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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917645/anti-fibrinolytic-and-anti-microbial-activities-of-a-serine-protease-inhibitor-from-honeybee-apis-cerana-venom
#1
Jie Yang, Kwang Sik Lee, Bo Yeon Kim, Yong Soo Choi, Hyung Joo Yoon, Jingming Jia, Byung Rae Jin
Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents, including low-molecular-weight protease inhibitors. While the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 containing a trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain was identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom, no anti-fibrinolytic or anti-microbial roles for this inhibitor have been elucidated. In this study, we identified an Asiatic honeybee (A. cerana) venom serine protease inhibitor (AcVSPI) that was shown to act as a microbial serine protease inhibitor and plasmin inhibitor...
September 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914172/effects-of-pharmacological-inhibition-of-plasminogen-binding-on-liver-regeneration-in-rats
#2
Atsushi Miura, Kyoko Ishiguro, Kouta Koizumi, Yuki Yaita, Yori Ozaki-Masuzawa, Takashi Hosono, Taiichiro Seki
The fibrinolysis system is thought to play an important role in liver regeneration. We previously found that plasminogen (Plg) is localized to the cell surface of regenerating liver tissue as well as proliferating hepatocytes in vitro. Here, we investigated the significance of Plg binding to the cell surface during liver regeneration. Pre-administration of tranexamic acid (TXA), which is a competitive inhibitor of Plg binding, to hepatectomized rats mildly delayed restoration of liver weight in vivo. Although binding of Plg to the cell membrane decreased following TXA administration, TXA showed little effect on hepatocyte proliferation in rats...
September 15, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906320/changes-in-proteases-antiproteases-and-bioactive-proteins-from-mother-s-breast-milk-to-the-premature-infant-stomach
#3
Veronique Demers-Mathieu, Søren Drud Nielsen, Mark A Underwood, Robyn Borghese, David C Dallas
OBJECTIVES: Our previous studies suggested that human milk proteases begin to hydrolyze proteins in the mammary gland and continue within the term infant stomach. No research has measured milk protease and pepsin activity in the gastric aspirates of preterm infants after human milk feeding. This study investigated how the concentrations of human milk proteases and protease inhibitors changed in the premature infant stomach. METHODS: Human milk and infant gastric samples were collected from 18 preterm-delivering mother-infant pairs (24-32 wk gestational age)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904799/clinical-significance-of-measuring-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-in-sepsis
#4
Toshiaki Iba, Jecko Thachil
BACKGROUND: Disseminated thrombotic process in the microcirculation is considered to be an important cause of multiple organ dysfunction in sepsis. The fundamental purpose of this prothrombotic change was believed to be in the host defense against microbial dissemination. In that process, antifibrinolytic property plays an important role. MAIN BODY: For the understanding of pathophysiology of sepsis, it is quite useful to grasp the alterations in coagulation/fibrinolytic parameters, i...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904290/copper-diethyldithiocarbamate-as-an-inhibitor-of-tissue-plasminogen-activator-synthesis-in-cultured-human-coronary-endothelial-cells
#5
Tomoya Fujie, Shiori Okino, Eiko Yoshida, Chika Yamamoto, Hiroshi Naka, Toshiyuki Kaji
Recent developments have shown that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have the potential to provide useful tools for analyzing biological systems. In the case of fibrinolysis, which is the phenomenon whereby fibrin is degraded by plasmin that has been converted from plasminogen via tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) secreted from vascular endothelial cells, we hypothesized that there may be organic-inorganic hybrid molecules that could be used to analyze the mechanisms by which endothelial fibrinolysis is regulated...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894125/elongation-factor-tu-is-a-multifunctional-and-processed-moonlighting-protein
#6
Michael Widjaja, Kate Louise Harvey, Lisa Hagemann, Iain James Berry, Veronica Maria Jarocki, Benjamin Bernard Armando Raymond, Jessica Leigh Tacchi, Anne Gründel, Joel Ricky Steele, Matthew Paul Padula, Ian George Charles, Roger Dumke, Steven Philip Djordjevic
Many bacterial moonlighting proteins were originally described in medically, agriculturally, and commercially important members of the low G + C Firmicutes. We show Elongation factor Tu (Ef-Tu) moonlights on the surface of the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (SaEf-Tu) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MpnEf-Tu), and the porcine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MhpEf-Tu). Ef-Tu is also a target of multiple processing events on the cell surface and these were characterised using an N-terminomics pipeline...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891413/post-infectious-glomerulonephritis
#7
Ramnath Balasubramanian, Stephen D Marks
Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is one of the most common causes of acute glomerulonephritis in children. Although post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is still common, there is a wide spectrum of causative agents of PIGN. Non-streptococcal organisms are emerging as the main aetiological agents in high-income countries. Nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPeB) are the two common antigens implicated in the pathogenesis of PSGN. Both NAPlr and SPeB activate the alternative complement pathway, resulting in low serum complement levels, and have an affinity to plasmin and glomerular proteins...
