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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551772/e-health-beyond-technology-analyzing-the-paradigm-shift-that-lies-beneath
#1
Tania Moerenhout, Ignaas Devisch, Gustaaf C Cornelis
Information and computer technology has come to play an increasingly important role in medicine, to the extent that e-health has been described as a disruptive innovation or revolution in healthcare. The attention is very much focused on the technology itself, and advances that have been made in genetics and biology. This leads to the question: What is changing in medicine today concerning e-health? To what degree could these changes be characterized as a 'revolution'? We will apply the work of Thomas Kuhn, Larry Laudan, Michel Foucault and other philosophers-which offers an alternative understanding of progress and revolution in medicine to the classic discovery-oriented approach-to our analysis...
May 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549564/timing-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-during-posterior-silk-gland-degeneration-in-bombyx-mori
#2
Aurora Montali, Davide Romanelli, Silvia Cappellozza, Annalisa Grimaldi, Magda de Eguileor, Gianluca Tettamanti
Over the years, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been manipulated by means of chemical and genetic approaches to improve silk production both quantitatively and qualitatively. The silk is produced by the silk gland, which degenerates quickly once the larva has finished spinning the cocoon. Thus, interfering with this degeneration process could help develop new technologies aimed at ameliorating silk yield. To this end, in this work we studied the cell death processes that lead to the demise of posterior silk gland of B...
May 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548081/highly-indistinguishable-and-strongly-entangled-photons-from-symmetric-gaas-quantum-dots
#3
Daniel Huber, Marcus Reindl, Yongheng Huo, Huiying Huang, Johannes S Wildmann, Oliver G Schmidt, Armando Rastelli, Rinaldo Trotta
The development of scalable sources of non-classical light is fundamental to unlocking the technological potential of quantum photonics. Semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as near-optimal sources of indistinguishable single photons. However, their performance as sources of entangled-photon pairs are still modest compared to parametric down converters. Photons emitted from conventional Stranski-Krastanov InGaAs quantum dots have shown non-optimal levels of entanglement and indistinguishability. For quantum networks, both criteria must be met simultaneously...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544731/taking-control-over-microbial-populations-current-approaches-for-exploiting-biological-noise-in-bioprocesses
#4
REVIEW
Frank Delvigne, Jonathan Baert, Hosni Sassi, Patrick Fickers, Alexander Grünberger, Christian Dusny
Phenotypic plasticity of microbial cells has attracted much attention and several research efforts have been dedicated to the description of methods aiming at characterizing phenotypic heterogeneity and its impact on microbial populations. However, different approaches have also been suggested in order to take benefit from noise in a bioprocess perspective, e.g. by increasing the robustness or productivity of a microbial population. This review is dedicated to outline these controlling methods. A common issue, that has still to be addressed, is the experimental identification and the mathematical expression of noise...
May 24, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543648/making-the-choices-necessary-to-make-a-difference-the-responsibility-of-national-bioethics-commissions
#5
Christine Grady
In this essay, I offer some reflections on how the topics were identified and approached by the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, on which I had the honor to serve, in the hope that the reflections may be useful to future national bioethics commissions. In the executive order that established the bioethics commission, President Obama explicitly recognized the ethical imperative to responsibly pursue science, innovation, and advances in biomedical research and health care, and the importance of national attention to these issues...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543645/reflections-on-the-national-bioethics-advisory-commission-and-models-of-public-bioethics
#6
James F Childress
The National Bioethics Advisory Commission, of which I was a member, was established by a 1995 executive order that identified its "first priority" as "the protection of the rights and welfare of human research subjects." Not surprisingly, then, most of NBAC's work focused on research involving human subjects or participants. A second priority concerned "issues in the management and use of genetics information, including but not limited to, human gene patenting." NBAC's charter (in contrast to the executive order) listed this charge as "part B" of the "first priority...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541084/the-feasibility-of-automated-eye-tracking-with-the-early-childhood-vigilance-test-of-attention-in-younger-hiv-exposed-ugandan-children
#7
Michael J Boivin, Jonathan Weiss, Ronak Chhaya, Victoria Seffren, Jorem Awadu, Alla Sikorskii, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: Tobii eye tracking was compared with webcam-based observer scoring on an animation viewing measure of attention (Early Childhood Vigilance Test; ECVT) to evaluate the feasibility of automating measurement and scoring. Outcomes from both scoring approaches were compared with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Color-Object Association Test (COAT), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for preschool children (BRIEF-P). METHOD: A total of 44 children 44 to 65 months of age were evaluated with the ECVT, COAT, MSEL, and BRIEF-P...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540379/fundamental-aspects-of-electrochemically-controlled-wetting-of-nanoscale-composite-materials
#8
A Robert Hillman, Karl S Ryder, Hani K Ismail, Asuman Unal, Annelies Voorhaar
Electroactive films based on conducting polymers have numerous potential applications, but practical devices frequently require a combination of properties not met by a single component. This has prompted an extension to composite materials, notably those in which particulates are immobilised within a polymer film. Irrespective of the polymer and the intended application, film wetting is important: by various means, it facilitates transport processes - of electronic charge, charge-balancing counter ions ("dopant") and analyte/reactant molecules - and motion of polymer segments...
