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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771607/mechanistic-insights-into-the-modulatory-role-of-the-mechanoreflex-on-central-hemodynamics-using-passive-leg-movement-in-humans
#1
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
The aim of this study was to examine the independent contributions of joint range of motion (ROM), muscle fascicle length (MFL) and joint angular velocity on mechanoreceptor mediated central cardiovascular dynamics using passive leg movement (PLM) in humans. Twelve healthy males (age: 23{plus minus}2 yrs, body mass index: 23.7 kg/m2 ) performed continuous PLM at various randomized joint angles ROM (0-50{degree sign} vs. 50-100{degree sign} vs. 0-100{degree sign}) and joint angular velocities ('fast': 200{degree sign}/s vs...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722617/cheap-labor-myosin-fiber-type-expression-and-enzyme-activity-in-the-forelimb-musculature-of-sloths-pilosa-xenarthra
#2
Kyle B Spainhower, Rebecca N Cliffe, Allan K Metz, Ernest M Barkett, Paije M Kiraly, Dylan R Thomas, Sarah J Kennedy, Judy Avey-Arroyo, Michael T Butcher
Sloths are canopy-dwelling inhabitants of American neotropical rainforests that exhibit suspensory behaviors. These abilities require both strength and muscular endurance to hang for extended periods of time; however, the skeletal muscle mass of sloths is reduced, thus requiring modifications to muscle architecture and leverage for large joint torque. We hypothesize that intrinsic muscle properties also are modified for fatigue resistance and predict a heterogeneous expression of slow/fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) fibers that utilize oxidative metabolic pathways for economic force production...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708284/supersonic-shear-imaging-elastography-in-skeletal-muscles-relationship-between-in-vivo-and-synthetic-fiber-angles-and-shear-modulus
#3
Kelly Lima, Remi Rouffaud, Wagner Pereira, Liliam F Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: To verify a relationship between the pennation angle of synthetic fibers and muscle fibers with the shear modulus (μ) generated by Supersonic shear imaging (SSI) elastography and to compare the anisotropy of synthetic and in vivo pennate muscle fibers in the x2 -x3 plane (probe perpendicular to water surface or skin). METHODS: First, the probe of Aixplorer ultrasound scanner (v.9, Supersonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) was placed in 2 positions (parallel [aligned] and transverse to the fibers) to test the anisotropy in the x2 -x3 plane...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707959/acute-changes-in-muscle-thickness-and-pennation-angle-in-response-to-work-matched-concentric-and-eccentric-isokinetic-exercise
#4
Amilton Vieira, Anthony J Blazevich, Nuno Frade de Sousa, Rodrigo Celes, Savio Alex, James J Tufano, Martim Bottaro
Acute changes in muscle architecture influenced by muscle swelling might be associated with chronic adaptations to resistance exercise, including skeletal muscle growth. Concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) muscle actions both play a role in hypertrophic processes, but the influence of each on acute indices of muscle swelling [i.e. muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle PA)] remain relatively unknown. Therefore, this study compared the acute changes in MT and PA in response to work-matched CON versus ECC isokinetic exercise...
April 30, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683410/the-effect-of-dry-needling-on-spasticity-gait-and-muscle-architecture-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-a-case-series-study
#5
Sarafraz Hadi, Otadi Khadijeh, Mohammadreza Hadian, Ayoobi Yazdi Niloofar, Gholamreza Olyaei, Bagheri Hossein, Sandra Calvo, Pablo Herrero
Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the short-term effects of dry needling on spasticity, gait, and muscle architecture of patients with chronic stroke. Methods A case series study was designed; and six chronic stroke patients with ankle spasticity and gait impairment received a single session of dry needling for gastrocnemius medialis, lateralis, and soleus muscles. The main outcome measures were the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS), and Timed Up and Go test (TUG). In addition, ultrasonography measurements (e...
April 23, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681126/structural-and-molecular-study-of-the-supraspinatus-muscle-of-modern-humans-homo-sapiens-and-common-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#6
J M Potau, A Casado, M de Diego, N Ciurana, J Arias-Martorell, G Bello-Hellegouarch, M Barbosa, F J de Paz, J F Pastor, A Pérez-Pérez
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the muscle architecture and the expression pattern of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus of Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens in order to identify differences related to their different types of locomotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have analyzed nine supraspinatus muscles of Pan troglodytes and ten of Homo sapiens. For each sample, we have recorded the muscle fascicle length (MFL), the pennation angle, and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA)...
