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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314091/changes-in-muscle-architecture-of-biceps-femoris-induced-by-eccentric-strength-training-with-nordic-hamstring-exercise
#1
Diego Alonso-Fernandez, Pedro Docampo-Blanco, Juan Martinez-Fernandez
Eccentric strength training alters muscle architecture, but it is also an important factor for the prevention of hamstring injuries. The purpose was to determine the architectural adaptations of the Biceps Femoris long head (BFlh) after eccentric strength training with Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE), followed by a subsequent detraining period. The participants in this intervention (n = 23) completed a period of 13 weeks consisting of a first week of control and prior training, followed by 8 weeks of eccentric strength training with NHE, and concluding with a 4-week period of detraining...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280975/the-effect-of-nordic-hamstring-strength-training-on-muscle-architecture-stiffness-and-strength
#2
Kayla D Seymore, Zachary J Domire, Paul DeVita, Patrick M Rider, Anthony S Kulas
PURPOSE: Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269625/development-and-validation-of-thums-version-5-with-1d-muscle-models-for-active-and-passive-automotive-safety-research
#3
Hideyuki Kimpara, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto
Accurately predicting the occupant kinematics is critical to better understand the injury mechanisms during an automotive crash event. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the human body integrated with an active muscle model called Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) version 5, which has the body size of the 50th percentile American adult male (AM50). This model is characterized by being able to generate a force owing to muscle tone and to predict the occupant response during an automotive crash event...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267010/regenerating-the-anal-sphincter-cytokines-stem-cells-or-both
#4
Li Sun, Zhuojun Xie, Mei Kuang, Marc Penn, Margot S Damaser, Massarat Zutshi
BACKGROUND: Healing of an anal sphincter defect at a time distant from injury is a challenge. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether re-establishing stem cell homing at the site of an anal sphincter defect when cytokine expression has declined using a plasmid engineered to express stromal derived factor 1 with or without mesenchymal stem cells can improve anatomic and functional outcome. DESIGN: This was a randomized animal study. SETTINGS: Thirty-two female age- and weight-matched Sprague Dawley rats underwent 50% excision of the anal sphincter complex...
April 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264545/innervation-zone-targeted-botulinum-toxin-injections
#5
Bayram Kaymak, Murat Kara, Arzu Yağiz-On, Abdullah R Soylu, Levent Özçakar
Muscle overactivity (spasticity, dystonia or spasm) seen in certain neuromuscular disorders has been effectively treated with intramuscular injection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoTXs). Since they act in the nerve terminals, the toxin must be transported to the neuromuscular junctions which are generally clustered in one or more restricted areas (innervations zone(s)) in a skeletal muscle. The innervation zone targeted BoTX injections using guidance is highly recommended to achieve an optimal therapeutic goal with lower doses and fewer side effects...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229237/different-recoveries-of-the-first-and-second-phases-of-the-m-wave-after-intermittent-maximal-voluntary-contractions
#6
Javier Rodriguez-Falces, Nicolas Place
PURPOSE: We investigated the recovery of muscle electrical properties after intermittent intense exercise by examining separately the first and second phases of the muscle compound action potential (M-wave). METHODS: M-waves and mechanical twitches were obtained using femoral nerve stimulation throughout the 30-min recovery period following 48 successive intermittent 3-s MVCs. The amplitude, duration, and area of the M-wave first and second phases, and the peak twitch force were measured from the knee extensors...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227883/development-and-validation-of-thums-version-5-with-1d-muscle-models-for-active-and-passive-automotive-safety-research
#7
Hideyuki Kimpara, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Hideyuki Kimpara, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Hideyuki Kimpara, Masami Iwamoto, Yuko Nakahira
Accurately predicting the occupant kinematics is critical to better understand the injury mechanisms during an automotive crash event. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the human body integrated with an active muscle model called Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) version 5, which has the body size of the 50th percentile American adult male (AM50). This model is characterized by being able to generate a force owing to muscle tone and to predict the occupant response during an automotive crash event...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211795/a-murine-model-of-a-novel-surgical-architecture-for-proprioceptive-muscle-feedback-and-its-potential-application-to-control-of-advanced-limb-prostheses
#8
Tyler R Clites, Matthew J Carty, Shriya Srinivasan, Anthony N Zorzos, Hugh M Herr
OBJECTIVE: Proprioceptive mechanisms play a critical role in both reflexive and volitional lower extremity control. Significant strides have been made in the development of bionic limbs that are capable of bi-directional communication with the peripheral nervous system, but none of these systems have been capable of providing physiologically-relevant muscle-based proprioceptive feedback through natural neural pathways. In this study, we present the agonist-antagonist myoneural interface (AMI), a surgical approach with the capacity to provide graded kinesthetic feedback from a prosthesis through mechanical activation of native mechanoreceptors within residual agonist-antagonist muscle pairs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198659/intra-and-inter-rater-reliabilities-of-measurement-of-ultrasound-imaging-for-muscle-thickness-and-pennation-angle-of-tibialis-anterior-muscle-in-stroke-patients
#9
Ki Hun Cho, Hwang Jae Lee, Wan Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of skeletal muscle has been commonly reported in stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of measurement of ultrasound imaging (USI) for pennation angle (PA) and muscle thickness (MT) of tibialis anterior muscle in stroke patients. METHODS: Thirty-four stroke patients (19 men) participated in this study. USI was used for measurement of PA and MT of the tibialis anterior muscles at rest and during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)...
