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Langerhans dendritic cells

Jennifer Jurkin, Corinna Krump, René Köffel, Christina Fieber, Christopher Schuster, Patrick M Brunner, Izabela Borek, Gregor Eisenwort, Clarice Lim, Jörg Mages, Roland Lang, Wolfgang Bauer, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger, Georg Stingl, Herbert Strobl
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell (LC) networks play key roles in immunity and tolerance at body surfaces. LCs are established prenatally and can be replenished from blood monocytes. Unlike skin-resident dermal/interstitial-type DCs (d/intDCs) and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDECs) appearing in dermatitis/eczema lesions, LCs lack key monocyte-affiliated markers. Inversely, LCs express various epithelial genes critical for their long-term peripheral tissue residency. OBJECTIVE: DCs are functionally involved in inflammatory diseases; however, mechanisms remained poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Rikhia Chakraborty, Thomas M Burke, Oliver A Hampton, Daniel J Zinn, Karen Phaik Har Lim, Harshal Abhyankar, Brooks Scull, Vijetha Kumar, Nipun Kakkar, David A Wheeler, Angshumoy Roy, Poulikos I Poulikakos, Miriam Merad, Kenneth L McClain, D Williams Parsons, Carl E Allen
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by inflammatory lesions containing pathologic CD207+ dendritic cells with constitutively activated ERK. Mutually exclusive somatic mutations in MAPK pathway genes have been identified in approximately 75% of LCH cases, including recurrent BRAF-V600E and MAP2K1 mutations. In order to elucidate mechanisms of ERK activation in the remaining 25% of patients, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES, n=6), targeted BRAF sequencing (n=19) and/or whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq, n=6) on 24 LCH patient samples lacking BRAF-V600E or MAP2K1 mutations...
October 11, 2016: Blood
Waseem M Hajjar, Abdulaziz H Alzeer, Amany A Fathaddin, Hadil A Al-Otair, Ammar C Al-Rikabi, Zahid Shakoor
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic disease characterized by permanent dilatation of the conducting airways accompanied by sustained inflammation. AIMS: To assess whether chronic inflammation of lungs in bronchiectasis is associated with alterations in the numbers of infiltrating antigen presenting cell (APC). SETTING AND DESIGN: Lobectomy specimens from 12 nonsmoker, nonasthmatic patients with acquired (noncongenital) bronchiectasis and six control patients were included in the study...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Javier A Carrero, Stephen T Ferris, Emil R Unanue
Islets of Langerhans of all species harbor a small number of resident macrophages. These macrophages are found since birth, do not exchange with blood monocytes, and are maintained by a low level of replication. Under steady state conditions, the islet macrophages are in an activated state. Islet macrophages have an important homeostatic role in islet physiology. At the start of the autoimmune process in the NOD mouse, a small number of CD103+ dendritic cells (DC) are found at about the same time that CD4+ T cells also appear in islets...
October 3, 2016: Current Opinion in Immunology
Dalal Varsha, Manveen Kaur, Neena Chaudhary, Fouzia Siraj
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a relatively rare and unique disease characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature dendritic cells. It is predominantly seen in children with adults showing less than ten times the incidence compared to childhood. The clinical presentation and organ involvement is highly variable. Oral manifestations generally consist of mucosal ulceration associated with lesions of the underlying bone. Lesions limited to the oral mucosa are rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old male who presented with an ulcer on the hard palate showing histopathologic features of LCH...
2016: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
Hannah Pischon, Moritz Radbruch, Anja Ostrowski, Pierre Volz, Christian Gerecke, Michael Unbehauen, Stefan Hönzke, Sarah Hedtrich, Joachim W Fluhr, Rainer Haag, Burkhard Kleuser, Ulrike Alexiev, Achim D Gruber, Lars Mundhenk
Inflammatory disorders of the skin pose particular therapeutic challenges due to complex structural and functional alterations of the skin barrier. Penetration of several anti-inflammatory drugs is particularly problematic in psoriasis, a common dermatitis condition with epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis. Here, we tested in vivo dermal penetration and biological effects of dendritic core-multishell-nanocarriers (CMS) in a murine skin model of psoriasis and compared it to healthy skin. In both groups, CMS exclusively localized to the stratum corneum of the epidermis with only very sporadic uptake by Langerhans cells...
October 1, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Lauren M K Mason, Alex Wagemakers, Cornelis van 't Veer, Anneke Oei, Wouter J van der Pot, Kalam Ahmed, Tom van der Poll, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Joppe W R Hovius
Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted into the skin of the host where it encounters and interacts with two dendritic cell (DC) subsets; Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal DCs (DDCs). These cells recognize pathogens via pattern recognition receptors, mature and migrate out of the skin into draining lymph nodes, where they orchestrate adaptive immune responses. In order to investigate the response of skin DCs during the early immunopathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis, we injected B. burgdorferi intradermally into full-thickness human skin and studied the migration of DCs out of the skin, the activation profile and phenotype of migrated cells...
