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Language children technology

Mabel L Rice
Future perspectives on children with language impairments are framed from what is known about children with specific language impairment (SLI). A summary of the current state of services is followed by discussion of how these children can be overlooked and misunderstood and consideration of why it is so hard for some children to acquire language when it is effortless for most children. Genetic influences are highlighted, with the suggestion that nature plus nurture should be considered in present as well as future intervention approaches...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Joan C Arvedson
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have played primary roles in the evaluation and management of children with feeding/swallowing disorders for more than five decades. Medical, surgical, and technological advances have improved the survival of young fragile infants and children, many of whom will present with feeding/swallowing problems. Regardless of their underlying etiologies, many of these children are at risk for aspiration-induced lung disease, undernutrition or malnutrition, developmental deficits, and stressful interactions with their caregivers...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Asma A Abahussin, Ahmed I Albarrak
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood vaccine-preventable diseases can be significantly reduced through adherence to confirmed vaccination schedules. However, many barriers to vaccination compliance exist, including a lack of awareness regarding the importance of vaccines, missing due dates, and fear of complications from vaccinations. The aim of this study is to review the existing tools and publications regarding vaccination adherence, and to propose a design for a vaccination adherence application (app) for smartphones...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Xiaoyang Zhang, Lei Xue, Zhi Zhang, Yiwen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Health problems about children have been attracting much attention of parents and even the whole society all the time, among which, child-language development is a hot research topic. The experts and scholars have studied and found that the guardians taking appropriate intervention in children at the early stage can promote children's language and cognitive ability development effectively, and carry out analysis of quantity. The intervention of Artificial Intelligence Technology has effect on the autistic spectrum disorders of children obviously...
2016: Open Biomedical Engineering Journal
Jenny S Radesky, Dimitri A Christakis
The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance...
October 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Stacy Gallese Cassel, Amy J Hadley Edd
Telepractice is the application of telecommunications technology to the delivery of telehealth services via the online connection of clinicians, clients, and patients for assessment, intervention, or consultation. This article describes a pilot project in which speech-language pathology students in a university training program gained experience in working with culturally diverse preschool students using telepractice technology. The preschool students benefited by making gains in communication skills, while the university students acquired competency in the use of telepractice and in working with children whose cultural and linguistic backgrounds were outside of their experience...
2016: International Journal of Telerehabilitation
Rachael Bedford, Irati R Saez de Urabain, Celeste H M Cheung, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Tim J Smith
Touchscreen technologies provide an intuitive and attractive source of sensory/cognitive stimulation for young children. Despite fears that usage may have a negative impact on toddlers' cognitive development, empirical evidence is lacking. The current study presents results from the UK Toddler Attentional Behaviours and LEarning with Touchscreens (TABLET) project, examining the association between toddlers' touchscreen use and the attainment of developmental milestones. Data were gathered in an online survey of 715 parents of 6- to 36-month-olds to address two research questions: (1) How does touchscreen use change from 6 to 36 months? (2) In toddlers (19-36 months, i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Guifang Fu, Nicholas J A Wan, Joseph M Baker, James W Montgomery, Julia L Evans, Ronald B Gillam
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technology that enables investigators to indirectly monitor brain activity in vivo through relative changes in the concentration of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. One of the key features of fNIRS is its superior temporal resolution, with dense measurements over very short periods of time (100 ms increments). Unfortunately, most statistical analysis approaches in the existing literature have not fully utilized the high temporal resolution of fNIRS...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mark Linden, Carol Hawley, Bronagh Blackwood, Jonathan Evans, Vicki Anderson, Conall O'Rourke
BACKGROUND: The use of technology in healthcare settings is on the increase and may represent a cost-effective means of delivering rehabilitation. Reductions in treatment time, and delivery in the home, are also thought to be benefits of this approach. Children and adolescents with brain injury often experience deficits in memory and executive functioning that can negatively affect their school work, social lives, and future occupations. Effective interventions that can be delivered at home, without the need for high-cost clinical involvement, could provide a means to address a current lack of provision...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Peter Auguste, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Joshua Pink, Rachel Court, Farah Seedat, Tara Gurung, Karoline Freeman, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Clare Walker, Jason Madan, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Aileen Clarke, Paul Sutcliffe
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) [(Zopf 1883) Lehmann and Neumann 1896], is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Nearly one-third of the world's population is infected with MTB; TB has an annual incidence of 9 million new cases and each year causes 2 million deaths worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening tests [interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) and tuberculin skin tests (TSTs)] in latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) diagnosis to support National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline development for three population groups: children, immunocompromised people and those who have recently arrived in the UK from high-incidence countries...
May 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Robyn Woodward-Kron, Jo-Anne Hughson, Anna Parker, Agnese Bresin, John Hajek, Ute Knoch, Tuong Dien Phan, David Story
BACKGROUND: Low-participation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients in medical research remains a problem in migrant and refugee destination countries such as Australia. The aims of this study were to explore i) CALD persons' perceptions and experiences of the medical system and medical research, in this case, older Italian Australians; and ii) the views of research professionals on CALD patient participation in medical research. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, in 2015 utilising in-depth interviews and focus groups with four stakeholder groups: older Italian Australians (n=21); adult children of older Italian Australians (n=10); hospital Human Research Ethics Committee administrators (n=4); and clinical researchers (n=4)...
