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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164128/peptides-released-from-foremilk-and-hindmilk-proteins-by-breast-milk-proteases-are-highly-similar
#1
Søren D Nielsen, Robert L Beverly, David C Dallas
Human milk contains active proteases that initiate hydrolysis of milk proteins within the mammary gland. Milk expressed at the beginning of feeding is known as foremilk and that at the end of feeding is known as hindmilk. As hindmilk contains higher fat, vitamins A and E, and higher calories than foremilk, feeding only hindmilk initially and reserving foremilk for later are practiced in some neonatal intensive care units. This study investigated the difference in peptide profiles, predicted milk protease activities, and bioactive peptides between foremilk and hindmilk...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163477/genes-critical-for-developing-periodontitis-lessons-from-mouse-models
#2
REVIEW
Teun J de Vries, Stefano Andreotta, Bruno G Loos, Elena A Nicu
Since the etiology of periodontitis in humans is not fully understood, genetic mouse models may pinpoint indispensable genes for optimal immunological protection of the periodontium against tissue destruction. This review describes the current knowledge of genes that are involved for a proper maintenance of a healthy periodontium in mice. Null mutations of genes required for leukocyte cell-cell recognition and extravasation (e.g., Icam-1, P-selectin, Beta2-integrin/Cd18), for pathogen recognition and killing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149696/clearance-of-plasmin-pn-1-complexes-by-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-human-aneurysm-of-the-ascending-aorta
#3
Kamel Boukais, Luciano F Borges, Laurence Venisse, Ziad Touat, Déborah François, Véronique Arocas, Guillaume Jondeau, Paul Declerck, Marie-Christine Bouton, Jean-Baptiste Michel
Plasminogen is a circulating zymogen which enters the arterial wall by radial, transmural hydraulic conductance, where it is converted to plasmin by tissue plasminogen activator t-PA on an activation platform involving S100A4 on the vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) membrane. Plasmin is involved in the progression of human thoracic aneurysm of the ascending aorta (TAA). vSMCs protect the TAA wall from plasmin-induced proteolytic injury by expressing high levels of antiproteases. Protease nexin-1 (PN-1) is a tissue antiprotease belonging to the serpin superfamily, expressed in the vascular wall, and is able to form a covalent complex with plasmin...
October 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146595/the-cartilage-specific-lectin-c-type-lectin-domain-family-3-member-a-clec3a-enhances-tissue-plasminogen-activator-mediated-plasminogen-activation
#4
Daniela Lau, Dzemal Elezagic, Gabriele Hermes, Matthias Mörgelin, Alexander P Wohl, Manuel Koch, Ursula Hartmann, Stefan Höllriegl, Raimund Wagener, Mats Paulsson, Thomas Streichert, Andreas R Klatt
C-type lectin domain family 3 member A (CLEC3A) is a poorly characterized protein belonging to the superfamily of C-type lectins. Its closest homologue tetranectin binds to the kringle 4 domain of plasminogen and enhances its association with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thereby enhancing plasmin production, but whether CLEC3A contributes to plasminogen activation is unknown. Here, we recombinantly expressed murine and human full-length CLEC3As as well as truncated forms of CLEC3A in HEK-293 EBNA cells...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135819/prophylactic-rtpa-in-the-prevention-of-line-associated-thrombosis-and-infection-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#5
Lynn M Malec, James Cooper, Jeffrey Rudolph, Marian G Michaels, Margaret V Ragni
BACKGROUND: Central venous access devices (CVADs) are essential for total parenteral nutrition administration in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, they are fraught with complications including infection and venous thromboembolism (VTE), which increases associated morbidity and mortality in this population. There is evidence linking the development of CVAD-associated thrombosis and line-related infection. Thus, it has been postulated that prevention of catheter-related clot formation could minimize the risk of infection originating from the catheter...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132548/excretory-secretory-proteases-and-mechanical-movement-of-anisakis-pegreffii-infective-larvae-in-the-penetration-of-balb-c-mice-gastrointestine
