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Langerhans dendritic cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343501/sequential-bmp7-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-and-microbiota-instruct-mucosal-langerhans-cell-differentiation
#1
Tal Capucha, Noam Koren, Maria Nassar, Oded Heyman, Tsipora Nir, Maayan Levy, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Katya Zelentova, Luba Eli-Berchoer, Martin Zenke, Thomas Hieronymus, Asaf Wilensky, Herve Bercovier, Eran Elinav, Björn E Clausen, Avi-Hai Hovav
Mucosal Langerhans cells (LCs) originate from pre-dendritic cells and monocytes. However, the mechanisms involved in their in situ development remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the differentiation of murine mucosal LCs is a two-step process. In the lamina propria, signaling via BMP7-ALK3 promotes translocation of LC precursors to the epithelium. Within the epithelium, TGF-β1 finalizes LC differentiation, and ALK5 is crucial to this process. Moreover, the local microbiota has a major impact on the development of mucosal LCs, whereas LCs in turn maintain mucosal homeostasis and prevent tissue destruction...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341328/histiocytosis-cutaneous-manifestations-of-hematopoietic-neoplasm-and-non-neoplastic-histiocytic-proliferations
#2
REVIEW
C M Luder, T M Nordmann, E Ramelyte, B Mühleisen, K Kerl, O Boyman, E Guenova, R Dummer
Histiocytoses are rare disorders characterized by the accumulation of cells derived from macrophages, dendritic cells, or monocytes in various tissues. There is a broad spectrum of disease manifestations with some subtypes commonly showing skin lesions while in others the skin is rarely involved. Here we describe cutaneous manifestations of histiocytoses belonging to the Langerhans group (L group), the group of cutaneous and mucocutaneous histiocytoses (C group) and the group of Rosai-Dorfman disease and related histiocytoses (R group) according to the current classification...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337217/peptide-drug-stability-the-anti-inflammatory-drugs-pep19-2-5-and-pep19-4lf-in-cream-formulation
#3
Nicole Kuhlmann, Lena Heinbockel, Wilmar Correa, Thomas Gutsmann, Torsten Goldmann, Uwe Englisch, Klaus Brandenburg
In previous years, we developed anti-infective drugs based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have been shown to effectively block severe infections and inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Besides systemic application, the occurrence of severe local infections necessitates a topical application for example in the case of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Recent investigations show that the synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptide (SALP) Pep19-2.5 (Aspidasept® I) and a variant called Pep19-4LF (Aspidasept® II) are able to supress inflammation reactions also in keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells from the skin...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327713/expression-of-enhancer-of-zeste-homolog-2-ezh2-protein-in-histiocytic-and-dendritic-cell-neoplasms-with-evidence-for-p-erk1-2-related-but-not-myc-or-p-stat3-related-cell-signaling
#4
Xuejun Tian, Jie Xu, Christopher Fletcher, Jason L Hornick, David M Dorfman
EZH2 is an important enzymatic subunit of the epigenetic regulator polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which controls gene silencing through post-translational modification, and is overexpressed in various carcinomas and hematopoietic neoplasms. We found that the majority of cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms, including histiocytic sarcoma, follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma, show strong EZH2 expression by immunohistochemical staining, in contrast to benign histiocytic lesions and normal cellular counterparts, which did not show EZH2 expression, suggesting that this molecule may function as an oncogenic protein in these neoplasms...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295520/the-origin-of-skin-dendritic-cell-network-and-its-role-in-psoriasis
#5
REVIEW
Tae-Gyun Kim, Sung Hee Kim, Min-Geol Lee
Dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous groups of innate immune cells, which orchestrate immune responses by presenting antigens to cognate T cells and stimulating other types of immune cells. Although the term 'DCs' generally represent highly mixed subsets with functional heterogeneity, the classical definition of DCs usually denotes conventional DCs (cDCs). Skin contains a unique DC network mainly composed of embryo precursor-derived epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and bone marrow-derived dermal cDCs, which can be further classified into type 1 (cDC1) and type 2 (cDC2) subsets...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238347/langerhans-cells-programmed-by-the-epidermis
#6
REVIEW
Kalum Clayton, Andres F Vallejo, James Davies, Sofia Sirvent, Marta E Polak
Langerhans cells (LCs) reside in the epidermis as a dense network of immune system sentinels. These cells determine the appropriate adaptive immune response (inflammation or tolerance) by interpreting the microenvironmental context in which they encounter foreign substances. In a normal physiological, "non-dangerous" situation, LCs coordinate a continuous state of immune tolerance, preventing unnecessary and harmful immune activation. Conversely, when they sense a danger signal, for example during infection or when the physical integrity of skin has been compromised as a result of a trauma, they instruct T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system to mount efficient effector responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228722/prognostic-factors-for-histiocytic-and-dendritic-cell-neoplasms
#7
Joji Shimono, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Fumiko Arakawa, Kensaku Sato, Takuya Furuta, Reiji Muto, Eriko Yanagida, Yuya Sasaki, Daisuke Kurita, Keisuke Kawamoto, Koji Nagafuji, Koichi Ohshima
Histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are rare and poorly studied. We report the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in such cases in Japan. We investigated the clinical characteristics and survival in 87 adult patients with histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms. Fifty patients had histiocytic sarcoma, 12 had Langerhans cell histiocytosis, 11 had follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, 8 had Langerhans cell sarcoma, 6 had interdigitating cell sarcoma and 1 had indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194565/impaired-langerhans-cell-migration-in-psoriasis-is-due-to-an-altered-keratinocyte-phenotype-induced-by-interleukin-17
#8
L H Eaton, K T Mellody, S M Pilkington, R J Dearman, I Kimber, C E M Griffiths
Psoriasis is a common skin condition driven by increased expression of interleukin (IL)-17. Langerhans' cells (LC) are epidermal dendritic cells that regulate cutaneous immune responses. Within uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis, LC display impaired migration from the epidermis. Here the role of keratinocytes (KC) in the regulation of LC function, and the response of KC to IL-17 has been investigated. Keratinocytes were cultured from the uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients and healthy individuals with or without IL-17 treatment and the conditioned medium examined for its ability to alter LC function in an ex vivo human skin explant model...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165229/na%C3%A3-ve-t-cells-are-activated-by-autologous-hcmv-infected-endothelial-cells-through-nkg2d-and-can-control-hcmv-transmission-in-vitro
#9
Narmadha Subramanian, Zeguang Wu, Frank Reister, Kerstin Laib Sampaio, Giada Frascaroli, Luka Cicin-Sain, Thomas Mertens
Apart from classical antigen-presenting cells (APCs) like dendritic cells and macrophages, there are semiprofessional APCs such as endothelial cells (ECs) and Langerhans' cells. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects a wide range of cell types including the ECs which are involved in the trafficking and homing of T cells. By investigating the interaction of naïve T cells obtained from HCMV-seronegative umbilical cord blood with autologous HCMV-infected human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), we could show that the activation of naïve T cells occurred after 1 day of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) exposure to HCMV-infected HUVECs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142130/effective-priming-of-hsv-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-vivo-does-not-require-infected-dendritic-cells
#10
Paul G Whitney, Christina Makhlouf, Beth MacLeod, Joel Z Ma, Elise Gressier, Marie Greyer, Katharina Hochheiser, Annabell Bachem, Ali Zaid, David Voehringer, William R Heath, Mayura V Wagle, Ian Parish, Tiffany A Russell, Stewart A Smith, David C Tscharke, Thomas Gebhardt, Sammy Bedoui
Resolution of virus infections depends on the priming of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells by dendritic cells (DC). While this process requires MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation by DC, the relative contribution to CD8(+) T cell priming by infected DC is less clear. We have addressed this question in the context of a peripheral infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV). Assessing the endogenous, polyclonal HSV-specific CD8(+) T cell response, we found that effective in vivo T cell priming depended on the presence of DC subsets specialized in cross-presentation while Langerhans cells and plasmacytoid DC were dispensable...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133420/resident-macrophages-of-pancreatic-islets-have-a-seminal-role-in-the-initiation-of-autoimmune-diabetes-of-nod-mice
#11
Javier A Carrero, Derrick P McCarthy, Stephen T Ferris, Xiaoxiao Wan, Hao Hu, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Anthony N Vomund, Emil R Unanue
Treatment of C57BL/6 or NOD mice with a monoclonal antibody to the CSF-1 receptor resulted in depletion of the resident macrophages of pancreatic islets of Langerhans that lasted for several weeks. Depletion of macrophages in C57BL/6 mice did not affect multiple parameters of islet function, including glucose response, insulin content, and transcriptional profile. In NOD mice depleted of islet-resident macrophages starting at 3 wk of age, several changes occurred: (i) the early entrance of CD4 T cells and dendritic cells into pancreatic islets was reduced, (ii) presentation of insulin epitopes by dispersed islet cells to T cells was impaired, and (iii) the development of autoimmune diabetes was significantly reduced...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109731/gm-csf-monocyte-derived-cells-and-langerhans-cells-as-part-of-the-dendritic-cell-family
#12
REVIEW
Manfred B Lutz, Herbert Strobl, Gerold Schuler, Nikolaus Romani
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Mph) share many characteristics as components of the innate immune system. The criteria to classify the multitude of subsets within the mononuclear phagocyte system are currently phenotype, ontogeny, transcription patterns, epigenetic adaptations, and function. More recently, ontogenetic, transcriptional, and proteomic research approaches uncovered major developmental differences between Flt3L-dependent conventional DCs as compared with Mphs and monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs), the latter mainly generated in vitro from murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) or human CD14(+) peripheral blood monocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107340/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-a-neoplastic-disorder-driven-by-ras-erk-pathway-mutations
#13
REVIEW
Gary Tran, Thy N Huynh, Amy S Paller
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disorder of myeloid neoplasia of dendritic cells that affects 1 in 200,000 children <15 years of age and even fewer adults. LCH presents with a spectrum of clinical manifestations. High-risk stratification is reserved for infiltration of blood, spleen, liver, and lungs. After decades of debate on the disease pathogenesis, a neoplastic mechanism is now favored on the basis of LCH cell clonality, rare cases of familial clustering, and recent evidence of mutations involving the Ras/Raf/MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway in lesional biopsy specimens...
