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"Muscle architecture"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211795/a-murine-model-of-a-novel-surgical-architecture-for-proprioceptive-muscle-feedback-and-its-potential-application-to-control-of-advanced-limb-prostheses
#1
Tyler R Clites, Matthew Carty, Shriya Srinivasan, Anthony Zorzos, Hugh Herr
<i>Objective:</i> Proprioceptive mechanisms play a critical role in both reflexive and volitional lower extremity control. Significant strides have been made in the development of bionic limbs that are capable of bi-directional communication with the peripheral nervous system, but none of these systems have been capable of providing physiologically-relevant muscle-based proprioceptive feedback through natural neural pathways. In this study, we present the Agonist-antagonist Myoplastic Interface (AMI), a surgical approach with the capacity to provide graded kinesthetic feedback from a prosthesis through mechanical activation of native mechanoreceptors within residual agonist-antagonist muscle pairs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198659/intra-and-inter-rater-reliabilities-of-measurement-of-ultrasound-imaging-for-muscle-thickness-and-pennation-angle-of-tibialis-anterior-muscle-in-stroke-patients
#2
Ki Hun Cho, Hwang Jae Lee, Wan Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of skeletal muscle has been commonly reported in stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of measurement of ultrasound imaging (USI) for pennation angle (PA) and muscle thickness (MT) of tibialis anterior muscle in stroke patients. METHODS: Thirty-four stroke patients (19 men) participated in this study. USI was used for measurement of PA and MT of the tibialis anterior muscles at rest and during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)...
February 15, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166121/neural-and-muscular-contributions-to-the-age-related-reductions-in-rapid-strength
#3
Gena R Gerstner, Brennan J Thompson, Joseph G Rosenberg, Eric J Sobolewski, Michael J Scharville, Eric D Ryan
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the age-related differences in absolute and normalized plantarflexion rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) time intervals, and to examine specific neural and muscular mechanisms contributing to these differences. METHODS: Thirty-two young (20.0±2.1 yrs) and 20 older (69.5±3.3 yrs) recreationally active men performed rapid plantarflexion isometric muscle actions to examine absolute and normalized RTD and muscle activation using electromyography (EMG) at early and late time intervals...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161870/acute-effect-of-static-stretching-on-passive-stiffness-of-the-human-gastrocnemius-fascicle-measured-by-ultrasound-shear-wave-elastography
#4
Kosuke Hirata, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Naokazu Miyamoto
PURPOSE: Passive muscle stiffness and muscle architecture at a given joint angle, as well as slack angle of the muscle have been shown to change after an acute bout of stretching. However, it remains unclear whether passive muscle stiffness at a given fascicle length is reduced after stretching. We aimed to elucidate the acute effect of static stretching on the passive fascicle stiffness using ultrasound shear wave elastography. METHODS: Shear modulus, fascicle length, and slack angle of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) as well as passive plantar flexion torque during passive dorsiflexion were measured before and after a 5-min static stretching in 14 healthy males...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160082/periodization-effects-during-short-term-resistance-training-with-equated-exercise-variables-in-females
#5
Thiemo Pelzer, Boris Ullrich, Mark Pfeiffer
PURPOSE: During resistance training, volume and load can be altered either gradually (traditional periodization: TP) or with frequent changes between subsequent sessions (daily undulating periodization: DUP). We hypothesized that the periodization model employed would not impact upon training-induced adaptations when exercise variables are equated. METHODS: Nineteen females (22.0 years, moderate resistance training experience of 27.9 months) performed 6 weeks of knee extensor training with 3 weekly sessions exercising one leg using TP and the contralateral leg using DUP...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141512/sonomyography-analysis-on-thickness-of-skeletal-muscle-during-dynamic-contraction-induced-by-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#6
Shuang Qiu, Jing Feng, Jiapeng Xu, Rui Xu, Xin Zhao, Peng Zhou, Hongzhi Qi, Lixin Zhang, Dong Ming
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) that stimulates skeletal muscles to induce contractions has been widely applied to restore functions of paralyzed muscles. However, the architectural changes of stimulated muscles induced by NMES are still not well understood. The present study applies sonomyography (SMG) to evaluate muscle architecture under NMES-induced and voluntary movements. The quadriceps muscles of seven healthy subjects were tested for eight cycles during an extension exercise of the knee joint with/without NMES, and SMG and the knee joint angle were recorded during the process of knee extension...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138986/stretch-training-induces-unequal-adaptation-in-muscle-fascicles-and-thickness-in-medial-and-lateral-gastrocnemii
#7
C L Simpson, B D H Kim, M R Bourcet, G R Jones, J M Jakobi
This study compared adaptations in fascicle lengths, pennation angles, and muscle thickness of the lateral and medial gastrocnemii in response to 6 weeks of stretch training. The nondominant plantar flexors of 11 males were stretched five times per week for 6 weeks and compared with the contralateral leg and a nonstretched control group of 10 males. During stretch training, instantaneous electromyography was utilized to ensure passive muscle stretch. At baseline, week three, week six and 1 week after the conclusion of stretch training, ultrasound was used to measure fascicle lengths, pennation angles, muscle thickness of the lateral gastrocnemius and medial gastrocnemius, and Achilles tendon thickness and length...
