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"Muscle architecture"

Maud Pradines, Ingrid Masson, Raphaël Portero, Caroline Giroux, Jean-Michel Gracies
OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in muscle architectural parameters of the muscle-tendon unit of soleus and medial gastrocnemius (GM) in patients with chronic hemiparesis, after 1 year of rehabilitation. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 20 chronic hemiparetic patients (8W, mean age: 56 [12], time since lesion 9 [8]) were evaluated. Muscle architectural parameters including muscle fascicle length, pennation angle, thickness, tendon and muscle belly lengths were evaluated in vivo using ultrasonography in passive condition (verified by electromyographic recording) in a seated patient with ankle, knee and hip on the paretic side at 90°...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Zhongjian Cheng, Venkata Garikipati, Emily Nickoloff, Chunlin Wang, David J Polhemus, Jibin Zhou, Cynthia Benedict, Mohsin Khan, Suresh K Verma, Joseph E Rabinowitz, David Lefer, Raj Kishore
BACKGROUND: -Bone marrow cell-based treatment for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in diabetic patients yielded a modest therapeutic effect due to cell dysfunction. Therefore, approaches that improve diabetic stem/progenitor cell functions may provide therapeutic benefits. Here, we tested the hypotheses that restoration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production in diabetic bone marrow cells (BMCs) improves their reparative capacities. METHODS: -Mouse BMCs were isolated by density-gradient centrifugation...
September 22, 2016: Circulation
S Tsitkanou, K Spengos, A-N Stasinaki, N Zaras, G Bogdanis, G Papadimas, G Terzis
Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week)...
September 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Martin E Héroux, Peter W Stubbs, Robert D Herbert
Precise estimates of muscle architecture are necessary to understand and model muscle mechanics. The primary aim of this study was to estimate continuous changes in fascicle length and pennation angle in human gastrocnemius muscles during ramped plantar flexor contractions at two ankle angles. The secondary aim was to determine whether these changes differ between proximal and distal fascicles. Fifteen healthy subjects performed ramped contractions (0-25% MVC) as ultrasound images were recorded from the medial (MG, eight sites) and lateral (LG, six sites) gastrocnemius muscle with the ankle at 90° and 120° (larger angles correspond to shorter muscle lengths)...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Caleb D Bazyler, Timothy J Suchomel, Christopher J Sole, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Michael H Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Caleb D Bazyler, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Alex P Harrison, Kimitake Sato, Ashley A Kavanaugh, Brad H DeWeese, Michael H Stone
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an overreach and taper on measures of muscle architecture, jumping, and throwing performance in Division I collegiate throwers preparing for conference championships. Six collegiate track and field throwers (3 hammer, 2 discus, 1 javelin) trained for 12 weeks using a block-periodization model culminating with a one week overreach followed by a 3 week taper (ORT). Session rating of perceived exertion training load (RPETL) and strength training volume-load times bar displacement (VLd) were recorded weekly...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Stéphanie Langlois, Kyle N Cowan
Pannexins are newly discovered channels that are now recognized as mediators of adenosine triphosphate release from several cell types allowing communication with the extracellular environment. Pannexins have been associated with various physiological and pathological processes including apoptosis, inflammation, and cancer. However, it is only recently that our work has unveiled a role for Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3 as novel regulators of skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Myoblast differentiation is an ordered multistep process that includes withdrawal from the cell cycle and the expression of key myogenic factors leading to myoblast differentiation and fusion into multinucleated myotubes...
August 13, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Oliver J Perkin, Rebecca L Travers, Javier T Gonzalez, James E Turner, Fiona Gillison, Cassie Wilson, Polly M McGuigan, Dylan Thompson, Keith A Stokes
BACKGROUND: Muscles get smaller and weaker as we age and become more vulnerable to atrophy when physical activity is reduced or removed. This research is designed to investigate the potentially protective effects of two separate exercise strategies against loss in skeletal muscle function and size, and other key indices of health, following 14 days of reduced physical activity in older men. METHODS: Three groups of 10 older men (aged 65-80 years) will undertake 2 weeks of reduced activity by decreasing daily steps from more than 3500 to less than 1500 (using pedometers to record step count)...
2016: Trials
Boris Ullrich, Thiemo Pelzer, Sergio Oliveira, Mark Pfeiffer
Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2...
August 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Caroline P Dias, Bruno Freire, Natália B A Goulart, Eduardo S Onzi, Jefferson Becker, Irenio Gomes, Adamantios Arampatzis, Marco A Vaz
OBJECTIVE: Spasticity poststroke leads to muscle weakness and soft tissue contracture, however, it is not clear how muscle properties change due this motor neural disorder. The purpose was to compare medial gastrocnemius muscle architecture and mechanical properties of the plantarflexor muscles between stroke survivors with spasticity and healthy subjects. METHODS: The study included 15 stroke survivors with ankle spasticity and 15 healthy subjects. An isokinetic dynamometer was used for the evaluation of maximal isometric plantarflexor torque and images of the medial gastrocnemius muscle were obtained using ultrasonography...
