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Child autism

Joanna Granich, Alena Dass, Margherita Busacca, Dennis Moore, Angelika Anderson, Svetha Venkatesh, Thi Duong, Pratibha Vellanki, Amanda Richdale, David Trembath, Darin Cairns, Wendy Marshall, Tania Rodwell, Madeleine Rayner, Andrew J O Whitehouse
BACKGROUND: Evidence for early intensive behavioural interventions (EIBI) by therapists as an effective treatment for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is growing. High-intensity and sustained delivery of quality EIBI is expensive. The TOBY (Therapy Outcomes by You) Playpad is an App-based platform delivering EIBI to facilitate learning for young children with ASD, while enabling parents to become co-therapists. Intervention targets include increasing joint attention, imitation and communication of children with ASD...
October 19, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Catriona Boyd, Abdul Moodambail
We describe a case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute vomiting, weight loss, loss of appetite, polyuria and polydipsia. Initial investigations revealed a very elevated corrected calcium level which peaked at 4.46 mmol/L. He had a prior diagnosis of autism and his mother had consulted an alternative therapist who had recommended many supplements, including calcium and vitamin D. He required treatment with hyperhydration, calcitonin, furosemide and several doses of pamindronate before his calcium level returned to the normal range 2 weeks later...
October 6, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Indhu-Shree Rajan-Babu, Samuel S Chong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Molecular diagnostic testing of FXS and related disorders (fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS)) relies on a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot (SB) for the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) CGG-repeat expansion and methylation analyses. Recent advancements in PCR-based technologies have enabled the characterization of the complete spectrum of CGG-repeat mutation, with or without methylation assessment, and, as a result, have reduced our reliance on the labor- and time-intensive SB, which is the gold standard FXS diagnostic test...
October 14, 2016: Genes
Anat Levin, Anat Scher
INTRODUCTION: Disrupted sleep is common among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). AIMS: Our goal was to (1) examine the contribution of sleep problems to parenting stress in children with ASD as compared to typically developing (TD) and (2) to address maternal sleep-related cognitions and behaviors in both groups. METHODS: Mothers of 34 ASD (mean age = 39.29 months, SD = 5.22) and 31 TD children (mean age = 36.23 months, SD = 5.75) completed questionnaires measuring maternal stress, sleep-related cognitions and settling to sleep interactions, and the child's sleep problems; mothers in the ASD group completed a symptom severity questionnaire...
October 17, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Shiny Thomas, Mary E Hovinga, Dheeraj Rai, Brian K Lee
Epilepsy is reported to co-occur in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies across the world have found prevalence estimates ranging from 4 to 38 %. We examined parent-reported prevalence of co-occurring epilepsy and ASD in the most recent U.S. National Survey of Children's Health, 2011-2012. All analyses accounted for survey weights to account for the complex sampling design. In the overall analytic sample of 85,248 children ages 2-17, there were 1604 children with ASD (prevalence of 1...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Giacomo Vivanti, Heather J Nuske
We explore three challenges that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) poses to our understanding of the processes underlying early attachment. First, while caregiver-infant attachment and later social-affiliative behavior share common biobehavioral mechanisms, individuals with ASD are able to form secure attachment relationships, despite reduced social-emotional reciprocity and motivation for social interaction. Therefore, disruptions in social affiliation mechanisms can co-exist with secure caregiver-infant bonding...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Kristen Lyall, Meredith Anderson, Martin Kharrazi, Gayle C Windham
Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical in early neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined whether neonatal TH levels influence risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study linked California neonatal screening data with live birth and Department of Developmental Services records to examine newborn TH levels in relation to ASD. Thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured in newborn bloodspots as part of routine screening, in 1996 and 2002, respectively. Mean levels of T4 and TSH were compared between ASD cases and non-cases...
October 14, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
John A Hansen
Assessment of individuals on the autism spectrum often includes a measure of nonverbal IQ. One such measure is the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). For large research studies with participants distributed nationally it is desirable for assessments to be available online. Because time is a premium, it is ideal that the measure produces accurate scores quickly. The Hansen Research Services Matrix Adaptive Test (HRS-MAT) addresses these needs and with similar psychometric properties of the RSPM. Scores based on the HRS-MAT correlated at r = ...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
M Kölch, P L Plener
Pharmacotherapeutic interventions are available for most psychiatric disorders in children. Evidence for these interventions varies, depending on the targeted disorders. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, a sound database on efficacy and safety of medication exists. For other common disorders or psychopathological phenomena like disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, or autism, data on efficacy and safety are much scarcer. This selective review aims to provide an overview about current psychopharmacological interventions in child and adolescent psychiatry...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Antoine Tanet, Annik Hubert-Barthelemy, Graciela C Crespin, Nicolas Bodeau, David Cohen, Catherine Saint-Georges
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who also exhibit severe-to-moderate ranges of intellectual disability (ID) still face many challenges (i.e., less evidence-based trials, less inclusion in school with peers). METHODS: We implemented a novel model called the "Developmental and Sequenced One-to-One Educational Intervention" (DS1-EI) in 5- to 9-year-old children with co-occurring ASD and ID. The treatment protocol was adapted for school implementation by designing it using an educational agenda...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Eyal Aronoff, Robert Hillyer, Michael Leon