January 30, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130627/crescent-pyramid-and-drop-set-systems-do-not-promote-greater-strength-gains-muscle-hypertrophy-and-changes-on-muscle-architecture-compared-with-traditional-resistance-training-in-well-trained-men
#8
Vitor Angleri, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Cleiton Augusto Libardi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of crescent pyramid (CP) and drop-set (DS) systems with traditional resistance training (TRAD) with equalized total training volume (TTV) on maximum dynamic strength (1-RM), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle (PA), and fascicle length (FL). METHODS: Thirty-two volunteers had their legs randomized in a within-subject design in TRAD (3-5 sets of 6-12 repetitions at 75% 1-RM), CP (3-5 sets of 6-15 repetitions at 65-85% 1-RM), and DS (3-5 sets of ~50-75% 1-RM to muscle failure) protocols...
January 27, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104754/how-does-passive-lengthening-change-the-architecture-of-the-human-medial-gastrocnemius-muscle
#9
Bart Bolsterlee, Arkiev D'Souza, Simon C Gandevia, Robert D Herbert
There are few comprehensive investigations of the changes in muscle architecture that accompany muscle contraction or change in muscle length in vivo. For this study, we measured changes in the three-dimensional architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius at the whole-muscle level, the fascicle level and the fiber level using anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Data were obtained from eight subjects under relaxed conditions at three muscle lengths. At the whole muscle level, a 5.1% increase in muscle belly length resulted in a reduction in both muscle width (mean change -2...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063610/ultrasound-measurements-of-skeletal-muscle-architecture-are-associated-with-strength-and-functional-capacity-in-older-adults
#10
Isaac Selva Raj, Stephen R Bird, Anthony J Shield
The goal of this study was to determine whether ultrasound measures of muscle architecture can be used to infer strength and functional capacity in older adults. Thirty-six healthy older adults (aged 68.2 ± 5.3 y) undertook isokinetic dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic concentric knee extensor strength, the 6-m fast walk, timed up and go, stair climb and descent and vertical jump tests. Longitudinal brightness-mode ultrasound scans (probe frequency, 10 MHz) of the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis were obtained, and muscle architecture measures (thickness, fascicle pennation angle and fascicle length) were correlated with the aforementioned strength and functional measures...
January 4, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049266/does-vitamin-d-affect-muscle-strength-and-architecture-an-isokinetic-and-ultrasonographic-study
#11
Murat Kara, Timur Ekiz, Özgür Kara, Tülay Tiftik, Fevziye Ünsal Malas, Sibel Özbudak Demir, Neşe Özgirgin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the association between 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and muscle strength/architecture. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Thirty patients (27 women, 3 men) were allocated into Group I (n=15, mean age; 44.4±9.4 years) and Group II (n=15, mean age; 39.0±9.9 years) according to the median of 25(OH)D (<13.7 ng/mL vs >13.7 ng/mL, respectively). Peak torque/body weight of the knee flexor/extensor muscles at 60°/sec and 180°/sec and those of ankle flexor/ extensor muscles at 30°/sec and 90°/sec were evaluated by using a Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028847/muscle-excitability-during-sustained-maximal-voluntary-contractions-by-a-separate-analysis-of-the-m-wave-phases
#12
J Rodriguez-Falces, N Place
This study was designed to examine separately the changes in the first and second phases of the muscle compound action potential (M-wave) during and after a sustained 3-minutes maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). M-waves were evoked by supramaximal single shocks to the femoral nerve given at 10-seconds intervals throughout a sustained isometric 3-minutes MVC and also during six brief MVCs performed throughout a 30-minutes recovery period. The amplitude, duration, and area of the M-wave first and second phases, together with muscle conduction velocity and force, were measured...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003562/a-novel-diffusion-tensor-mri-approach-for-skeletal-muscle-fascicle-length-measurements
#13
Jos Oudeman, Valentina Mazzoli, Marco A Marra, Klaas Nicolay, Mario Maas, Nico Verdonschot, Andre M Sprengers, Aart J Nederveen, Gustav J Strijkers, Martijn Froeling
Musculoskeletal (dys-)function relies for a large part on muscle architecture which can be obtained using Diffusion-Tensor MRI (DT-MRI) and fiber tractography. However, reconstructed tracts often continue along the tendon or aponeurosis when using conventional methods, thus overestimating fascicle lengths. In this study, we propose a new method for semiautomatic segmentation of tendinous tissue using tract density (TD). We investigated the feasibility and repeatability of this method to quantify the mean fascicle length per muscle...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002649/toward-modeling-locomotion-using-electromyography-informed-3d-models-application-to-cerebral-palsy
#14
REVIEW
M Sartori, J W Fernandez, L Modenese, C P Carty, L A Barber, K Oberhofer, J Zhang, G G Handsfield, N S Stott, T F Besier, D Farina, D G Lloyd
This position paper proposes a modeling pipeline to develop clinically relevant neuromusculoskeletal models to understand and treat complex neurological disorders. Although applicable to a variety of neurological conditions, we provide direct pipeline applicative examples in the context of cerebral palsy (CP). This paper highlights technologies in: (1) patient-specific segmental rigid body models developed from magnetic resonance imaging for use in inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics pipelines; (2) efficient population-based approaches to derive skeletal models and muscle origins/insertions that are useful for population statistics and consistent creation of continuum models; (3) continuum muscle descriptions to account for complex muscle architecture including spatially varying material properties with muscle wrapping; (4) muscle and tendon properties specific to CP; and (5) neural-based electromyography-informed methods for muscle force prediction...