April 21, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673935/investigation-of-the-dependence-of-joint-contact-forces-on-musculotendon-parameters-using-a-codified-workflow-for-image-based-modelling
#7
Luca Modenese, Erica Montefiori, Anqi Wang, Stefan Wesarg, Marco Viceconti, Claudia Mazzà
The generation of subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the lower limb has become a feasible task thanks to improvements in medical imaging technology and musculoskeletal modelling software. Nevertheless, clinical use of these models in paediatric applications is still limited for what concerns the estimation of muscle and joint contact forces. Aiming to improve the current state of the art, a methodology to generate highly personalized subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the lower limb based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans was codified as a step-by-step procedure and applied to data from eight juvenile individuals...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673832/effects-of-physical-training-with-the-nintendo-wii-fit-plus-%C3%A2-and-protein-supplementation-on-musculoskeletal-function-and-the-risk-of-falls-in-pre-frail-older-women-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-the-wiiprotein-study
#8
Audrin Said Vojciechowski, Simone Biesek, Jarbas Melo Filho, Estela Iraci Rabito, Maryelle Paula do Amaral, Anna Raquel Silveira Gomes
BACKGROUND: Frailty is one of the key geriatric syndromes and is related to the loss of functional independence. However, the practice of physical training (PT) combined with protein supplementation (PS) may improve musculoskeletal function (MF). OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of PT using 'exergames' with or without PS on MF, nutritional status, and risk of falls in pre-frail older women. METHOD: The protocol is for a randomized controlled clinical trial with a sample of pre-frail older women, divided into 5 groups: control group; PT using exergames; PS; PT using exergames combined with PS; PT using exergames combined with isoenergetic supplementation...
May 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656240/packing-of-muscles-in-the-rabbit-shank-influences-three-dimensional-architecture-of-m-soleus
#9
Carolin Wick, Markus Böl, Florian Müller, Reinhard Blickhan, Tobias Siebert
Isolated and packed muscles (e.g. in the calf) exhibit different three-dimensional muscle shapes. In packed muscles, cross-sections are more angular compared to the more elliptical ones in isolated muscles. As far as we know, it has not been examined yet, whether the shape of the muscle in its packed condition influences its internal arrangement of muscle fascicles and accordingly the contraction behavior in comparison to the isolated condition. To evaluate the impact of muscle packing, we examined the three-dimensional muscle architecture of isolated and packed rabbit M...
April 7, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652169/contribution-of-neuromuscular-factors-to-quadriceps-asymmetry-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#10
Alexa K Johnson, Riann M Palmieri-Smith, Lindsey K Lepley
CONTEXT:   To quantify quadriceps weakness after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), researchers have often analyzed only peak torque. However, analyzing other characteristics of the waveform, such as the rate of torque development (RTD), time to peak torque (TTP), and central activation ratio (CAR), can lend insight into the underlying neuromuscular factors that regulate torque development. OBJECTIVE:   To determine if interlimb neuromuscular asymmetry was present in patients with ACLR at the time of clearance to return to activity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625361/quadriceps-concentric-eccentric-force-and-muscle-architecture-in-copd-patients-vs-healthy-men
#11
Giuseppe Coratella, Nicoletta Rinaldo, Federico Schena
The aim of this study was to compare quadriceps concentric and eccentric strength and muscle architecture in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients vs healthy men. Thirty-five COPD patients (age = 65 ± 4 yrs, forced expiratory volume (FEV1 ) = 63 ± 10%; FEV1 /forced vital capacity (FVC)=57 ± 13% of predicted) and 25 age-matched healthy men (age = 65 ± 4 yrs, FEV1 =114 ± 17%; FEV1 /FVC = 101 ± 6% of predicted) (CON) participated in the present cross-sectional study...
April 3, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508449/accelerated-4d-phase-contrast-mri-in-skeletal-muscle-contraction
#12
Valentina Mazzoli, Lukas M Gottwald, Eva S Peper, Martijn Froeling, Bram F Coolen, Nico Verdonschot, Andre M Sprengers, Pim van Ooij, Gustav J Strijkers, Aart J Nederveen
PURPOSE: 3D time-resolved (4D) phase contrast MRI can be used to study muscle contraction. However, 3D coverage with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution can only be achieved by interleaved acquisitions during many repetitions of the motion task, resulting in long scan times. The aim of this study was to develop a compressed sensing accelerated 4D phase contrast MRI technique for quantification of velocities and strain rate of the muscles in the lower leg during active plantarflexion/dorsiflexion...
March 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504585/high-and-odd-impact-exercise-training-improved-physical-function-and-fall-risk-factors-in-community-dwelling-older-men
#13
Sarah J Allison, Katherine Brooke-Wavell, Jonathan Folland
High impact exercise programmes can improve bone strength, but little is known about whether this type of training further benefits fracture risk by improving physical function in older people. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of high impact exercise on balance, muscle function and morphology in older men. METHODS: Fifty, healthy men (65-80 years) were assigned to a 6-month multidirectional hopping programme (TG) and twenty age and physical activity matched volunteers served as controls (CG)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476706/is-willingness-to-exercise-programmed-in-utero-reviewing-sedentary-behavior-and-the-benefits-of-physical-activity-in-intrauterine-growth-restricted-individuals
#14
REVIEW
Adrianne Rahde Bischoff, Fábio da Silva Cunha, Roberta Dalle Molle, Paulo José Cauduro Maróstica, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
OBJECTIVE: The literature suggests that a fetus will adapt to surrounding adversities by optimizing its use of energy to improve survival, ultimately leading to the programming of the individual's energy intake and expenditure. While recent reviews focused on the fetal programming of energy intake and food preferences, there is also some evidence that fetal adversity is associated with diminished physical activity levels. Therefore, we aimed to review (a) the evidence for an association between being born with intrauterine growth restriction and sedentarism over the life-course and (b) the potential benefits of physical activity over cardiometabolic risk factors for this population...