#6
June-Der Lee, Li-Yu Chung, Rong-Jyh Lin, Jiun-Jye Wang, Hong-Pin Tu, Chuan-Min Yen
Anisakiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by infection with the infective larvae of Anisakis. Accidental infection in humans causes the gastrointestinal pathophysiological effects of mechanical tissue damage by migrating larvae. The mechanism of the infective larval invasion and migration is suspected to involve larval excretory/secretory proteases and motility. This study demonstrates the penetration rate of the infective larvae of Anisakis pegreffii in mouse gastrointestine depends on the time after infection, and that only 15% of larvae remain in the gastrointestinal tract 3 h after infection...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123986/expression-of-a-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-during-tumor-growth-leads-to-angiogenesis-via-galanin-activation-in-tumor-bearing-mice
#7
Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Rina Okada, Rika Tanaka, Keiko Unno, Kazuaki Iguchi
Small-cell lung carcinoma releases progalanin. The released progalanin is activated via a nonclassical processing pathway, being processed into an active form of galanin (1-20) by plasmin in extracellular components. Plasmin is produced from plasminogen activators. To clarify the regulation of progalanin via plasminogen activation by urokinase and tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA), we investigated the regulation mechanism for urokinase and t-PA expression and their effect on galanin activation. Additionally, we studied the effect of activated galanin on angiogenesis...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114573/plasmin-reduces-fibronectin-deposition-by-mesangial-cells-in-a-protease-activated-receptor-1-independent-manner
#8
Maaike Waasdorp, JanWillem Duitman, C Arnold Spek
Background: Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) potentiates diabetic nephropathy (DN) as evident from reduced kidney injury in diabetic PAR-1 deficient mice. Although thrombin is the prototypical PAR-1 agonist, anticoagulant treatment does not limit DN in experimental animal models suggesting that thrombin is not the endogenous PAR-1 agonist driving DN. Objectives: To identify the endogenous PAR-1 agonist potentiating diabetes-induced nephropathy. Methods: Unbiased protease expression profiling in glomeruli from human kidneys with DN was performed using publically available microarray data...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108931/binding-of-human-plasminogen-by-the-lipoprotein-lipl46-of-leptospira-interrogans
#9
Jadson V Santos, Priscila R M Pereira, Luis G V Fernandes, Gabriela Hase Siqueira, Gisele O de Souza, Antônio Souza Filho, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Erica G B Chapola, Ana L T O Nascimento
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira. Bacteria disseminate via the bloodstream and colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts. Leptospiral surface-exposed proteins are important targets, because due to their location they can elicit immune response and mediate adhesion and invasion processes. LipL46 has been previously reported to be located at the leptospiral outer membrane and recognized by antibodies present in serum of infected hamsters. In this study, we have confirmed the cellular location of this protein by immunofluorescence and FACS...
November 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107671/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-a-new-series-of-smtps-in-the-acetic-acid-induced-embolic-cerebral-infarct-mouse-model
#10
Keita Shibata, Terumasa Hashimoto, Keiji Hasumi, Kazuo Honda, Koji Nobe
We reported previously that Stachybotrys microspora triprenyl phenol-7 (SMTP-7) showed potential thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects that account for its excellent pharmacological activity such as having a wider therapeutic time window than tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and a significant protection against hemorrhage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of a new series of SMTPs in the acetic acid-induced embolic cerebral infarct mouse model. Thrombotic occlusion was produced in mice by inducing the transfer of acetic acid-induced thrombi from the right common carotid artery into the brain...
