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Alzheimer's BACE clinical trial

Juliane Schelle, Lisa Häsler, Jens C Göpfert, Thomas O Joos, Hugo Vanderstichele, Erik Stoops, Ulf Neumann, Derya R Shimshek, Matthias Staufenbiel, Mathias Jucker, Stephan A Kaeser
INTRODUCTION: The inhibition of the beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a main therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported an age-related increase of tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. METHODS: APP transgenic mice were treated with a potent BACE1 inhibitor. CSF tau and CSF Aβ levels were assessed. A novel high-sensitivity tau sandwich immunoassay was developed...
October 14, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Francesco Panza, Davide Seripa, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Bruno P Imbimbo, Madia Lozupone, Antonio Leo, Rodolfo Sardone, Gaetano Gagliardi, Lucia Lofano, Bianca C Creanza, Paola Bisceglia, Antonio Daniele, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Giancarlo Logroscino
Currently available drugs against Alzheimer's disease (AD) target cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions without affecting the underlying disease process. Putative disease-modifying drugs are in development and target β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and tau protein, the principal neurophatological hallmarks of the disease. Areas covered: Phase III clinical studies of emerging anti-Aβ drugs for the treatment of AD were searched in US and EU clinical trial registries and in the medical literature until May 2016...
October 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Kathryn M Munro, Amelia Nash, Martina Pigoni, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Jenny M Gunnersen
Inhibition of the protease β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a promising treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease, and a number of BACE inhibitors are currently progressing through clinical trials. The strategy aims to decrease production of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), thus reducing or preventing Aβ toxicity. Over the last decade, it has become clear that BACE1 proteolytically cleaves a number of substrates in addition to APP. These substrates are not known to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease but have other roles in the developing and/or mature central nervous system...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Gang Luo, Hongxia Xu, Yinuo Huang, Dapeng Mo, Ligang Song, Baixue Jia, Bo Wang, Zhanqiang Jin, Zhongrong Miao
The main causes of Alzheimer's disease remain elusive. Previous data have implicated the BACE-1 protein as a central player in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, many inhibitors of BACE-1 have failed during preclinical and clinical trials for AD treatment. Therefore, uncovering the exact role of BACE-1 in AD may have significant impact on the future development of therapeutic agents. Three- and six-month-old female APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were used to study abnormal accumulation of BACE-1 protein in brains of mice here...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jeremy H Toyn, Kenneth M Boy, Joseph Raybon, Jere E Meredith, Alan S Robertson, Valerie Guss, Nina Hoque, Francis Sweeney, Xiaoliang Zhuo, Wendy Clarke, Kimberly Snow, R Rex Denton, Dmitry Zuev, Lorin A Thompson, John Morrison, James Grace, Flora Berisha, Michael Furlong, Jun-Sheng Wang, Kimberly A Lentz, Ramesh Padmanabha, Lynda Cook, Cong Wei, Dieter M Drexler, John E Macor, Charlie F Albright, Maciej Gasior, Richard E Olson, Quan Hong, Holly D Soares, Malaz AbuTarif, Michael K Ahlijanian
The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-in particular, the 42-amino acid form, Aβ1-42-is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, several therapeutic modalities aiming to inhibit Aβ synthesis or increase the clearance of Aβ have entered clinical trials, including γ-secretase inhibitors, anti-Aβ antibodies, and amyloid-β precursor protein cleaving enzyme inhibitors. A unique class of small molecules, γ-secretase modulators (GSMs), selectively reduce Aβ1-42 production, and may also decrease Aβ1-40 while simultaneously increasing one or more shorter Aβ peptides, such as Aβ1-38 and Aβ1-37...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Genevieve Evin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of dementia in the elderly. It remains incurable and poses a huge socio-economic challenge for developed countries with an aging population. AD manifests by progressive decline in cognitive functions and alterations in behaviour, which are the result of the extensive degeneration of brain neurons. The AD pathogenic mechanism involves the accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), an aggregating protein fragment that self-associates to form neurotoxic fibrils that trigger a cascade of cellular events leading to neuronal injury and death...