2016: PloS One
Marek Lommatzsch, Kai Bratke, Paul Stoll, Norbert Mülleneisen, Friedrich Prall, Andrea Bier, J Christian Virchow
BACKGROUND: The histologic diagnosis of Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is invasive and can cause complications. To confirm the diagnosis of PLCH, guidelines therefore recommend measuring CD1a-positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells despite its poor sensitivity and specificity. Thus, an improved diagnostic accuracy of BALF cell analysis would be desirable. METHODS: Using four-colour flow cytometry, plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) were analysed in BALF of 10 newly diagnosed, untreated, smoking patients with PLCH, and compared with BALF DCs from 40 asymptomatic smokers and 21 never-smokers...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Roxanne Coronel, Desyree M Jesus, Lucia Dalle Ore, Joe S Mymryk, Laura Hertel
Oral mucosal Langerhans cells (LC) are likely to play important roles in host defense against infection by human cytomegalovirus (CMV). We previously showed that in vitro-differentiated immature LC (iLC) populations contain smaller amounts of infected cells but produce higher yields than mature LC (mLC) cultures, obtained by iLC stimulation with fetal bovine serum (FBS), CD40 ligand (CD40L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we sought to determine if exposure to select stimuli can improve LC permissiveness to infection, if specific components of the mLC cocktail are responsible for lowering viral yields, if this is due to defects in progeny production or release, and if these restrictions are also effective against reactivated virus...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adef O Kordon, Matthew A Scott, Iman Ibrahim, Hossam Abdelhamed, Hamada Ahmed, Wes Baumgartner, Attila Karsi, Lesya M Pinchuk
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most powerful antigen presenting cells (APCs) that have a critical role in bridging innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Dendritic cells have been characterized morphologically and functionally in the teleost fish models such as rainbow trout, salmonids, medaka, and zebrafish. The presence of DCs with remarkable similarities to human Langerhans cells (LCs) has been described in the spleen and anterior kidney of salmonids and rainbow trout. However, there is no evidence of the presence of DCs and their role in channel catfish immunity...
September 16, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Takaaki Hattori, Hiroki Takahashi, Reza Dana
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that normally play a critical role in stimulating T-cell-dependent immune responses. However, tolerogenic DCs (CD11cMHC-IICD80CD86) induce immune tolerance by stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs: CD4CD25Foxp3). Although tolerogenic DCs are used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent transplantation rejection, the mechanisms by which they regulate alloimmunity are poorly understood. Here, we review our previous studies aiming to elucidate the mechanisms involved in immune rejection of corneal allografts using a corneal transplant model...
November 2016: Cornea
Willemijn T Quispel, Eline C Steenwijk, Vincent van Unen, Susy J Santos, Lianne Koens, Reina Mebius, R Maarten Egeler, Astrid G S van Halteren
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplastic myeloid disorder with a thus far poorly understood immune component. Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are lymph node-like entities which create an immune-promoting microenvironment at tumor sites. We analyzed the presence and clinical relevance of TLS in n = 104 H&E-stained, therapy-naive LCH lesions of non-lymphoid origin and applied immunohistochemistry to a smaller series. Lymphoid-follicular aggregates were detected in 34/104 (33%) lesions. In line with the lymphocyte recruitment capacity of MECA-79(+) high endothelial venules (HEVs), MECA-79(+)-expressing-LCH lesions (37/77, 48%) contained the most CD3(+) T-lymphocytes (p = 0...
August 2016: Oncoimmunology
Kaixuan Zeng, Zhe Wang, Koichi Ohshima, Yixiong Liu, Weichen Zhang, Lu Wang, Linni Fan, Mingyang Li, Xia Li, Yingmei Wang, Zhou Yu, Qingguo Yan, Shuangping Guo, Jie Wei, Ying Guo
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplasm of myeloid origin characterized by a clonal proliferation of CD1a(+)/CD207(+) dendritic cells. Recurrent BRAF V600E mutation has been reported in LCH. In the present report, we confirm the feasibility of the high-specificity monoclonal antibody VE1 for detecting BRAF V600E mutation in 36/97 (37.1%) retrospectively enrolled patients with LCH; concordant immunohistochemistry and Sanger sequencing results were seen in 94.8% of cases. We then assessed the tumor immune microenvironment status in LCH, and found that the GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3)(+)/T-bet(+) ratio could distinguish between clinical multi-system/single-system (SS) multifocal and SS unifocal LCH...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
Elzbieta Skowronska-Jozwiak, Stanislaw Sporny, Joanna Szymanska-Duda, Dominika Baranowska, Andrzej Lewinski
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in adults is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by monoclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. It belongs to dendritic cell disorders and occurs in 1-2 adults per million. The most common endocrine manifestation of classical LCH is associated with the posterior pituitary, with clinical symptoms of diabetes insipidus. Less than 80 reported cases of LCH involving the thyroid gland have been published so far. We present the case of a 39 years old woman with 10 years history of diabetes insipidus and secondary amenorrhoea, which appeared after second delivery...