October 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080766/interaction-between-wolbachia-and-the-fibrinolytic-system-as-a-possible-pathological-mechanism-in-cardiopulmonary-dirofilariosis
#11
Alicia Diosdado, Paula Josefina Gómez, Rodrigo Morchón, Fernando Simón, Javier González-Miguel
Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne parasite that produces an inflammatory process in the wall of the blood vessels of its definitive host during cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis, known as proliferative endarteritis. Parasite antigens participate in the appearance of this inflammatory event, among other mechanisms through the over-activation of the host fibrinolytic system. Since Wolbachia, endosymbiont bacteria of filarial nematodes, is released into the vertebrate host when worms die, the aim of this work was to analyse the interaction between this bacteria and the host fibrinolytic system to complete the study of this part of the host-parasite relationships...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075072/evaluation-of-coagulation-profile-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-using-rotational-thromboelastometry
#12
Cigdem Binay, Ayse Bozkurt Turhan, Enver Simsek, Ozcan Bor, Olga Meltem Akay
The prothrombotic state in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been reported as a plausible cause of vascular complications. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) assay enables the global assessment of coagulation status. This study aimed to assess hypercoagulability in children with T1DM using ROTEM. A total of 43 T1DM children (20 females and 23 males) aged 2-18 years and age- and sex-matched 30 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study group. ROTEM assays [intrinsic TEM (INTEM) and extrinsic TEM (EXTEM)] were used to measure and analyze coagulation time (CT), clot formation time, maximum clot firmness (MCF)...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074499/endogenous-fibrinolysis-facilitates-clot-retraction-in-vivo
#13
Andre L Samson, Imala Alwis, Jessica A A Maclean, Pramith Priyananda, Brian Hawkett, Simone M Schoenwaelder, Shaun P Jackson
Clot retraction refers to the process whereby activated platelets transduce contractile forces onto the fibrin network of a thrombus, which over time increases clot density and decreases clot size. This process is considered important for promoting clot stability and maintaining blood vessel patency. Insights into the mechanisms regulating clot retraction at sites of vascular injury have been hampered by a paucity of in vivo experimental models. By pairing localised vascular injury with thrombin microinjection in the mesenteric circulation of mice, we have demonstrated that the fibrin network of thrombi progressively compacts over a two-hour period...
October 26, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073967/inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-blocks-mesomesenchymal-transition-and-attenuates-streptococcus-pneumonia-mediated-pleural-injury-in-mice
#14
Jake Boren, Grant Shryock, Alexis Fergis, Ann Jeffers, Shuzi Owens, Wenyi Qin, Kathleen B Koenig, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Satoshi Komatsu, Mitsuo Ikebe, Steven Idell, Torry A Tucker
Pleural loculation affects about 30,000 patients annually in the United States and in severe cases can resolve with restrictive lung disease and pleural fibrosis. Pleural mesothelial cells contribute to pleural rind formation by undergoing mesothelial mesenchymal transition (MesoMT), whereby they acquire a profibrotic phenotype characterized by increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1. Components of the fibrinolytic pathway (urokinase plasminogen activator and plasmin) are elaborated in pleural injury and strongly induce MesoMT in vitro...
November 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062662/hyperbaric-oxygen-inhibits-reperfusion-induced-neutrophil-polarization-and-adhesion-via-plasmin-mediated-vegf-release
#15
Ashish Francis, Shawna R Kleban, Linda L Stephenson, Patrick S Murphy, Peter R Letourneau, Xin-Hua Fang, Wei Z Wang, Richard C Baynosa
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is seen in many settings such as free flap salvage and limb replantation/revascularization. The consequences-partial/total flap loss, functional muscle loss, or amputation-can be devastating. Of the treatment options available for IR injury, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is the most beneficial. HBO inhibits neutrophil-endothelial adhesion through interference of CD18 neutrophil polarization in IR, a process mediated by nitric oxide. The purposes of this study were to examine the involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the beneficial HBO effect on CD18 polarization and neutrophil adhesion and investigate the effect of plasmin on VEGF expression in skeletal muscle following IR injury...