September 11, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890943/trial-of-amiloride-in-type-2-diabetes-with-proteinuria
#8
Mark L Unruh, V Shane Pankratz, John E Demko, Evan C Ray, Rebecca P Hughey, Thomas R Kleyman
INTRODUCTION: Renal Na(+) retention and extracellular fluid volume expansion are hallmarks of nephrotic syndrome, which occurs even in the absence of activation of hormones that stimulate renal Na(+) transporters. Plasmin-dependent activation of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) has been proposed to have a role in renal Na(+) retention in the setting of nephrotic syndrome. We hypothesized that the ENaC inhibitor amiloride would be an effective therapeutic agent in inducing a natriuresis and lowering blood pressure in individuals with macroscopic proteinuria...
September 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874469/fibrinogen-activates-the-capture-of-human-plasminogen-by-staphylococcal-fibronectin-binding-proteins
#9
Philippe Herman-Bausier, Giampiero Pietrocola, Timothy J Foster, Pietro Speziale, Yves F Dufrêne
Invasive bacterial pathogens can capture host plasminogen (Plg) and allow it to form plasmin. This process is of medical importance as surface-bound plasmin promotes bacterial spread by cleaving tissue components and favors immune evasion by degrading opsonins. In Staphylococcus aureus, Plg binding is in part mediated by cell surface fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs), but the underlying molecular mechanism is not known. Here, we use single-cell and single-molecule techniques to demonstrate that FnBPs capture Plg by a sophisticated activation mechanism involving fibrinogen (Fg), another ligand found in the blood...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846381/optimization-and-changes-in-the-mode-of-proteolytic-turnover-of-quantum-dot-peptide-substrate-conjugates-through-moderation-of-interfacial-adsorption
#10
Eleonora Petryayeva, Tiffany Jeen, W Russ Algar
Enzymes have many important roles in biology and industry, and proteases are one of the most important classes of enzymes. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are attractive materials for developing protease activity probes because of their advantageous physical and optical properties; however, interactions between a protease and a QD conjugated with its substrate can affect the turnover of that substrate. Here, we study the turnover of multivalent QD-peptide substrate conjugates as a function of multiple parameters: (i) the ligand coating on the QD, including dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), glutathione (GSH), DHLA-poly(ethylene glycol) (DHLA-PEG), and DHLA-zwitterionic sulfobetaine (DHLA-SB); (ii) the identity of the protease, including trypsin, thrombin, and plasmin; and (iii) the number of substrate and nonsubstrate biomacromolecules conjugated per QD...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843264/active-expression-of-human-tissue-plasminogen-activator-t-pa-c-dna-from-pulmonary-metastases-in-the-methylotrophic-yeast-pichia-pastoris-km71h-strain
#11
Amir Hossein Mohseni, Mohammad Soleimani, Keivan Majidzadeh-A, Sedigheh Taghinezhad-S, Hossein Keyvani
Background: Human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a key protease of the trypsin family. It catalyzes the activation of zymogen plasminogen to the fibrin-degrading proteinase, plasmin, leading to digestion of fibrin clots. The recombinant enzyme produced by recombinant technology issued to dissolve blood clots in treatment of various human diseases such as coronary artery thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Pichia pastoris expression system is a unique system for the production of high level of recombinant proteins...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843245/an-uncommon-complication-of-streptokinase-large-spontaneous-iliopsoas-hematoma
#12
Raheleh Aliabadi, Hassan Riahi Beni, Jila Nadjafi, Morteza Hassanzade, Mehrnaz Tabrizi, Mohsen Nasiri, Gandom Sedehi, Ali Pourmojarab
Streptokinase is a fibrinolytic agent that enhances plasmin activation and is used in selected patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Similar to the other thrombolytics, a common side effect is bleeding, especially from venous puncture sites. Here, we present a case of acute anterior wall STEMI complicated by large spontaneous iliopsoas hematoma after streptokinase administration. With conservative management, the course of the disease was uneventful, and the patient was discharged with no symptom and no clinically important sequel...
June 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841902/markers-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-sepsis-the-role-of-soluble-thrombomodulin
#13
Shinshu Katayama, Shin Nunomiya, Kansuke Koyama, Masahiko Wada, Toshitaka Koinuma, Yuya Goto, Ken Tonai, Jun Shima
BACKGROUND: Endothelial activation and damage occur early during sepsis, with activated coagulopathy and playing a major role in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to compare the various biomarkers of endothelial injury with the biomarkers of coagulation and inflammation and to determine a significant predictor of AKI in patients with sepsis. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective, observational study on patients with sepsis fulfilling the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock criteria admitted to an adult intensive care unit (ICU) at a university hospital from June 2011 to December 2016...