February 22, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466269/neuromuscular-effects-to-6-weeks-of-loaded-countermovement-jumping-with-traditional-and-daily-undulating-periodization
#15
Boris Ullrich, Thiemo Pelzer, Mark Pfeiffer
Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular effects to 6 weeks of loaded countermovement jumping with traditional and daily undulating periodization. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 660-674, 2018-Loaded vertical jumps are routinely used to enhance athlete's power production in the lower extremity and to optimize jumping and sprinting performance. This study compared traditional (TP) and daily undulating (DUP) periodization on muscle strength, jumping performance, electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity, and muscle architecture during preseason loaded jump training...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460971/quantification-of-muscle-tissue-properties-by-modeling-the-statistics-of-ultrasound-image-intensities-using-a-mixture-of-gamma-distributions-in-children-with-and-without-cerebral-palsy
#16
Siddhartha Sikdar, Guoqing Diao, Diego Turo, Christopher J Stanley, Abhinav Sharma, Amy Chambliss, Loretta Laughrey, April Aralar, Diane L Damiano
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether quantitative ultrasound (US) imaging, based on the envelope statistics of the backscattered US signal, can describe muscle properties in typically developing children and those with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Radiofrequency US data were acquired from the rectus femoris muscle of children with CP (n = 22) and an age-matched cohort without CP (n = 14) at rest and during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. A mixture of gamma distributions was used to model the histogram of the echo intensities within a region of interest in the muscle...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458353/isolated-unilateral-temporalis-muscle-hypertrophy-in-a-child-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#17
Jagath C Ranasinghe, Chandani Wickramasinghe, Ganganath Rodrigo
BACKGROUND: Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is a rare entity of masticatory muscle hypertrophy. All types of masticatory muscle hypertrophies have been documented of which temporalis muscle hypertrophy is one. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is most commonly bilateral and usually associated with other types of masticatory muscles hypertrophy such as masseter or pterygoid hypertrophy. However, isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is extremely rare and only 9 cases have been reported to date in English literature since 1990 with only two patients less than 18 years...
February 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435856/modern-theories-of-pelvic-floor-support-a-topical-review-of-modern-studies-on-structural-and-functional-pelvic-floor-support-from-medical-imaging-computational-modeling-and-electromyographic-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Yun Peng, Brandi D Miller, Timothy B Boone, Yingchun Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weakened pelvic floor support is believed to be the main cause of various pelvic floor disorders. Modern theories of pelvic floor support stress on the structural and functional integrity of multiple structures and their interplay to maintain normal pelvic floor functions. Connective tissues provide passive pelvic floor support while pelvic floor muscles provide active support through voluntary contraction. Advanced modern medical technologies allow us to comprehensively and thoroughly evaluate the interaction of supporting structures and assess both active and passive support functions...
February 12, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420390/specific-adaptations-in-performance-and-muscle-architecture-after-weighted-jump-squat-vs-body-mass-squat-jump-training-in-recreational-soccer-players
#19
Giuseppe Coratella, Marco Beato, Chiara Milanese, Stefano Longo, Eloisa Limonta, Susanna Rampichini, Emiliano Cè, Angela V Bisconti, Federico Schena, Fabio Esposito
Coratella, G, Beato, M, Milanese, C, Longo, S, Limonta, E, Rampichini, S, Cè, E, Bisconti, AV, Schena, F, and Esposito, F. Specific adaptations in performance and muscle architecture after weighted jump-squat vs. body mass squat jump training in recreational soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 921-929, 2018-The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of weighted jump-squat training (WJST) vs. body mass squat jump training (BMSJT) on quadriceps' muscle architecture, lower-limb lean-mass (LM) and muscle strength, performance in change of direction (COD), and sprint and jump in recreational soccer players...
April 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418119/leg-muscle-architecture-in-primates-and-its-correlation-with-locomotion-patterns
#20
Damiano Marchi, Carissa L Leischner, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
Bone biomechanical studies indicate that leg bone structure can be related to different locomotor patterns. The osteological correlates of extant primates' locomotion patterns and substrate use are important to consider when estimating corresponding behaviors of extinct primates. Here, we test if these same patterns are seen in the differences in leg muscular architecture. Muscle mass, fascicle lengths (FL), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), reduced PCSA (RPCSA) and tendon-to-muscle belly ratio were studied in 33 primate species (6 strepsirrhines, 14 platyrrhines and 13 catarrhines)...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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