June 2016: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Navya Raj, Agnes Helen, N Manoj, G Harish, Vipin Thomas, Shailja Singh, Seema Sehrawat, Shaguna Seth, Achuthsankar S Nair, Abhinav Grover, Pawan K Dhar
Peptides are increasingly used as inhibitors of various disease specific targets. Several naturally occurring and synthetically developed peptides are undergoing clinical trials. Our work explores the possibility of reusing the non-expressing DNA sequences to predict potential drug-target specific peptides. Recently, we experimentally demonstrated the artificial synthesis of novel proteins from non-coding regions of Escherichia coli genome. In this study, a library of synthetic peptides (Synpeps) was constructed from 2500 intergenic E...
June 2015: Systems and Synthetic Biology
Erik Portelius, Robert A Dean, Ulf Andreasson, Niklas Mattsson, Anni Westerlund, Maria Olsson, Ronald Bradley Demattos, Margaret M Racke, Henrik Zetterberg, Patrick C May, Kaj Blennow
INTRODUCTION: The β-secretase enzyme, β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the first step in β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide production. Thus, BACE1 is a key target for candidate disease-modifying treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In a previous exploratory Aβ biomarker study, we found that BACE1 inhibitor treatment resulted in decreased levels of Aβ1-34 together with increased Aβ5-40, suggesting that these Aβ species may be novel pharmacodynamic biomarkers in clinical trials...
2014: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Helmut Jacobsen, Laurence Ozmen, Antonello Caruso, Robert Narquizian, Hans Hilpert, Bjoern Jacobsen, Dick Terwel, An Tanghe, Bernd Bohrmann
Therapeutic approaches for prevention or reduction of amyloidosis are currently a main objective in basic and clinical research on Alzheimer's disease. Among the agents explored in clinical trials are anti-Aβ peptide antibodies and secretase inhibitors. Most anti-Aβ antibodies are considered to act via inhibition of amyloidosis and enhanced clearance of existing amyloid, although secretase inhibitors reduce the de novo production of Aβ. Limited information is currently available on the efficacy and potential advantages of combinatorial antiamyloid treatment...
August 27, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sneha B Bansode, Asis K Jana, Kedar B Batkulwar, Shrikant D Warkad, Rakesh S Joshi, Neelanjana Sengupta, Mahesh J Kulkarni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. The discovery of drug molecules capable of targeting multiple factors involved in AD pathogenesis would greatly facilitate in improving therapeutic strategies. The repositioning of existing non-toxic drugs could dramatically reduce the time and costs involved in developmental and clinical trial stages. In this study, preliminary screening of 140 FDA approved nervous system drugs by docking suggested the viability of the tricyclic group of antidepressants against three major AD targets, viz...
2014: PloS One
Mingshan Niu, Jin Hu, Sijin Wu, Zhang Xiaoe, Huaxi Xu, Yunwu Zhang, Jie Zhang, Yongliang Yang
β-secretase (BACE-1) is a potential target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite its potential, only few compounds targeting BACE have entered the clinical trials. Herein, we describe the identification of Gefitinib as a potential lead compound for BACE through an integrated approach of structural bioinformatics analysis, experimental assessment and computational analysis. In particular, we performed ELISA and western analysis to assess the effect of Gefitinib using N2a human APP695 cells...
January 2014: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Christopher Southan, John M Hancock
The beta amyloid (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been a drug target for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) since 1999 with lead inhibitors now entering clinical trials. In 2011, the paralog, BACE2, became a new target for type II diabetes (T2DM) having been identified as a TMEM27 secretase regulating pancreatic β cell function. However, the normal roles of both enzymes are unclear. This study outlines their evolutionary history and new opportunities for functional genomics. We identified 30 homologs (UrBACEs) in basal phyla including Placozoans, Cnidarians, Choanoflagellates, Porifera, Echinoderms, Annelids, Mollusks and Ascidians (but not Ecdysozoans)...
2013: Frontiers in Genetics
Jaspreet Kaur Dhanjal, Sukriti Goyal, Sudhanshu Sharma, Rabia Hamid, Abhinav Grover
Alzheimer's is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in memory loss and decline in cognitive abilities. Accumulation of extracellular beta amyloidal plaques is one of the major pathology associated with this disease. β-Secretase or BACE-1 performs the initial and rate limiting step of amyloidic pathway in which 37-43 amino acid long peptides are generated which aggregate to form plaques. Inhibition of this enzyme offers a viable prospect to check the growth of these plaques. Numerous efforts have been made in recent years for the generation of BACE-1 inhibitors but many of them failed during the preclinical or clinical trials due to drug related or drug induced toxicity...
