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Langerhans dendritic cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087939/dendritic-cells-in-the-immune-system-history-lineages-tissues-tolerance-and-immunity
#1
Jonathan M Austyn
The aim of this review is to provide a coherent framework for understanding dendritic cells (DCs). It has seven sections. The introduction provides an overview of the immune system and essential concepts, particularly for the nonspecialist reader. Next, the "History" section outlines the early evolution of ideas about DCs and highlights some sources of confusion that still exist today. The "Lineages" section then focuses on five different populations of DCs: two subsets of "classical" DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and Langerhans cells...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063035/monitoring-skin-dendritic-cells-in-steady-state-and-inflammation-by-immunofluorescence-microscopy-and-flow-cytometry
#2
Julia L Ober-Blöbaum, Daniela Ortner, Bernhard Haid, Anna Brand, Christoph Tripp, Björn E Clausen, Patrizia Stoitzner
Skin dendritic cells (DC) are strategically positioned at the body's second largest epithelial border to the environment. Hence they are the first antigen presenting cells that encounter invading pathogens and environmental antigens, including contact sensitizers and carcinogens penetrating the skin. Moreover, DC have the unique ability to induce immunity or tolerance and thus take center stage in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Skin DC can be divided into several phenotypically and functionally distinct subtypes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052512/innate-immunity-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#3
REVIEW
C Mignogna, E Scali, C Camastra, I Presta, P Zeppa, T Barni, G Donato, U Bottoni, A Di Vito
The skin immune system is composed of a vast network of immune cells, including lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, which not only are involved in inflammatory responses but also contribute to homeostatic function and may participate in the various steps of carcinogenesis. Many studies support the notion that innate immunity has a key role in the development, growth and prognosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM), through the release of pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokines and tumour growth factors...
January 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011143/dynamic-changes-in-resident-and-infiltrating-epidermal-dendritic-cells-in-active-and-resolved-psoriasis
#4
Elisa Martini, Maria Wiken, Stanley Cheuk, Irène Gallais Sérézal, Faezzah Baharom, Mona Ståhle, Anna Smed-Sörensen, Liv Eidsmo
Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are spatially separated from dermal dendritic cells (DCs) in healthy human skin. In active psoriasis, maintained by local production of IL-23 and IL-17, DCs infiltrate both skin compartments. Here we show that CCR2(+) epidermal DCs (eDCs), phenotypically distinct from dermal DCs, were strictly confined to lesional psoriasis. The eDCs exceeded the number of LCs and displayed high expression of genes involved in neutrophil recruitment and the activation of keratinocytes and T cells...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982014/monocyte-derived-inflammatory-langerhans-cells-and-dermal-dendritic-cells-mediate-psoriasis-like-inflammation
#5
Tej Pratap Singh, Howard H Zhang, Izabela Borek, Peter Wolf, Michael N Hedrick, Satya P Singh, Brian L Kelsall, Bjorn E Clausen, Joshua M Farber
Dendritic cells (DCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis but the roles for specific DC subsets are not well defined. Here we show that DCs are required for psoriasis-like changes in mouse skin induced by the local injection of IL-23. However, Flt3L-dependent DCs and resident Langerhans cells are dispensable for the inflammation. In epidermis and dermis, the critical DCs are TNF-producing and IL-1β-producing monocyte-derived DCs, including a population of inflammatory Langerhans cells. Depleting Ly6C(hi) blood monocytes reduces DC accumulation and the skin changes induced either by injecting IL-23 or by application of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod...