We have previously shown in two randomized clinical trials that environmental enrichment is capable of ameliorating symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and in the present study, we determined whether this therapy could be effective under real-world circumstances. 1,002 children were given daily Sensory Enrichment Therapy, by their parents, using personalized therapy instructions given over the Internet. Parents were asked to assess the symptoms of their child every 2 weeks for up to 7 months. An intention-to-treat analysis showed significant overall gains for a wide range of symptoms in these children, including learning, memory, anxiety, attention span, motor skills, eating, sleeping, sensory processing, self-awareness, communication, social skills, and mood/autism behaviors...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Chiaki Hasegawa, Takashi Ikeda, Yuko Yoshimura, Hirotoshi Hiraishi, Tetsuya Takahashi, Naoki Furutani, Norio Hayashi, Yoshio Minabe, Masayuki Hirata, Minoru Asada, Mitsuru Kikuchi
Spontaneous face-to-face interactions between mothers and their children play crucial roles in the development of social minds; however, these inter-brain dynamics are still unclear. In this pilot study, we measured MEG mu suppression during face-to-face spontaneous non-linguistic interactions between mothers and their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the MEG hyperscanning system (i.e., simultaneous recording). The results demonstrated significant correlations between the index of mu suppression (IMS) in the right precentral area and the traits (or severity) of ASD in 13 mothers and 8 children (MEG data from 5 of the children could not be obtained due to motion noise)...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jocelyn Bessette Gorlin, Cynthia Peden McAlpine, Ann Garwick, Elizabeth Wieling
This research examined the experiences of families living with a child with severe autism. There is limited literature on the experiences of families when a child has severe autism as distinct from milder autism and includes the voices of multiple family members. Van Manen's phenomenological approach was used for data collection and analysis. This approach allowed for the use of innovative data sources, including unstructured individual and family interviews, observations, and family lifelines (a pictorial, temporal picture with comments of the families lives)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Susan dosReis, Wendy Camelo Castillo, Melissa Ross, Marcy Fitz-Randolph, Angela Vaughn-Lee, Beverly Butler
OBJECTIVES: To develop a methodological approach for selecting, validating, and prioritizing attributes for health care decision making. METHODS: Participants (n = 48) were recruited from community support groups if they had a child aged 26 years or younger diagnosed with a coexisting mental health condition and cognitive impairment. Six in-depth interviews eliciting care management experiences were transcribed and coded into themes following the principles of grounded theory and the constant comparative method...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Ulf Jonsson, Iman Alaie, Anna Löfgren Wilteus, Eric Zander, Peter B Marschik, David Coghill, Sven Bölte
BACKGROUND: An individual's subjective perception of well-being is increasingly recognized as an essential complement to clinical symptomatology and functional impairment in children's mental health. Measurement of quality of life (QoL) has the potential to give due weight to the child's perspective. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY: Our aim was to critically review the current evidence on how childhood mental disorders affect QoL. First, the major challenges in this research field are outlined...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Rayssa Naftaly Muniz Pinto, Isolda Maria Barros Torquato, Neusa Collet, Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert, Vinicius Lino de Souza, Alynne Mendonça Saraiva
Objective: To analyse the context in which the diagnosis of autism is revealed and the impact of this revelation on family relationships. Methods: This is a qualitative study with 10 families of autistic children assisted at the Psychosocial Care Centre for Children and Youths in a municipality of Paraíba. Data were collected between July and August 2013 through semi-structured interviews and interpreted using thematic content analysis. Results: The identified Main Unit of Analysis and the respective categories were: the impact of disclosing the diagnosis of autism to the family; characteristics of diagnosis disclosure: the place, time, and the dialogic relationship between the professional and the family; changes in family relationships and the mother's burden when caring for the autistic child...
October 3, 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Aviva Must, Misha Eliasziw, Sarah M Phillips, Carol Curtin, Tanja V E Kral, Mary Segal, Nancy E Sherwood, Linmarie Sikich, Heidi I Stanish, Linda G Bandini
BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the association between age and the prevalence of obesity among children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. METHODS: Analyses were restricted to 43,777 children, ages 10-17, with valid measures of parent-reported weight, height, and ASD status. Exploratory analyses describe the impact of sex, race/ethnicity, and household income on the relationship between age and obesity in ASD...
October 5, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Bartolomeo Bertolino, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
AIMS: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition defined by social communication deficits and repetitive restrictive behaviors. Association of the fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) with the flavonoid luteolin displays neuroprotective and antiinflammatory actions in different models of central nervous system pathologies. We hypothesized that association of PEA with luteolin might have therapeutic utility in ASD, and we employed a well-recognized autism animal model, namely sodium valproate administration, to evaluate cognitive and motor deficits...
October 4, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jorieke Duvekot, Leontine W Ten Hoopen, Geerte Slappendel, Jan van der Ende, Frank C Verhulst, Ad van der Sijde, Kirstin Greaves-Lord
This paper provides an overview of the design and cohort characteristics of the Social Spectrum Study: a clinical cohort study that used a two-phase sampling design to identify children at risk for ASD. After screening 1281 children aged 2.5-10 years who had been consecutively referred to one of six mental health services in the Netherlands, children who screened positive for ASD (n = 428) and a random selection of screen negatives (n = 240) were invited to participate in diagnostic assessments and questionnaires regarding the child, family and society...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Rosario Moreno
Elopement exhibited by school-aged children with special health care needs is a relatively low frequency problem behavior with the potential for severe negative consequences for the child and family. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, our results represent one of the first empirical studies of variables that may be associated with children with special health care needs engaging in elopement. Using data from a nationally representative sample of children with special health care needs, our results revealed two variables that were statistically significant predictors of parent-reported elopement in the past year: (1) the child's chronological age, and (2) the presence of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
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