February 15, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166121/neural-and-muscular-contributions-to-the-age-related-reductions-in-rapid-strength
#10
Gena R Gerstner, Brennan J Thompson, Joseph G Rosenberg, Eric J Sobolewski, Michael J Scharville, Eric D Ryan
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the age-related differences in absolute and normalized plantarflexion rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) time intervals, and to examine specific neural and muscular mechanisms contributing to these differences. METHODS: Thirty-two young (20.0±2.1 yrs) and 20 older (69.5±3.3 yrs) recreationally active men performed rapid plantarflexion isometric muscle actions to examine absolute and normalized RTD and muscle activation using electromyography (EMG) at early and late time intervals...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161870/acute-effect-of-static-stretching-on-passive-stiffness-of-the-human-gastrocnemius-fascicle-measured-by-ultrasound-shear-wave-elastography
#11
Kosuke Hirata, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Naokazu Miyamoto
PURPOSE: Passive muscle stiffness and muscle architecture at a given joint angle, as well as slack angle of the muscle have been shown to change after an acute bout of stretching. However, it remains unclear whether passive muscle stiffness at a given fascicle length is reduced after stretching. We aimed to elucidate the acute effect of static stretching on the passive fascicle stiffness using ultrasound shear wave elastography. METHODS: Shear modulus, fascicle length, and slack angle of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) as well as passive plantar flexion torque during passive dorsiflexion were measured before and after a 5-min static stretching in 14 healthy males...
March 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160082/periodization-effects-during-short-term-resistance-training-with-equated-exercise-variables-in-females
#12
Thiemo Pelzer, Boris Ullrich, Mark Pfeiffer
PURPOSE: During resistance training, volume and load can be altered either gradually (traditional periodization: TP) or with frequent changes between subsequent sessions (daily undulating periodization: DUP). We hypothesized that the periodization model employed would not impact upon training-induced adaptations when exercise variables are equated. METHODS: Nineteen females (22.0 years, moderate resistance training experience of 27.9 months) performed 6 weeks of knee extensor training with 3 weekly sessions exercising one leg using TP and the contralateral leg using DUP...
March 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141512/sonomyography-analysis-on-thickness-of-skeletal-muscle-during-dynamic-contraction-induced-by-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#13
Shuang Qiu, Jing Feng, Jiapeng Xu, Rui Xu, Xin Zhao, Peng Zhou, Hongzhi Qi, Lixin Zhang, Dong Ming
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) that stimulates skeletal muscles to induce contractions has been widely applied to restore functions of paralyzed muscles. However, the architectural changes of stimulated muscles induced by NMES are still not well understood. The present study applies sonomyography (SMG) to evaluate muscle architecture under NMES-induced and voluntary movements. The quadriceps muscles of seven healthy subjects were tested for eight cycles during an extension exercise of the knee joint with/without NMES, and SMG and the knee joint angle were recorded during the process of knee extension...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138986/stretch-training-induces-unequal-adaptation-in-muscle-fascicles-and-thickness-in-medial-and-lateral-gastrocnemii
#14
C L Simpson, B D H Kim, M R Bourcet, G R Jones, J M Jakobi
This study compared adaptations in fascicle lengths, pennation angles, and muscle thickness of the lateral and medial gastrocnemii in response to 6 weeks of stretch training. The nondominant plantar flexors of 11 males were stretched five times per week for 6 weeks and compared with the contralateral leg and a nonstretched control group of 10 males. During stretch training, instantaneous electromyography was utilized to ensure passive muscle stretch. At baseline, week three, week six and 1 week after the conclusion of stretch training, ultrasound was used to measure fascicle lengths, pennation angles, muscle thickness of the lateral gastrocnemius and medial gastrocnemius, and Achilles tendon thickness and length...