December 16, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964879/activation-of-langerhans-cells-promotes-the-inflammation-in-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-dermatitis
#6
Chunying Xiao, Zhenlai Zhu, Shuhong Sun, Jixin Gao, Meng Fu, Yufeng Liu, Gang Wang, Xu Yao, Wei Li
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cells (LCs) are epidermis-resident dendritic cells that sense and mediate stimuli from skin and outside world, and participate in various skin diseases, playing either pro-inflammatory or regulatory roles. However, the exact function of LCs in the pathogenesis of psoriasis remains unclear, and the conclusions of previous studies are controversial. OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of LCs in mouse model of imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis using langerin-diphtheria toxin A (DTA) mice that are constitutively deficient in LCs...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923824/human-dendritic-cells-mitigate-nk-cell-dysfunction-mediated-by-nonselective-jak1-2-blockade
#7
Shane A Curran, Justin A Shyer, Erin T St Angelo, Lillian R Talbot, Sneh Sharma, David J Chung, Glenn Heller, Katharine C Hsu, Brian C Betts, James W Young
Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have achieved positive responses in myeloproliferative neoplasms, but at the expense of decreased natural killer (NK) cell numbers and compromised function. Selective JAK2 inhibition may also have a role in preventing and treating graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although JAK inhibitors can impair monocyte-derived dendritic cell (moDC) activation and function and suppress effector T-cell responses, the effects on NK cells and the relevant mechanisms remain undefined...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919079/receptor-usage-dictates-hiv-1-restriction-by-human-trim5%C3%AE-in-dendritic-cell-subsets
#8
Carla M S Ribeiro, Ramin Sarrami-Forooshani, Laurentia C Setiawan, Esther M Zijlstra-Willems, John L van Hamme, Wikky Tigchelaar, Nicole N van der Wel, Neeltje A Kootstra, Sonja I Gringhuis, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek
The most prevalent route of HIV-1 infection is across mucosal tissues after sexual contact. Langerhans cells (LCs) belong to the subset of dendritic cells (DCs) that line the mucosal epithelia of vagina and foreskin and have the ability to sense and induce immunity to invading pathogens. Anatomical and functional characteristics make LCs one of the primary targets of HIV-1 infection. Notably, LCs form a protective barrier against HIV-1 infection and transmission. LCs restrict HIV-1 infection through the capture of HIV-1 by the C-type lectin receptor Langerin and subsequent internalization into Birbeck granules...
December 15, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865989/drug-delivery-across-intact-and-disrupted-skin-barrier-identification-of-cell-populations-interacting-with-penetrated-thermoresponsive-nanogels
#9
F Rancan, M Giulbudagian, J Jurisch, U Blume-Peytavi, M Calderón, A Vogt
Nanoscaled soft particles, such as nanogels, can be designed to incorporate different types of compounds and release them in a controlled and triggered manner. Thermoresponsive nanogels (tNG), releasing their cargo above a defined temperature, are promising carrier systems for inflammatory skin diseases, where the temperature of diseased skin differs from that of healthy skin areas. In this study a polyglycerol-based tNG with diameter of 156 nm was investigated for penetration and release properties upon topical application on ex vivo human skin with intact or disrupted barrier...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846659/the-non-langerhans-cell-histiocytoses-rare-histiocytoses-clinical-aspects-and-therapeutic-approaches
#10
C F Classen, M Minkov, T Lehrnbecher
Rare histiocytoses, also called non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses, include all proliferative disorders of histiocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells that are not classified as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and do not belong to the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) group of diseases. Thus, the term includes numerous benign or malignant, localized or systemic, adult or pediatric diseases. The classification of the histiocytic disorders has been revised several times. Here, we follow the classification recently published by Jean Francois Emile and an international expert panel, defining subgroups of histiocytoses described as L-Group, C-Group, M-Group, R-Group, and H-Group, which stands for LCH-like, cutaneous or mucocutaneous, malignant, Rosai-Dorfman-Disease like and HLH like...