September 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058166/association-between-uremic-toxin-anthranilic-acid-and-fibrinolytic-system-activity-in-predialysis-patients-at-different-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Tomasz W Kaminski, Krystyna Pawlak, Malgorzata Karbowska, Michal Mysliwiec, Waldemar Grzegorzewski, Jakub Kuna, Dariusz Pawlak
PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an estimated risk factor for increased mortality and morbidity due to fibrinolytic system disturbances. Progressive loss of renal function leads to retention of uremic toxins. Anthranilic acid (AA) is a tryptophan-derived uremic toxin with multidirectional properties that can affect the hemostatic system. The goal of this study was to examine the association between AA and the parameters of fibrinolysis at different stages of CKD. METHODS: Patients with CKD were divided into two groups: mild-to-moderate (n = 20) and severe-to-end-stage CKD (n = 28)...
October 22, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042083/aprotinin-prevents-proteolytic-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-activation-and-volume-retention-in-nephrotic-syndrome
#17
Bernhard N Bohnert, Martina Menacher, Andrea Janessa, Matthias Wörn, Anja Schork, Sophie Daiminger, Hubert Kalbacher, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Christoph Daniel, Kerstin Amann, Florian Sure, Marko Bertog, Silke Haerteis, Christoph Korbmacher, Ferruh Artunc
Volume retention in nephrotic syndrome has been linked to activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by proteolysis of its γ-subunit following urinary excretion of serine proteases such as plasmin. Here we tested whether pharmacological inhibition of urinary serine protease activity might protect from ENaC activation and volume retention in nephrotic syndrome. Urine from both nephrotic mice (induced by doxorubicin injection) and nephrotic patients exhibited high aprotinin-sensitive serine protease activity...
October 14, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021469/elevation-of-plasmin-%C3%AE-2-plasmin-inhibitor-complex-predicts-the-diagnosis-of-systemic-al-amyloidosis-in-patients-with-monoclonal-protein
#18
Kazuya Ishiguro, Toshiaki Hayashi, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Yuka Aoki, Kei Onodera, Hiroshi Ikeda, Tadao Ishida, Hiroshi Nakase
Objective The complication of systemic immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis in patients with monoclonal immunoglobulin affects the prognosis, but amyloid deposition in tissues is sometimes difficult to detect due to bleeding tendencies and preferential distributions. However, fibrinolysis is known to be exacerbated in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis specifically. We therefore explored new biomarkers for predicting a diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis focusing on coagulation and fibrinolysis markers...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021229/in-vivo-generated-thrombin-and-plasmin-do-not-activate-the-complement-system-in-baboons
#19
Ravi S Keshari, Robert Silasi, Cristina Lupu, Fletcher B Taylor, Florea Lupu
Sepsis concurrently activate both coagulation and complement systems. While complement activation by bacteria is well-documented, work in mice and in vitro suggests that coagulation proteases can directly cleave complement proteins. We aimed to determine if generation of coagulation proteases in vivo can activate the complement cascade in two highly coagulopathic models. We compared temporal changes in activation biomarkers of coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin, TAT), fibrinolysis (plasmin-antiplasmin, PAP) and complement (C3b, C5a, C5b-9) in baboons infused with factor Xa and phospholipids (FXa/PCPS) vs...
October 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983299/deletion-of-the-l-lactate-dehydrogenase-gene-ldh-in-streptococcus-pyogenes-leads-to-a-loss-of-speb-activity-and-a-hypovirulent-phenotype
#20
Sonja Oehmcke-Hecht, Leif E Nass, Jan B Wichura, Stefan Mikkat, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Tomas Fiedler
Streptococcus pyogenes uses lactic acid fermentation for the generation of ATP. Here, we analyzed the impact of a deletion of the L-lactate dehydrogenase gene ldh on the virulence of S. pyogenes M49. While the ldh deletion does not cause a general growth deficiency in laboratory media, the growth in human blood and plasma is significantly hampered. The ldh deletion strain is furthermore less virulent in a Galleria mellonella infection model. We show that the ldh deletion leads to a decrease in the activity of the cysteine protease SpeB, an important secreted virulence factor of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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