October 26, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106931/interplay-between-keratinocytes-and-myeloid-cells-drives-dengue-virus-spread-in-human-skin
#14
Parichat Duangkhae, Geza Erdos, Kate D Ryman, Simon C Watkins, Louis D Falo, Ernesto T A Marques, Simon M Barratt-Boyes
The skin is the site of dengue virus (DENV) transmission following the bite of an infected mosquito, but the contribution of individual cell types within skin to infection is unknown. We studied the dynamics of DENV infection in human skin explants using quantitative in situ imaging. DENV replicated primarily in the epidermis and induced a transient interferon-α response. DENV infected a wide range of cells, including Langerhans cells, macrophages, dermal dendritic cells (DC), mast cells, fibroblasts and lymphatic endothelium, but keratinocytes were the earliest targets of infection and made up 60% of infected cells over time...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066264/a-pilot-study-on-corneal-langerhans-cells-in-keratoconus
#15
Preeji S Mandathara, Fiona J Stapleton, Jim Kokkinakis, Mark D P Willcox
PURPOSE: To report the density and morphology of cells that are analogous to corneal Langerhans cells and their associations in keratoconus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included a convenience sample of keratoconus subjects aged between 18-65 years. Corneal topography, assessment of ocular symptoms, tear variables, corneal sensitivity, in-vivo confocal microscopy were performed. The number of Langerhans cells were manually counted and averaged across three central corneal images...
October 21, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026568/a-rare-case-of-cd1a-negative-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-a-child
#16
Priscilla Powell, Gaile Vitug, Fernando Castro-Silva, Anish Ray
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a dendritic cell disorder with a wide spectrum of severity and presentations. Histopathology typically demonstrates a proliferation of Langerhans cells and a lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophils. The diagnosis is supported by immunohistochemistry with the cell markers S100, CD1a, CD68, and Langerin [Blood, 126, 2015, 26 and N Engl J Med, 331, 1994, 154].
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017411/occult-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#17
Hee Jung Kwon, Phil Hyun Song, Mi Jin Gu
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease that is characterized by a localized or systemic proliferation of Langerhans dendritic cells and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. We experienced an unusual case of occult Langerhans cell histiocytosis associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. A 62-year-old man underwent a partial nephrectomy for left renal mass. Histologic examination showed nests of clear cells with surrounding thin-walled vessel that were suggestive of clear cell renal cell carcinoma...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993226/vulvar-lesions-in-an-8-year-old-girl-cutaneous-manifestations-of-multisystem-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#18
Elisa M Jorgensen, Peter P Chen, Sarah Rutter, Julia A Cron
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare localized or systemic disease characterized by proliferation of myeloid-derived dendritic cells. Vulvar lesions may be the herald symptom of LCH and may mimic other cutaneous lesions. Prognosis varies widely based on the extent and spread of disease. CASE: An 8-year-old girl with a 4-month history of vulvar lesions resistant to topical steroids was referred by her pediatrician. Vulvar biopsy was diagnostic for LCH...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972093/the-cooperative-role-of-cd326-and-cd11b-dendritic-cell-subsets-for-a-hapten-induced-th2-differentiation
#19
Yuri Cho, Dohyeong Kwon, Suk-Jo Kang
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in directing immune responses. Previous studies have identified a variety of DC subsets and elucidated their context-dependent functions that parallel those of effector Th cell subsets. However, little is known about the DC subsets responsible for differentiation of Th2 cells governing allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we sought to determine the DC subset(s) that mediate Th2 priming in hapten-sensitized mice. We induced hapten-specific Th2 differentiation by sensitizing the mice with a single application of FITC dissolved in acetone:dibutyl phthalate, and traced the immune cells responsible for inducing the Th2 differentiation process at the primary stimulation, enabling us to track Th2 priming in vivo and to delete basophils and specific DC subsets...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931765/a-type-of-human-skin-dendritic-cell-marked-by-cd5-is-associated-with-the-development-of-inflammatory-skin-disease
#20
Daniel Korenfeld, Laurent Gorvel, Adiel Munk, Joshua Man, Andras Schaffer, Thomas Tung, Caroline Mann, Eynav Klechevsky
Dendritic cells (DCs) are important in regulating immunity and tolerance and consist of functionally distinct subsets that differentially regulate T lymphocyte function. The underlying basis for this subset specificity is lacking, particularly in humans, where the classification of tissue DCs is currently incomplete. Examination of healthy human epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal skin cells revealed a tissue CD5-expressing DC subtype. The CD5+ DCs were potent inducers of cytotoxic T cells and Th22 cells...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
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