November 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823979/high-frequency-of-clonal-ig-and-t-cell-receptor-gene-rearrangements-in-histiocytic-and-dendritic-cell-neoplasms
#11
Wenting Huang, Tian Qiu, Linshu Zeng, Bo Zheng, Jianming Ying, Xiaoli Feng
The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms from hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues no longer required the absence of clonal B-cell/T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. It is true that the clonal B-cell/T-cell receptor gene rearrangements have been identified in rare cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms, such as those with or following lymphoma/leukemia or in some sporadic histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcomas, but the clonal features of such group of tumor are still not clear...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816346/-neuro-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#12
Loïc Le Guennec, Nadine Martin-Duverneuil, Karima Mokhtari, Maria Santiago-Ribeiro, Eléonore Bayen, Antoine Del Cul, Daniel Delgadillo, Aurélie Kas, Carine Courtillot, Julien Haroche, Fleur Cohen, Jean Donadieu, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Ahmed Idbaih
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multisystemic disease. LCH is characterized by proliferation of myeloid progenitors with altered differentiation program and similar phenotypic features to epidermal dendritic cells termed Langerhans cell. LCH cells express CD1a+ and langerin and exhibit BRAF V600E mutation in ∼50% of cases. Neurological involvement or neuro-LCH is observed in 5 to 10% of cases. Three subtypes of neuro-LCH are individualized. The tumor type, accounting for 45% of neuro-LCH, affect mainly young adults...
November 2, 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810926/mafb-lineage-tracing-to-distinguish-macrophages-from-other-immune-lineages-reveals-dual-identity-of-langerhans-cells
#13
Xiaodi Wu, Carlos G Briseño, Vivek Durai, Jörn C Albring, Malay Haldar, Prachi Bagadia, Ki-Wook Kim, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Theresa L Murphy, Kenneth M Murphy
Current systems for conditional gene deletion within mouse macrophage lineages are limited by ectopic activity or low efficiency. In this study, we generated a Mafb-driven Cre strain to determine whether any dendritic cells (DCs) identified by Zbtb46-GFP expression originate from a Mafb-expressing population. Lineage tracing distinguished macrophages from classical DCs, neutrophils, and B cells in all organs examined. At steady state, Langerhans cells (LCs) were lineage traced but also expressed Zbtb46-GFP, a phenotype not observed in any other population...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806853/cutaneous-myeloid-dendritic-cell-dyscrasia-a-cutaneous-clonal-monocytosis-associated-with-chronic-myeloproliferative-disorders-and-peripheral-blood-monocytosis
#14
Cynthia M Magro, Shabnam Momtahen, Shalini Verma, Ronnie M Abraham, Constantin Friedman, Gerard J Nuovo, Wayne Tam
Monocytes are critical components of the innate immune system and they can differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs). Cutaneous neoplasms of dendritic cell origin are uncommon and mostly represented by histiocytic lesions derived primarily from Langerhans cells. The myeloid DC (mDC) while recognized in the immunology literature does not have a well-defined neoplastic cutaneous counterpart. Eleven patients with a diagnosis of cutaneous mDC dyscrasia were evaluated. Routine hematoxylin and eosin stain were performed followed by selective phenotypic studies...
December 2016: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806249/effects-of-macrolide-antibiotics-on-th1-cell-and-th2-cell-development-mediated-by-langerhans-cells
#15
Katsuhiko Matsui, Saki Tamai, Reiko Ikeda
: - Background: It is well known that Langerhans cells (LCs) work as the primary orchestrators in the polarization of the immune milieu towards a T helper type 1 (Th1) or a Th2 immune response. In this study, we investigated the effects of macrolide antibiotics on Th1 cell and Th2 cell development mediated by LCs. METHODS: LC-like dendritic cells (LDCs) were generated from mouse bone marrow cells and used as substitutes for LCs. Mice were primed with ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-pulsed LDCs, which had been treated with each macrolide antibiotic, via the hind footpad...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804235/a-phase-iia-study-of-afuresertib-an-oral-pan-akt-inhibitor-in-patients-with-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#16
Robert J Arceci, Carl E Allen, Ira J Dunkel, Eric Jacobsen, James Whitlock, Robert Vassallo, Shannon R Morris, Alison Portnoy, Beth Ann Reedy, Deborah A Smith, Robert Noble, Amy Murnane, Mark Cornfeld, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Mark L Heaney, Kenneth McClain, Sarah Vaiselbuh
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal neoplasm characterized by widely varied clinical presentations, including multisystem involvement and systemic inflammatory symptoms. The AKT pathway is relevant to survival and proliferation of dendritic cells, and is also often upregulated in hematopoietic malignancies. A clinical response in an adult patient with LCH participating in the first-in-human trial of afuresertib prompted this prospective trial. PROCEDURE: The population in the current study included treatment-naïve (n = 7) and recurrent/refractory patients with LCH (n = 10), who received oral afuresertib (125 mg)...
