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Protease activated receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913674/immunoglobulins-and-their-receptors-and-subversion-of-their-protective-roles-by-bacterial-pathogens
#1
REVIEW
Jenny M Woof
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in immune defence against infectious disease. They elicit potent elimination processes such as triggering complement activation and engaging specific Fc receptors present on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis and other killing mechanisms. Many important pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert or evade Ig-mediated defence. One such mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria features proteins that bind the Ig Fc region and compromise engagement of host effector molecules...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913191/the-shedding-derived-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-endproducts-sustains-inflammation-during-acute-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infection
#2
Antonella Antonelli, Stefania Di Maggio, Joanna Rejman, Francesca Sanvito, Alice Rossi, Alessandro Catucci, Andrea Gorzanelli, Alessandra Bragonzi, Marco E Bianchi, Angela Raucci
BACKGROUND: The membrane-bound isoform of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (FL-RAGE) is primarily expressed by alveolar epithelial cells and undergoes shedding by the protease ADAM10, giving rise to soluble cleaved RAGE (cRAGE). RAGE has been associated with the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic lung disorders. Whether the proteolysis of FL-RAGE is altered by a given inflammatory stimulus is unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients and is the major pathogen associated with chronic lung diseases...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910893/interference-with-protease-activated-receptor-1-alleviates-neuronal-cell-death-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-microglial-cells-through-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#3
Yuxin Li, Wuyang Yang, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Baocheng Wang, Shujun Xu, Weijie Zhu, Feng Yu, Shaoji Yuan, Peigang Lu
Excessive microglial cells activation in response to inflammatory stimuli leads to synaptic loss, dysfunction, and neuronal cell death. Activated microglia are involved in the pathogenesis of neurological conditions and frequently contribute to several complications. Accumulating evidence suggests that signaling through PAR-1 is involved in inflammation, however, its function has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we have demonstrated that the suppression of PAR-1 leads to down-regulation of inflammatory factors including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, as well as the prevention of activation of NF-κB in BV2 cells...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906434/effect-and-mechanism-of-par-2-on-the-proliferation-of-esophageal-cancer-cells
#4
D Quanjun, Z Qingyu, Z Qiliang, X Liqun, C Jinmei, L Ziquan, H Shike
OBJECTIVE: Esophageal Cancer (EC) is a common malignant tumor occurred in the digestive tract. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Protease Activated Receptor 2 (PAR-2) on the proliferation of esophageal cancer cell. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transfected esophageal cancer (EC) cell (PAR-2shRNA EC109) was established with low stable PAR-2 expression. EC109 cell was treated with PAR-2 agonist, PAR-2 anti-agonist and MAPK inhibitor respectively; Untreated EC109 cell (blank control) and PAR-2shRNA EC109 cell were used for analysis also...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906419/sch-79797-a-selective-par1-antagonist-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-arrhythmias-in-the-rat-hearts
#5
O Y Mohamed, A A Al-Masri, E A El Eter, R Lateef
OBJECTIVE: Thrombin is implicated in the genesis of arrhythmias and activation of thrombin receptors exacerbated ventricular arrhythmias following coronary artery ligation. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of the protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist, SCH79797 against ischemia and reperfusion arrhythmias in the rat heart. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy male Wistar rats (250-350 g) were anesthetized with urethane. Coronary artery ligation was performed for 5 minutes followed by 10 minutes reperfusion...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904281/protease-activated-receptor-2-a-multifaceted-molecular-transducer-in-the-human-skin
#6
Hjalte H Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902765/loss-of-cathepsin-b-and-l-leads-to-lysosomal-dysfunction-npc-like-cholesterol-sequestration-and-accumulation-of-the-key-alzheimer-s-proteins
#7
Stjepko Cermak, Marko Kosicek, Aleksandra Mladenovic-Djordjevic, Kosara Smiljanic, Selma Kanazir, Silva Hecimovic