July 12, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Sarah S Pinney, Richard R Jahan-Tigh, Susan Chon
Non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (NLCH) is a histiocyte disorder comprised of dermal dendritic histiocytes with a characteristic staining pattern. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a subset of NLCH in which patients experience bone pain with corresponding changes on imaging. In addition, these patients show other evidence of systemic involvement, which can also be identified with imaging. This disease can occasionally present with cutaneous findings. We present a case of generalized eruptive histiocytosis (GEH), misdiagnosed as ECD, found to have an NTRK1 gene rearrangement...
2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Kaixuan Zeng, Koichi Ohshima, Yixiong Liu, Weichen Zhang, Lu Wang, Linni Fan, Mingyang Li, Xia Li, Zhe Wang, Shuangping Guo, Qingguo Yan, Ying Guo
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disease of CD1a(+) /CD207(+) dendritic cells. Recurrent BRAFV600E and MAP2K1 mutations have been reported in LCH. To investigate the relationship among the mutation, clinical findings, and differentiation status of LCH, respectively, we studied 97 cases of LCH by using Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry. The mutually exclusive BRAFV600E and MAP2K1 mutation rates were 32% and 17.5%, respectively. All MAP2K1 mutations were missense mutations without any in-frame deletions; 2 new recurrent missense mutations (ie, p...
September 6, 2016: Hematological Oncology
Suzanne M Pilkington, Neil K Gibbs, Patrick Costello, Susan P Bennett, Karen A Massey, Peter S Friedmann, Anna Nicolaou, Lesley E Rhodes
Langerhans cells (LC) are sentinels of skin's immune system, their loss from epidermis contributing to UVR-suppression of cell mediated immunity (CMI). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids show potential to abrogate UVR-suppression of CMI in mice and humans, potentially through modulation of LC migration. Our objectives were to examine if eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ingestion influences UV-mediated effects on epidermal LC numbers and levels of immunomodulatory mediators including prostaglandin (PG)D2 , which is expressed by LC...
August 30, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Alexandros Iliadis, Triantafyllia Koletsa, Aikaterini Patsatsi, Elisavet Georgiou, Dimitrios Sotiriadis, Ioannis Kostopoulos
The cellular microenvironment has been proven to play a crucial role in solid tumours and seems to be important in haematologic malignancies, however, it has not been adequately investigated in primary cutaneous T cell lymphomas. The aim of this study was to register the composition of the cellular microenvironment in mycosis fungoides skin lesions and correlate the composing parameters with the clinical data and follow-up results. The presence of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, B lymphocytes, CD68(+) macrophages, and CD1a(+) epidermal Langerhans and antigen-presenting dermal dendritic cells, as well as their relation to clinicopathological parameters, were studied in 16 mycosis fungoides cases of different disease stages...
August 19, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Anja Pfalzgraff, Lena Heinbockel, Qi Su, Thomas Gutsmann, Klaus Brandenburg, Günther Weindl
The stagnation in the development of new antibiotics and the concomitant high increase of resistant bacteria emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides are promising agents for the treatment of bacterial infections and recent studies indicate that Pep19-2.5, a synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) peptide (SALP), efficiently neutralises pathogenicity factors of Gram-negative (LPS) and Gram-positive (lipoprotein/-peptide, LP) bacteria and protects against sepsis. Here, we investigated the potential of Pep19-2...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ganesh Kulkarni, Esther Priyadarshini Sakki, Yennavaram Vijay Kumar, Sadananda Kolimi, Ravi Perika, Kalepu Venkata Karthik, Kandukuri Mahesh Kumar, Venumbaka Siva Kalyan
INTRODUCTION: Langerhan's Cells (LCs) are dendritic cells of the oral epithelium which play a role in a series of oral lesions from gingivitis to oral cancer. Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is an oral mucosal T-lymphocyte mediated immunologic reaction to an unidentified putative antigen or allergen. AIM: The aim of this study was to quantify the presence of immature LCs in OLP comparing them with normal epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study using 30 of OLP cases were conducted...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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