November 2, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785447/insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-the-development-of-targeted-therapies
#17
REVIEW
Caroline Hutter, Milen Minkov
More than a century after its first description, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) still remains an intriguing disease. Considerable progress in understanding its biology has been achieved recently. Description of the V600E BRAF mutation in samples of LCH tissue in 2010 was followed by description of additional mutations, all leading to constitutive ERK activation. Current experimental data suggest that LCH is a myeloid neoplasia with inflammatory properties, yet the exact pathophysiology remains poorly understood...
2016: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784870/induction-of-langerin-langerhans-cell-like-cells-expressing-reduced-tlr3-from-cd34-cord-blood-cells-stimulated-with-gm-csf-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-tnf-%C3%AE
#18
Hideko Azuma, Eri Watanabe, Yohei Otsuka, Yasuyuki Negishi, Sadayuki Ohkura, Eiji Shinya, Hidemi Takahashi
Langerhans cells (LCs), a subset of dendritic cells (DCs), reside in body surface presenting antigens from various pathogens and activate immune system after migrating to vicinal lymph nodes. We recently demonstrated that the E-cadherin interaction allowed peripheral blood (PB) CD14(+) cells to differentiate into LC-like cells that closely resemble primary LCs. Here, with a combination of GM-CSF, TGF-β, and TNF-α, we induced LC-like cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB)derived CD34(+) cells and compared them with those induced from PB CD14(+) cells...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742396/human-skin-dendritic-cell-fate-is-differentially-regulated-by-the-monocyte-identity-factor-klf4-during-steady-state-and-inflammation
#19
Jennifer Jurkin, Corinna Krump, René Köffel, Christina Fieber, Christopher Schuster, Patrick M Brunner, Izabela Borek, Gregor Eisenwort, Clarice Lim, Jörg Mages, Roland Lang, Wolfgang Bauer, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger, Georg Stingl, Herbert Strobl
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell (LC) networks play key roles in immunity and tolerance at body surfaces. LCs are established prenatally and can be replenished from blood monocytes. Unlike skin-resident dermal/interstitial-type DCs (d/intDCs) and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDECs) appearing in dermatitis/eczema lesions, LCs lack key monocyte-affiliated markers. Inversely, LCs express various epithelial genes critical for their long-term peripheral tissue residency. OBJECTIVE: DCs are functionally involved in inflammatory diseases; however, mechanisms remained poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729324/alternative-genetic-mechanisms-of-braf-activation-in-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#20
Rikhia Chakraborty, Thomas M Burke, Oliver A Hampton, Daniel J Zinn, Karen Phaik Har Lim, Harshal Abhyankar, Brooks Scull, Vijetha Kumar, Nipun Kakkar, David A Wheeler, Angshumoy Roy, Poulikos I Poulikakos, Miriam Merad, Kenneth L McClain, D Williams Parsons, Carl E Allen
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by inflammatory lesions containing pathologic CD207(+) dendritic cells with constitutively activated ERK. Mutually exclusive somatic mutations in MAPK pathway genes have been identified in ∼75% of LCH cases, including recurrent BRAF-V600E and MAP2K1 mutations. To elucidate mechanisms of ERK activation in the remaining 25% of patients, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES, n = 6), targeted BRAF sequencing (n = 19), and/or whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq, n = 6) on 24 LCH patient samples lacking BRAF-V600E or MAP2K1 mutations...
November 24, 2016: Blood
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