August 25, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837538/human-neutrophil-elastase-mediates-fibrinolysis-shutdown-through-competitive-degradation-of-plasminogen-and-generation-of-angiostatin
#14
Christopher D Barrett, Hunter B Moore, Anirban Banerjee, Christopher C Silliman, Ernest E Moore, Michael B Yaffe
BACKGROUND: A subset of trauma patients undergo fibrinolysis shutdown rather than pathologic hyperfibrinolysis, contributing to organ failure. The molecular basis for fibrinolysis shutdown in trauma is incompletely understood. Elastase released from primed/activated human neutrophils (HNE) has historically been described as fibrin(ogen)olytic. However, HNE can also degrade plasminogen (PLG) to angiostatin (ANG), retaining the Kringle domains but not the proteolytic function, and could thereby compete for generation of active plasmin by tPA...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834317/thrombin-activatable-fibrinolysis-inhibitor-in-human-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-disease
#15
Katherine I Bridge, Lize Bollen, Jim Zhong, Mark Hesketh, Fraser L Macrae, Anne Johnson, Helen Philippou, D Julian Scott, Ann Gils, Robert A S Ariёns
BACKGROUND: Intra-luminal thrombosis is a key factor in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) growth. Patients with AAA form dense clots that are resistant to fibrinolysis. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) has been shown to influence AAA development in murine models. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to characterise the role of TAFI in human AAA. METHODS: Plasma levels of TAFI, TAFI activation peptide (TAFI-AP), activated/inactivated TAFI (TAFIa/ai) and plasmin-α2-antiplasmin complex were measured by ELISAs in patients with AAA (n=202) and controls (n=188)...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827627/glaucoma-is-associated-with-plasmin-proteolytic-activation-mediated-through-oxidative-inactivation-of-neuroserpin
#16
Vivek Gupta, Mehdi Mirzaei, Veer Bala Gupta, Nitin Chitranshi, Yogita Dheer, Roshana Vander Wall, Mojdeh Abbasi, Yuyi You, Roger Chung, Stuart Graham
Neuroserpin is a serine protease inhibitor that regulates the activity of plasmin and its activators in the neuronal tissues. This study provides novel evidence of regulatory effect of the neuroserpin on plasmin proteolytic activity in the retina in glaucoma. Human retinal and vitreous tissues from control and glaucoma subjects as well as retinas from experimental glaucoma rats were analysed to establish changes in plasmin and neuroserpin activity. Neuroserpin undergoes oxidative inactivation in glaucoma which leads to augmentation of plasmin activity...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820062/urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-and-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-its-regulation-in-cancer
#17
Juan Francisco Santibanez
Urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a 53-kDa serine protease initially synthesized as a catalytically inactive single chain polypeptide. Inactive-uPA is subject to proteolytic cleavage which results in the two-chain active protein. uPA plays key roles in the enhancement of cell malignancy during tumor progression. uPA is finely regulated in normal cells, but dysregulated in tumor cells, which results in increased cellular invasion capacities reflecting changes in uPA activity and expression during tumor progression...
August 18, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804941/proteomic-analysis-to-unravel-the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-gene-expression-and-milk-synthesis-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#18
Lian Li, Yiru Wang, Chengmin Li, Genlin Wang
Heat stress can play a negative effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cattle, leading to immeasurable economic loss. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli; these alveolar mammary epithelial cells reflect the milk producing ability of dairy cows. In this study, we exposed bovine mammary epithelial cells to heat stress and compared them to a control group using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry...
August 14, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799246/a-first-in-human-study-of-ds-1040-an-inhibitor-of-the-activated-form-of-thrombin-activatable-fibrinolysis-inhibitor-in-healthy-subjects-comment
#19
V Gurewich, R Pannell
In the interesting study by Zhou et al [1] of a TAFI inhibitor, DS1040, the authors state (p 962, col 1, para 3) that "When plasmin cleaves fibrin … [it] exposes C-terminal lysine residues [that] can bind both plasminogen and tPA." While this is technically correct, it is functionally misleading, as is also Figure 1 showing tPA binding to lysines. The reason is that the lysine affinity of tPA is the same as that of plasminogen [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 11, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798744/the-mast-cell-contact-and-coagulation-system-connection-in-anaphylaxis
#20
REVIEW
Mar Guilarte, Anna Sala-Cunill, Olga Luengo, Moisés Labrador-Horrillo, Victoria Cardona
Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. New insights into the potential relevance of pathways other than mast cell and basophil degranulation have been unraveled, such as the activation of the contact and the coagulation systems...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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