (4D) phase contrast MRI can be used to study muscle contraction. However, 3D coverage with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution can only be achieved by interleaved acquisitions during many repetitions of the motion task, resulting in long scan times. The aim of this study was to develop a compressed sensing accelerated 4D phase contrast MRI technique for quantification of velocities and strain rate of the muscles in the lower leg during active plantarflexion/dorsiflexion...
March 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Sarah J Allison, Katherine Brooke-Wavell, Jonathan Folland
High impact exercise programmes can improve bone strength, but little is known about whether this type of training further benefits fracture risk by improving physical function in older people. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of high impact exercise on balance, muscle function and morphology in older men. METHODS: Fifty, healthy men (65-80 years) were assigned to a 6-month multidirectional hopping programme (TG) and twenty age and physical activity matched volunteers served as controls (CG)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Adrianne Rahde Bischoff, Fábio da Silva Cunha, Roberta Dalle Molle, Paulo José Cauduro Maróstica, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
OBJECTIVE: The literature suggests that a fetus will adapt to surrounding adversities by optimizing its use of energy to improve survival, ultimately leading to the programming of the individual's energy intake and expenditure. While recent reviews focused on the fetal programming of energy intake and food preferences, there is also some evidence that fetal adversity is associated with diminished physical activity levels. Therefore, we aimed to review (a) the evidence for an association between being born IUGR and sedentarism over the life-course and (b) the potential benefits of physical activity over cardiometabolic risk factors for this population...
February 21, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Boris Ullrich, Thiemo Pelzer, Mark Pfeiffer
Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular effects to 6 weeks of loaded countermovement jumping with traditional and daily undulating periodization. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 660-674, 2018-Loaded vertical jumps are routinely used to enhance athlete's power production in the lower extremity and to optimize jumping and sprinting performance. This study compared traditional (TP) and daily undulating (DUP) periodization on muscle strength, jumping performance, electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity, and muscle architecture during preseason loaded jump training...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Siddhartha Sikdar, Guoqing Diao, Diego Turo, Christopher J Stanley, Abhinav Sharma, Amy Chambliss, Loretta Laughrey, April Aralar, Diane L Damiano
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether quantitative ultrasound (US) imaging, based on the envelope statistics of the backscattered US signal, can describe muscle properties in typically developing children and those with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Radiofrequency US data were acquired from the rectus femoris muscle of children with CP (n = 22) and an age-matched cohort without CP (n = 14) at rest and during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. A mixture of gamma distributions was used to model the histogram of the echo intensities within a region of interest in the muscle...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Jagath C Ranasinghe, Chandani Wickramasinghe, Ganganath Rodrigo
BACKGROUND: Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is a rare entity of masticatory muscle hypertrophy. All types of masticatory muscle hypertrophies have been documented of which temporalis muscle hypertrophy is one. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is most commonly bilateral and usually associated with other types of masticatory muscles hypertrophy such as masseter or pterygoid hypertrophy. However, isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is extremely rare and only 9 cases have been reported to date in English literature since 1990 with only two patients less than 18 years...
February 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Yun Peng, Brandi D Miller, Timothy B Boone, Yingchun Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weakened pelvic floor support is believed to be the main cause of various pelvic floor disorders. Modern theories of pelvic floor support stress on the structural and functional integrity of multiple structures and their interplay to maintain normal pelvic floor functions. Connective tissues provide passive pelvic floor support while pelvic floor muscles provide active support through voluntary contraction. Advanced modern medical technologies allow us to comprehensively and thoroughly evaluate the interaction of supporting structures and assess both active and passive support functions...
February 12, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Giuseppe Coratella, Marco Beato, Chiara Milanese, Stefano Longo, Eloisa Limonta, Susanna Rampichini, Emiliano Cè, Angela Valentina Bisconti, F Schena, F Esposito
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of weighted jump squat (WJST) vs body mass squat jump training (BMSJT) on quadriceps muscle architecture, lower-limb lean-mass (LM) and muscle strength, performance in change of direction (COD), sprint and jump in recreational soccer-players. Forty-eight healthy soccer-players participated in an off-season randomized controlled-trial. Before and after an eight-week training intervention, vastus lateralis pennation angle, fascicle length, muscle thickness, LM, squat 1-RM, quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic peak-torque, agility T-test, 10 and 30m sprint and squat-jump (SJ) were measured...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Damiano Marchi, Carissa L Leischner, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
Bone biomechanical studies indicate that leg bone structure can be related to different locomotor patterns. The osteological correlates of extant primates' locomotion patterns and substrate use are important to consider when estimating corresponding behaviors of extinct primates. Here, we test if these same patterns are seen in the differences in leg muscular architecture. Muscle mass, fascicle lengths (FL), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), reduced PCSA (RPCSA) and tendon-to-muscle belly ratio were studied in 33 primate species (6 strepsirrhines, 14 platyrrhines and 13 catarrhines)...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Christine Böhmer, Anne-Claire Fabre, Marc Herbin, Stéphane Peigné, Anthony Herrel
Arboreal locomotion imposes selective pressures that may affect the evolution of the locomotor apparatus. The limbs have to be mobile to reach across discontinuities, yet at the same time need to be forceful to move against gravity during climbing. However, as intermediaries between the arboreal and terrestrial environment, semi-arboreal mammals appear not extremely specialized and, thus, anatomical adaptations may be less evident than expected for arboreal climbers. Here, we present quantitative data on the muscle anatomy of the forelimbs (N = 14) of two closely related species of Mustelidae and relate the findings to their locomotor habits...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Carissa L Leischner, Michael Crouch, Kari L Allen, Damiano Marchi, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
It has been previously proposed that distal humerus morphology may reflect the locomotor pattern and substrate preferred by different primates. However, relationships between these behaviors and the morphological capabilities of muscles originating on these osteological structures have not been fully explored. Here, we present data about forearm muscle architecture in a sample of 44 primate species (N = 55 specimens): 9 strepsirrhines, 15 platyrrhines, and 20 catarrhines. The sample includes all major locomotor and substrate use groups...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jeffrey H Plochocki, Tamar Segev, Wade Grow, Margaret I Hall
OBJECTIVE: A complete and accurate understanding of extraocular muscle function is important to the veterinary care of the avian eye. This is especially true for birds of prey, which rely heavily on vision for survival and yet are prone to ocular injury and disease. To better understand the function of extraocular muscles in birds of prey, we studied extraocular muscle architecture grossly and histologically. ANIMALS STUDIED: This sample was composed of two each of the following species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and barn owl (Tyto alba)...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
J D Ruiz-Cárdenas, J J Rodríguez-Juan, J Ríos-Díaz
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of skeletal muscle architecture (SMA) features measured by 2-D ultrasonography on jumping performance in humans. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted, registry number: CRD42016043602. The scientific literature was systematically searched in eight databases, last run on March 14th, 2017. Cross-sectional studies focused on the association between SMA features and vertical jumping performance were selected. A random-effects model was used to analyze the influence of lower-limb SMA and maximal jump height...