Proper function of lysosomes is particularly important in neurons, as they cannot dilute accumulated toxic molecules and aggregates by cell division. Thus, impairment of lysosomal function plays an important role in neuronal degeneration and in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this work we analyzed how inhibition and/or loss of the major lysosomal proteases, the cysteine cathepsins B and L (CtsB/L), affects lysosomal function, cholesterol metabolism and degradation of the key Alzheimer's disease (AD) proteins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900391/erratum-to-protease-activated-receptor-2-affects-protease-activated-receptor-1-driven-breast-cancer
#8
Mohammad Jaber, Miriam Maoz, Arun Kancharla, Daniel Agranovich, Tamar Peretz, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Beatrice Uziely, Rachel Bar-Shavit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898686/gut-homing-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-frequencies-in-hiv-infected-individuals-on-antiretroviral-treatment
#9
Olivia Briceño, Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Nataly Rodríguez-Bernabe, Akio Murakami-Ogasawara, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
The depletion of mucosal CD4+ T-cells occurs early in HIV infection and despite years on antiretroviral treatment (ART), this population never reconstitutes to pre-HIV infection levels. In an effort to understand the effect of ART initiation and different ART regimens on the reconstitution of mucosal T cells within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we quantified the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing the gut homing receptors CCR9 and β7 in peripheral blood (PB) of HIV infected individuals naive to ART and treated individuals on both short-term (less than a year) and long-term ART (more than 2 years)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898523/role-of-corin-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#10
Hui Li, Yue Zhang, Qingyu Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Corin is a transmembrane protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an important hormone in regulating salt-water balance and blood pressure. This review focuses on the regulation of corin function and potential roles of corin defects in hypertensive, heart, and renal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 has been identified as a primary enzyme that converts zymogen corin to an active protease. Genetic variants that impair corin intracellular trafficking, cell surface expression, and zymogen activation have been found in patients with hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and pre-eclampsia...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896225/the-urokinase-urokinase-receptor-system-in-mast-cells-effects-of-its-functional-interaction-with-fmlf-receptors
#11
Francesca Wanda Rossi, Nella Prevete, Felice Rivellese, Filomena Napolitano, Nunzia Montuori, Loredana Postiglione, Carmine Selleri, Amato de Paulis
Mast cell and basophils express the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcɛRI) and are primary effector cells of allergic disorders. The urokinase (uPA)-mediated plasminogen activation system is involved in physiological and pathological events based on cell migration and tissue remodelling, such as inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis and metastasis. uPA is a serine protease that binds uPAR, a high affinity glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored receptor. uPAR focuses uPA activity at the cell surface and activates intracellular signaling through lateral interactions with integrins, receptor tyrosine kinases and the G-protein-coupled family of fMLF chemotaxis receptors (FPRs)...
November 2016: Translational Medicine @ UniSa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895032/molecular-pathways-receptor-ectodomain-shedding-in-treatment-resistance-and-monitoring-of-cancer
#12
Miles A Miller, Ryan J Sullivan, Douglas A Lauffenburger
Proteases known as sheddases cleave the extracellular domains of their substrates from the cell surface. The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 are among the most prominent sheddases, being widely expressed in many tissues, frequently over-expressed in cancer, and promiscuously cleaving diverse substrates. It is increasingly clear that the proteolytic shedding of transmembrane receptors impacts pathophysiology and drug response. Receptor substrates of sheddases include the cytokine receptors TNFR1 and IL-6R; the Notch receptors; type-I and -III TGF-β receptors; receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as HER2, HER4, and VEGFR2; and in particular, MET and TAM-family RTKs AXL and Mer (MerTK)...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893988/endothelin-signaling-in-bone
#13
REVIEW
Jasmin Kristianto, Michael G Johnson, Rafia Afzal, Robert D Blank
The endothelin (ET) system includes 3 small peptide hormones and a pair of G protein-coupled receptors. All 3 ETs are secreted as biologically inert precursors that must be activated by proteolytic cleavage after secretion. This reaction can be catalyzed by a pair of specific, membrane-bound extracellular ET converting enzymes or by nonspecific tissue proteases. The ET1/EDNRA axis is essential in development, with knockout mice for either displaying a similar phenotype featuring multiple defects of the craniofacial skeleton and cardiac outflow tract...