January 30, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130627/crescent-pyramid-and-drop-set-systems-do-not-promote-greater-strength-gains-muscle-hypertrophy-and-changes-on-muscle-architecture-compared-with-traditional-resistance-training-in-well-trained-men
#15
Vitor Angleri, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Cleiton Augusto Libardi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of crescent pyramid (CP) and drop-set (DS) systems with traditional resistance training (TRAD) with equalized total training volume (TTV) on maximum dynamic strength (1-RM), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle (PA), and fascicle length (FL). METHODS: Thirty-two volunteers had their legs randomized in a within-subject design in TRAD (3-5 sets of 6-12 repetitions at 75% 1-RM), CP (3-5 sets of 6-15 repetitions at 65-85% 1-RM), and DS (3-5 sets of ~50-75% 1-RM to muscle failure) protocols...
January 27, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104754/how-does-passive-lengthening-change-the-architecture-of-the-human-medial-gastrocnemius-muscle
#16
Bart Bolsterlee, Arkiev D'Souza, Simon C Gandevia, Robert D Herbert
There are few comprehensive investigations of the changes in muscle architecture that accompany muscle contraction or change in muscle length in vivo. For this study, we measured changes in the three-dimensional architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius at the whole-muscle level, the fascicle level and the fiber level using anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Data were obtained from eight subjects under relaxed conditions at three muscle lengths. At the whole muscle level, a 5.1% increase in muscle belly length resulted in a reduction in both muscle width (mean change -2...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063610/ultrasound-measurements-of-skeletal-muscle-architecture-are-associated-with-strength-and-functional-capacity-in-older-adults
#17
Isaac Selva Raj, Stephen R Bird, Anthony J Shield
The goal of this study was to determine whether ultrasound measures of muscle architecture can be used to infer strength and functional capacity in older adults. Thirty-six healthy older adults (aged 68.2 ± 5.3 y) undertook isokinetic dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic concentric knee extensor strength, the 6-m fast walk, timed up and go, stair climb and descent and vertical jump tests. Longitudinal brightness-mode ultrasound scans (probe frequency, 10 MHz) of the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius medialis were obtained, and muscle architecture measures (thickness, fascicle pennation angle and fascicle length) were correlated with the aforementioned strength and functional measures...
January 4, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049266/does-vitamin-d-affect-muscle-strength-and-architecture-an-isokinetic-and-ultrasonographic-study
#18
Murat Kara, Timur Ekiz, Özgür Kara, Tülay Tiftik, Fevziye Ünsal Malas, Sibel Özbudak Demir, Neşe Özgirgin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the association between 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and muscle strength/architecture. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Thirty patients (27 women, 3 men) were allocated into Group I (n=15, mean age; 44.4±9.4 years) and Group II (n=15, mean age; 39.0±9.9 years) according to the median of 25(OH)D (<13.7 ng/mL vs >13.7 ng/mL, respectively). Peak torque/body weight of the knee flexor/extensor muscles at 60°/sec and 180°/sec and those of ankle flexor/ extensor muscles at 30°/sec and 90°/sec were evaluated by using a Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028847/muscle-excitability-during-sustained-maximal-voluntary-contractions-by-a-separate-analysis-of-the-m-wave-phases
#19
J Rodriguez-Falces, N Place
This study was designed to examine separately the changes in the first and second phases of the muscle compound action potential (M-wave) during and after a sustained 3-minutes maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). M-waves were evoked by supramaximal single shocks to the femoral nerve given at 10-seconds intervals throughout a sustained isometric 3-minutes MVC and also during six brief MVCs performed throughout a 30-minutes recovery period. The amplitude, duration, and area of the M-wave first and second phases, together with muscle conduction velocity and force, were measured...
December 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003562/a-novel-diffusion-tensor-mri-approach-for-skeletal-muscle-fascicle-length-measurements
#20
Jos Oudeman, Valentina Mazzoli, Marco A Marra, Klaas Nicolay, Mario Maas, Nico Verdonschot, Andre M Sprengers, Aart J Nederveen, Gustav J Strijkers, Martijn Froeling
Musculoskeletal (dys-)function relies for a large part on muscle architecture which can be obtained using Diffusion-Tensor MRI (DT-MRI) and fiber tractography. However, reconstructed tracts often continue along the tendon or aponeurosis when using conventional methods, thus overestimating fascicle lengths. In this study, we propose a new method for semiautomatic segmentation of tendinous tissue using tract density (TD). We investigated the feasibility and repeatability of this method to quantify the mean fascicle length per muscle...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
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