December 21, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906061/laminin-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-11-regulate-fibronectin-levels-in-the-zebrafish-myotendinous-junction
#15
Molly H Jenkins, Sarah S Alrowaished, Michelle F Goody, Bryan D Crawford, Clarissa A Henry
BACKGROUND: Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell adhesion as well as signaling between cells and their microenvironment. Despite the importance of tightly regulated ECM remodeling for normal muscle development and function, mechanisms underlying ECM remodeling in vivo remain elusive. One excellent paradigm in which to study ECM remodeling in vivo is morphogenesis of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) during zebrafish skeletal muscle development. During MTJ development, there are dramatic shifts in the primary components comprising the MTJ matrix...
May 2, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896273/relationships-between-muscle-architecture-of-rectus-femoris-and-functional-parameters-of-knee-motion-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#16
Maria Stella Valle, Antonino Casabona, Marco Micale, Matteo Cioni
This study was designed to measure in vivo muscle architecture of the rectus femoris in adults with Down syndrome, testing possible relationships with functional parameters of the knee motion. Ten adults with Down syndrome and ten typically developed participated in the study. Pennation angle and thickness of the rectus femoris and subcutaneous layer of the thigh were measured via ultrasound imaging. Knee kinematics and electromyographic activity of the rectus femoris were recorded during free leg dropping...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894277/human-limb-skeletal-muscle-wasting-and-architectural-remodeling-during-five-to-ten-days-intubation-and-ventilation-in-critical-care-an-observational-study-using-ultrasound
#17
Peter Turton, Richard Hay, Jonathon Taylor, Jamie McPhee, Ingeborg Welters
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients frequently suffer muscle weakness whilst in critical care. Ultrasound can reliably track loss of muscle size, but also quantifies the arrangement of the muscle fascicles, known as the muscle architecture. We sought to measure both pennation angle and fascicle length, as well as tracking changes in muscle thickness in a population of critically ill patients. METHODS: On days 1, 5 and 10 after admission to critical care, muscle thickness was measured in ventilated critically ill patients using bedside ultrasound...
November 29, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888744/bilateral-changes-in-muscle-architecture-of-physically-active-people-with-chronic-stroke-a-quantitative-muscle-ultrasound-study
#18
Frank Berenpas, Anne-Marieke Martens, Vivian Weerdesteyn, Alexander C Geurts, Nens van Alfen
OBJECTIVE: Changes in muscle architecture after stroke are usually assessed by investigating inter-limb differences. As a result bilateral changes of muscle architecture might be missed. Our aim was to investigate whether bilateral architectural changes in skeletal muscle can be detected in chronic, physically active stroke patients using quantitative muscle ultrasound (QMUS). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (mean time since stroke 5.2years, median Brunnström stage 4) were recruited...
January 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825160/pathophysiology-of-volumetric-muscle-loss-injury
#19
Benjamin T Corona, Joseph C Wenke, Catherine L Ward
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries are prevalent in civilian and military trauma patients and are known to impart chronic functional deficits. The frank loss of muscle tissue that defines VML injuries is beyond the robust reparative and regenerative capacities of mammalian skeletal muscle. Given the nature of VML injuries, there is a clear need to develop therapies that promote de novo regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers, which can integrate with the remaining musculature and restore muscle strength. However, the pathophysiology of VML injuries is not completely defined, and, therefore, there may be other opportunities to improve functional outcomes other than de novo regeneration...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798092/igf-1-gh-axis-enhances-losartan-treatment-in-lama2-related-muscular-dystrophy
#20
Anthony Accorsi, Ajay Kumar, Younghwa Rhee, Alex Miller, Mahasweta Girgenrath
As the complexities of dystrophic pathology have been elucidated over the last few years, it has become increasingly clear that primary monogenetic defects result in multiple secondary pathologies capable of autonomously driving disease progression. Consequently, single-mode therapies fail to comprehensively ameliorate all aspects of pathology. Lama2-related muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) is a devastating congenital muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene that results in multi-faceted secondary pathologies that include inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and necrosis leading to severe muscle weakness and minimal postnatal growth...
October 24, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
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