April 26, 2016: Journal of Public Health Research
Heather Fortnum, Obioha C Ukoumunne, Chris Hyde, Rod S Taylor, Mara Ozolins, Sam Errington, Zhivko Zhelev, Clive Pritchard, Claire Benton, Joanne Moody, Laura Cocking, Julian Watson, Sarah Roberts
BACKGROUND: Identification of permanent hearing impairment at the earliest possible age is crucial to maximise the development of speech and language. Universal newborn hearing screening identifies the majority of the 1 in 1000 children born with a hearing impairment, but later onset can occur at any time and there is no optimum time for further screening. A universal but non-standardised school entry screening (SES) programme is in place in many parts of the UK but its value is questioned...
May 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Jeffrey P Brosco
Why might pediatric bioethicists in the United States reject the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as a framework for resolving ethical issues? The essays in this issue present arguments and counterarguments regarding the usefulness of the CRC in various clinical and research cases. But underlying this debate are two historical factors that help explain the seeming paradox of pediatric bioethicists' arguing against child's rights. First, the profession of clinical bioethics emerged in the 1970s as one component of modern medicine's focus on improving health through the application of technologically sophisticated treatments...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Jonathan Shepherd, Keith Cooper, Petra Harris, Joanna Picot, Micah Rose
BACKGROUND: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is characterised by joint pain, swelling and a limitation of movement caused by inflammation. Subsequent joint damage can lead to disability and growth restriction. Treatment commonly includes disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate. Clinical practice now favours newer drugs termed biologic DMARDs where indicated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of four biologic DMARDs [etanercept (Enbrel(®), Pfizer), abatacept (Orencia(®), Bristol-Myers Squibb), adalimumab (Humira(®), AbbVie) and tocilizumab (RoActemra(®), Roche) - with or without methotrexate where indicated] for the treatment of JIA (systemic or oligoarticular JIA are excluded)...
April 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Susan Wagner Cook, Howard S Friedman, Katherine A Duggan, Jian Cui, Voicu Popescu
A beneficial effect of gesture on learning has been demonstrated in multiple domains, including mathematics, science, and foreign language vocabulary. However, because gesture is known to co-vary with other non-verbal behaviors, including eye gaze and prosody along with face, lip, and body movements, it is possible the beneficial effect of gesture is instead attributable to these other behaviors. We used a computer-generated animated pedagogical agent to control both verbal and non-verbal behavior. Children viewed lessons on mathematical equivalence in which an avatar either gestured or did not gesture, while eye gaze, head position, and lip movements remained identical across gesture conditions...
April 29, 2016: Cognitive Science
Maria Anna Tallandini, Liviana Zanchettin, Giorgio Gronchi, Valentina Morsan
STUDY QUESTION: Does a genetic link and/or a child's age influence a parent's willingness to talk to a child about how they were conceived? SUMMARY ANSWER: The presence/absence of a biological link and the child's age clearly influences the disclosure process. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The research published to date has yielded diverse findings on autologous and donor assisted reproductive technology (ART) parents' disclosure of the conception method to their children and on the ages at which the children are informed, if told...
June 2016: Human Reproduction
Mark Guiberson
BACKGROUND: This is the second of two studies that described the use of telehealth language screening measures for use with young Spanish-speaking children. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe the classification accuracy of individual telehealth language screening measures as well as the accuracy of combinations of measures used with Spanish-speaking toddler-age children from rural and underserved areas of the country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study applied an asynchronous hybrid telehealth approach that implemented parent-structured play activities with a standard set of stimuli, and interaction with a My First Words e-book...
September 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Andrej Kral, William G Kronenberger, David B Pisoni, Gerard M O'Donoghue
Progress in biomedical technology (cochlear, vestibular, and retinal implants) has led to remarkable success in neurosensory restoration, particularly in the auditory system. However, outcomes vary considerably, even after accounting for comorbidity-for example, after cochlear implantation, some deaf children develop spoken language skills approaching those of their hearing peers, whereas other children fail to do so. Here, we review evidence that auditory deprivation has widespread effects on brain development, affecting the capacity to process information beyond the auditory system...
May 2016: Lancet Neurology
Elizabeth Edgerton, Erin Reiney, Siobhan Mueller, Barry Reicherter, Katherine Curtis, Stephanie Waties, Susan P Limber
Every day in classrooms, playgrounds and school hallways, through text messages and mobile technology apps, children are bullied by other children. Conversations about this bullying-what it is, who is involved, and how to stop it-are taking place online. To fill a need for relevant, research-based materials on bullying, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Health Resources and Services Administration worked with Widmeyer Communications to investigate the scope of media conversations about bullying and discover new strategies for promoting appropriate public health messages about bullying to intended audiences...
May 2016: Health Promotion Practice
Susan Baxter, Maxine Johnson, Lindsay Blank, Anna Cantrell, Shelagh Brumfitt, Pamela Enderby, Elizabeth Goyder
BACKGROUND: Despite many years of research, there is no certainty regarding the cause of stuttering. Although numerous interventions have been developed, a broad-based systematic review across all forms of intervention for adults and children was needed including views and perceptions of people who stutter. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to report the clinical effectiveness of interventions for people who stutter (or clutter), to examine evidence regarding the views of people who stutter and the views of professionals regarding interventions...
January 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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