January 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Edwin Dickinson, Heiko Stark, Kornelius Kupczik
The fascicular architecture of skeletal muscle dictates functional parameters such as force production and contractile velocity. Muscle microarchitecture is typically determined by means of manual dissection, a technique that is inherently destructive to specimens. Furthermore, fascicle lengths and pennation angles are commonly assessed at only a limited number of sampling sites per muscle. We present the results of a digital technique to non-destructively assess muscle architectural variables for three jaw-adductor muscles within a specimen of the cercopithecine primate Macaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque)...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Adam Hartstone-Rose, Ashley R Deutsch, Carissa L Leischner, Francisco Pastor
Analyses of masticatory muscle architecture-specifically fascicle length (FL; a correlate of muscle stretch and contraction speed) and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA; a correlate of force)-reveal soft-tissue dietary adaptations. For instance, consumers of large, soft foods are expected to have relatively long FL, while consumers of obdurate foods are expected to have relatively high PCSA. Unfortunately, only a few studies have analyzed these variables across large primate samples-an order of particular interest because it is our own...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Motoharu Oishi, Naomichi Ogihara, Daisuke Shimizu, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Hideki Endo, Yumi Une, Satoshi Soeta, Hajime Amasaki, Nobutsune Ichihara
Comparative analysis of the foot muscle architecture among extant great apes is important for understanding the evolution of the human foot and, hence, human habitual bipedal walking. However, to our knowledge, there is no previous report of a quantitative comparison of hominoid intrinsic foot muscle dimensions. In the present study, we quantitatively compared muscle dimensions of the hominoid foot by means of multivariate analysis. The foot muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of five chimpanzees, one bonobo, two gorillas, and six orangutans were obtained by our own dissections, and those of humans were taken from published accounts...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Ying Chen, Lu He, Kaishou Xu, Jinling Li, Buyun Guan, Hongmei Tang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) peers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved a total of 72 children with hemiplegic CP (n = 24), and diplegic CP (n = 24) and their TD peers (n = 24). Muscle architecture was measured at rest using ultrasound. Clinical measures included gross motor function and a modified Ashworth scale...
2018: PloS One
Leonardo Mendes Leal de Souza, Hélio Veiga Cabral, Liliam Fernandes de Oliveira, Taian Martins Vieira
Architectural differences along vastus medialis (VM) and between VM and vastus lateralis (VL) are considered functionally important for the patellar tracking, knee joint stability and knee joint extension. Whether these functional differences are associated with a differential activity of motor units between VM and VL is however unknown. In the present study, we, therefore, investigate neuroanatomical differences in the activity of motor units detected proximo-distally from VM and from the VL muscle. Nine healthy volunteers performed low-level isometric knee extension contractions (20% of their maximum voluntary contraction) following a trapezoidal trajectory...
December 28, 2017: Human Movement Science
Jongsang Son, Andy Indresano, Kristin Sheppard, Samuel R Ward, Richard L Lieber
The vast majority of musculoskeletal models are not validated against primary experimental data. Conversely, most human experimental measurements are not explained theoretically using models to provide a mechanistic understanding of experimental results. Here we present a study with both primary human data and primary modeling data. Intraoperative sarcomere length was measured on the human vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles (n = 8) by laser diffraction. These data were compared to a biomechanical model based on muscle architecture and moment arms obtained independently from cadaveric specimens (n = 9)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Robert Marzilger, Kirsten Legerlotz, Chrystalla Panteli, Sebastian Bohm, Adamantios Arampatzis
PURPOSE: The assessment of muscle architecture with B-mode ultrasound is an established method in muscle physiology and mechanics. There are several manual, semi-automated and automated approaches available for muscle architecture analysis from ultrasound images or videos. However, most approaches have limitations such as workload, subjectivity, drift or they are applicable to short muscle fascicles only. Addressing these issues, an algorithm was developed to analyse architectural parameters of the vastus lateralis muscle (VL)...
February 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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