January 17, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hiroyuki Shimada
The DIAN study compared the pathophysiological markers between carriers and non-carriers of mutation for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (AD). They used the participant's age at baseline assessment and the parent's age at the onset of symptoms of AD to calculate the estimated delay in symptom onset. The study revealed that the biomarker change, which is the reduction of Aβ42 in the CSF of the carrier's brain, started approximately 15-20 years prior to the onset of symptoms. Subsequently, a chronological series of events took place: deposition of fibrillar Aβ as measured by positron emission tomography with the use of Pittsburgh compound B, increase in tau protein in the CSF, hippocampal atrophy and hypometabolism of FDG-PET, and cognitive and clinical changes...
October 2013: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Daniela Santos Cruz, Marcelo Santos Castilho
β-secretase (BACE-1) plays a pivotal role in the β-Amyloid plaques formation, which is responsible for progressive cognitive and memory loss commonly found in Alzheimer disease patients. As a consequence, it has been considered as a good target for drug development efforts. Early work focused on the synthesis of peptidomimetics, but poor pharmacokinetics profile prevented advancing lead compounds to clinical trials. As an alternative, aminoimidazoles, aminohydantoins and aminopyridines derivatives that inhibit BACE-1 were designed...
March 2014: Medicinal Chemistry
M Grundman, A Dibernardo, N Raghavan, M Krams, E Yuen
Despite negative topline phase 3 clinical trial results for bapineuzumab and solanezumab in mild to moderate AD, findings from these trials and recent advances suggest renewed optimism for anti-amyloid therapies. Aβ immunotherapy has now demonstrated its ability to engage CNS Aβ and modify downstream CNS biomarkers in bapineuzumab treated patients, and to show likely cognitive benefits in mild patients treated with solanezumab. The current availability of potent BACE inhibitors provides additional opportunities to test the value of reducing Aβ in the clinic...
January 2013: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Arun K Ghosh, Margherita Brindisi, Jordan Tang
β-Secretase (memapsin 2; BACE-1) is the first protease in the processing of amyloid precursor protein leading to the production of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. It is believed that high levels of brain Aβ are responsible for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, β-secretase is a major therapeutic target for the development of inhibitor drugs. During the past decade, steady progress has been made in the evolution of β-secretase inhibitors toward better drug properties. Recent inhibitors are potent, selective and have been shown to penetrate the blood-brain barrier to inhibit Aβ levels in the brains of experimental animals...
January 2012: Journal of Neurochemistry
Genevieve Evin, Vijaya B Kenche
Accumulation of Abeta peptide in the brain results in the formation of amyloid plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Abeta soluble oligomers and protofibrils are neurotoxic and these are believed to be a major cause of neurodegeneration in AD. Abeta is derived from a precursor protein by two sequential cleavage steps involving beta- and gamma-secretases, two proteolytic enzymes that represent rational drug targets. beta-secretase was identified as the membrane-anchored aspartyl protease BACE (or BACE1) and found to be elevated in brain cortex of patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease...
November 2007: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery
Sabine Augustin, Patricia Huebbe, Nicole Matzner, Kay Augustin, Reinhard Schliebs, Rainer Cermak, Siegfried Wolffram, Gerald Rimbach
Numerous clinical trials have reported beneficial effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in the prevention and therapy of cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although neuroprotective properties of EGb761 have been consistently reported, the molecular mechanisms of EGb761 and the specific role of its major constituents, the flavonols and terpenlactones, are largely unknown. One major hallmark of AD is the deposition of amyloid-beta (A beta) as amyloid plaques in the brain. A beta is a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP)...
January 2008: Planta Medica
Arun K Ghosh, Geoffrey Bilcer, Lin Hong, Gerald Koelsch, Jordan Tang
A major strategy for the development of a disease-modifying therapy against Alzheimer's disease is pharmacological intervention designed to reduce levels of beta-amyloid in the brain. Among various ways of reducing beta-amyloid production, the inhibition of beta-secretase (memapsin 2, BACE) is particularly attractive. Not only does beta-secretase initiates the amyloid cascade, it also is an aspartic protease, a class of proteases for which successful inhibitor drugs have been developed to treat AIDS patients...
September 2007: Current Alzheimer Research
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