July 22, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Gena R Gerstner, Eric D Ryan, Brennan J Thompson, Joseph G Rosenberg, Eric J Sobolewski, Michael J Scharville
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jacob R Goodin, Caleb D Bazyler, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Michael H Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matthew C Kinney, Sudarshan Dayanidhi, Peter B Dykstra, John J McCarthy, Charlotte A Peterson, Richard L Lieber
INTRODUCTION: Muscles add sarcomeres in response to stretch, presumably to maintain optimal sarcomere length. Clinical evidence from patients with cerebral palsy (CP), who have both decreased serial sarcomere number and reduced satellite cells (SCs), suggests a hypothesis that SCs may be involved in sarcomere addition. METHODS: A transgenic Pax7-DTA mouse model underwent conditional SC depletion, and their soleii were then stretch-immobilized to assess their capacity for sarcomere addition...
June 24, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
E M Williams-Hatala, K G Hatala, S Hiles, K N Rabey
Muscle attachment sites (entheses) on dry bones are regularly used by paleontologists to infer soft tissue anatomy and to reconstruct behaviors of extinct organisms. This method is commonly applied to fossil hominin hand bones to assess their abilities to participate in Paleolithic stone tool behaviors. Little is known, however, about how or even whether muscle anatomy and activity regimes influence the morphologies of their entheses, especially in the hand. Using the opponens muscles from a sample of modern humans, we tested the hypothesis that aspects of hand muscle architecture that are known to be influenced by behavior correlate with the size and shape of their associated entheses...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jeffrey A Scales, Charlotte M Stinson, Stephen M Deban
Muscle-powered movements are limited by the contractile properties of muscles and are sensitive to temperature changes. Elastic-recoil mechanisms can both increase performance and mitigate the effects of temperature on performance. Here, we compare feeding movements in two species of plethodontid salamanders, Bolitoglossa franklini and Desmognathus quadramaculatus, across a range of body temperatures (5-25°C) to better understand the mechanism of elastically powered, thermally robust movements. Bolitoglossa exhibited ballistic, elastically powered tongue projection with a maximum muscle mass specific power of 4,642 W kg(-1) while Desmognathus demonstrated nonballistic, muscle-powered tongue projection with a maximum power of 359 W kg(-1) ...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Bruce M Damon, Martijn Froeling, Amanda K W Buck, Jos Oudeman, Zhaohua Ding, Aart J Nederveen, Emily C Bush, Gustav J Strijkers
The mechanical functions of muscles involve the generation of force and the actuation of movement by shortening or lengthening under load. These functions are influenced, in part, by the internal arrangement of muscle fibers with respect to the muscle's mechanical line of action. This property is known as muscle architecture. In this review, we describe the use of diffusion tensor (DT)-MRI muscle fiber tracking for the study of muscle architecture. In the first section, the importance of skeletal muscle architecture to function is discussed...
June 3, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Jacobo Ángel Rubio-Arias, Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, José Peña Amaro, Paula Esteban, Susana Mendizábal, José Fernando Jiménez
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyse gender differences in neuromuscular behaviour of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis during the take-off phase of a countermovement jump (CMJ), using direct measures (ground reaction forces, muscle activity and dynamic ultrasound). METHODS: Sixty-four young adults (aged 18-25 years) participated voluntarily in this study, 35 men and 29 women. The firing of the trigger allowed obtainment of data collection vertical ground reaction forces (GRF), surface electromyography activity (sEMG) and dynamic ultrasound gastrocnemius of both legs...
May 19, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Rui Wu, Eamonn Delahunt, Massimiliano Ditroilo, Madeleine Lowery, Giuseppe De Vito
The aim of this study was to concurrently assess the effect of age on neuromuscular and mechanical properties in 24 young (23.6 ± 3.7 years) and 20 older (66.5 ± 3.8 years) healthy males and females. Maximal strength of knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF), contractile rate of torque development (RTD) and neural activation of agonist-antagonist muscles (surface EMG) were examined during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Tissue stiffness (i.e. musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) and muscle stiffness (MS)) was examined via the free-oscillation technique, whereas muscle architecture (MA) of the vastus lateralis and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography...
June 2016: Age (2005-)
James P Charles, Ornella Cappellari, Andrew J Spence, Dominic J Wells, John R Hutchinson
Musculoskeletal modelling has become a valuable tool with which to understand how neural, muscular, skeletal and other tissues are integrated to produce movement. Most musculoskeletal modelling work has to date focused on humans or their close relatives, with few examples of quadrupedal animal limb models. A musculoskeletal model of the mouse hindlimb could have broad utility for questions in medicine, genetics, locomotion and neuroscience. This is due to this species' position as a premier model of human disease, having an array of genetic tools for manipulation of the animal in vivo, and being a small quadruped, a category for which few models exist...
October 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Molly H Jenkins, Sarah S Alrowaished, Michelle F Goody, Bryan D Crawford, Clarissa A Henry
BACKGROUND: Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell adhesion as well as signaling between cells and their microenvironment. Despite the importance of tightly regulated ECM remodeling for normal muscle development and function, mechanisms underlying ECM remodeling in vivo remain elusive. One excellent paradigm in which to study ECM remodeling in vivo is morphogenesis of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) during zebrafish skeletal muscle development. During MTJ development, there are dramatic shifts in the primary components comprising the MTJ matrix...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
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