November 11, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891127/regulation-of-chemokine-activity-a-focus-on-the-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-cd26
#14
REVIEW
Mieke Metzemaekers, Jo Van Damme, Anneleen Mortier, Paul Proost
Chemokines are small, chemotactic proteins that play a crucial role in leukocyte migration and are, therefore, essential for proper functioning of the immune system. Chemokines exert their chemotactic effect by activation of chemokine receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and interaction with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Furthermore, the exact chemokine function is modulated at the level of posttranslational modifications. Among the different types of posttranslational modifications that were found to occur in vitro and in vivo, i...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888906/-lipid-lowering-drugs-and-pcsk9
#15
Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés, José M Mostaza Prieto
PCSK9 is a protease, synthesized mainly in the liver, which promotes the hepatic degradation of the LDL receptor and consequently decreases LDL receptor density and clearance of LDL particles. Statins inhibit HMG-CoA-reductase activity, an enzyme that catalyses an important step in hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. The decrease of the hepatic intracellular cholesterol pool produced by these drugs upregulates the activity of the SREBP2 transcription factor, which subsequently stimulates the expression of the LDL receptor gene, an effect that is followed by an increase in the serum concentration of PCSK9...
May 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886823/protease-activated-receptor-1-antagonists-post-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#16
REVIEW
Pierluigi Tricoci
Thrombin is a potent platelet agonist, and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is the main thrombin receptor in human platelets and thrombin. PAR-1 antagonism has attracted interest as a potential therapeutic target to reduce atherothrombotic events in patients with atherosclerotic disease, especially coronary artery disease. In this review, the author describes the rationale of PAR-1 antagonism for the reduction of atherothrombotic events and reviews the key phase 3 trial results, with special attention to analyses in percutaneous coronary intervention patients...
January 2017: Interventional cardiology clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885904/the-effect-of-p2y12-inhibition-on-platelet-activation-assessed-with-aggregation-and-flow-cytometry-based-assays
#17
Tesse C Leunissen, Peter Paul Wisman, Thijs C van Holten, Philip G de Groot, Suzanne J Korporaal, Arnold C Koekman, Frans L Moll, Martin Teraa, Marianne C Verhaar, Gert Jan de Borst, Rolf T Urbanus, Mark Roest
Patients on P2Y12 inhibitors may still develop thrombosis or bleeding complications. Tailored antiplatelet therapy, based on platelet reactivity testing, might reduce these complications. Several tests have been used, but failed to show a benefit of tailored antiplatelet therapy. This could be due to the narrowness of current platelet reactivity tests, which are limited to analysis of platelet aggregation after stimulation of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-pathway. However, the response to ADP does not necessarily reflect the effect of P2Y12 inhibition on platelet function in vivo...
November 25, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884442/the-induction-of-the-collagen-capsule-synthesis-by-trichinella-spiralis-is-closely-related-to-protease-activated-receptor-2
#18
Mi Kyung Park, Min Kyoung Cho, Shin Ae Kang, Bo Young Kim, Hak Sun Yu
The muscle-stage larvae of the parasite Trichinella spiralis have the ability to survive within host muscle tissue by virtue of the formation a nurse cell-parasite complex, which is surrounded by collagen. The formation of the complex is initiated by excretory-secretory (ES) proteins produced by the parasite. To determine the mechanisms underlying collagen capsule formation, we investigated the expression levels of several types of collagen genes and TGF-βI signaling-related genes (Smad2 and Smad3) in muscle cells...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880950/protease-activated-receptor-1-contributes-to-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiovascular-remodeling-and-inflammation
#19
Silvio Antoniak, Jessica C Cardenas, Laura J Buczek, Frank C Church, Nigel Mackman, Rafal Pawlinski
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. It also leads to the activation of coagulation. The coagulation protease thrombin induces cellular responses by activating protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). We investigated whether PAR-1 contributes to Ang II-induced cardiovascular remodeling and inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR-1+/+ (wild-type; WT) and PAR-1-/- mice were infused with Ang II (600 ng/kg/min) for up to 4 weeks...
November 24, 2016: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878658/role-of-matricellular-proteins-in-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#20
A R Jayakumar, A Apeksha, M D Norenberg
Matricellular proteins (MCPs) are actively expressed non-structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix, which rapidly turnover and possess regulatory roles, as well as mediate cell-cell interactions. MCPs characteristically contain binding sites for other extracellular proteins, cell surface receptors, growth factors, cytokines and proteases, that provide structural support for surrounding cells. MCPs are present in most organs, including brain, and play a major role in cell-cell interactions and tissue repair...
November 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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