May 25, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538056/engaging-all-employees-in-efforts-to-achieve-high-reliability
#9
Anne Marie Benedicto
DRAMATIC AND NUMEROUS advances in science, technology, and medicine provide new opportunities to keep people healthy as well as to diagnose, treat, and cure disease. Unfortunately, increasing complexity increases opportunities for mistakes and errors, particularly in healthcare organizations as they struggle to prevent patient harm (). Safety problems persist and harm to patients continues despite widespread attention to the need for improvement ().An engaged and empowered workforce is critical to improving the patient experience, improving health outcomes, and correcting unsafe conditions ()...
July 2017: Frontiers of Health Services Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535929/genetic-coding-and-united-hypercomplex-systems-in-the-models-of-algebraic-biology
#10
REVIEW
Sergey V Petoukhov
Structured alphabets of DNA and RNA in their matrix form of representations are connected with Walsh functions and a new type of systems of multidimensional numbers. This type generalizes systems of complex numbers and hypercomplex numbers, which serve as the basis of mathematical natural sciences and many technologies. The new systems of multi-dimensional numbers have interesting mathematical properties and are called in a general case as "systems of united-hypercomplex numbers" (or briefly "U-hypercomplex numbers")...
May 20, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535638/-application-of-long-term-video-electroencephalogram-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-detection-of-cognition-in-patients-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#11
X X Yan, Q Yu, Y T Gao, L T Li, D H Yu, Y Chen, X J Yao, W D Yang, Z J Chen, J Z Yin, Y An, K Tan
Objective: To study the relationship between the changes of brain network and cognition in patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) by using long term video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technology. Methods: Eleven patients with right-handed were recruited (from April 2015 to September 2016) from epilepsy specialist outpatients and functional department of neurosurgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533360/female-peer-mentors-early-in-college-increase-women-s-positive-academic-experiences-and-retention-in-engineering
#12
Tara C Dennehy, Nilanjana Dasgupta
Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women's experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531953/priority-pesticides-abatement-by-advanced-water-technologies-the-case-of-acetamiprid-removal-by-ozonation
#13
A Cruz-Alcalde, C Sans, S Esplugas
With the aim of exploring treatment alternatives for priority insecticide acetamiprid (ACMP) abatement, the removal of this compound from water by ozonation was studied for the first time, paying special attention to the kinetic, mechanistic and toxicological aspects of the process. The second order rate constants of reactions between ACMP and both molecular ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) were determined to be 0.25M(-1)s(-1) and 2.1·10(9)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. On the basis of kinetic results, the degradation of ACMP during ozonation could be well-explained by the reactivity of this pesticide with OH...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531652/lessons-learned-using-a-values-engaged-approach-to-attend-to-culture-diversity-and-equity-in-a-stem-program-evaluation
#14
Ayesha S Boyce
Evaluation must attend meaningfully and respectfully to issues of culture, race, diversity, power, and equity. This attention is especially critical within the evaluation of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational programming, which has an explicit agenda of broadening participation. The purpose of this article is to report lessons learned from the implementation of a values-engaged, educative (Greene et al., 2006) evaluation within a multi-year STEM education program setting. This meta-evaluation employed a case study design using data from evaluator weekly systematic reflections, review of evaluation and program artifacts, stakeholder interviews, and peer review and assessment...
May 13, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530796/what-do-laser-induced-transient-techniques-reveal-for-batteries-na-and-k-intercalation-from-aqueous-electrolytes-as-an-example
#15
Daniel Scieszka, Jeongsik Yun, Aliaksandr S Bandarenka
Technological advancement has been revolutionized by rechargeable batteries, without which the use of various modern devices would not be possible. Aqueous Na-ion batteries have lately garnered much attention, being rec-ognized as a promising alternative to the commonly used Li-ion batteries for the large-scale energy storage systems. However, further improvement and optimization of such systems require a more detailed understanding of intercalation mechanisms. In this work, we for the first time demonstrate implementation of the laser induced current transient (LICT) technique for in-situ characterization of battery systems and investigate the interface between Na2Ni[Fe(CN)6] model battery electrodes in contact with aqueous electrolytes...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530750/first-principles-study-of-the-structural-stability-and-electrochemical-properties-of-na2msio4-m-mn-fe-co-and-ni-polymorphs
#16
F Bianchini, H Fjellvåg, P Vajeeston
Sodium orthosilicates Na2MSiO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) have attracted much attention due to the possibility of exchanging two electrons per formula unit. They are also found to exhibit great structural stability due to a diamond-like arrangement of tetrahedral groups. In this work, we have systematically studied the possible polymorphism of these compounds by means of density functional theory, optimising the structure of a number of systems with different group symmetries. The ground state is found to be Pc-symmetric for all the considered M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and several similar structures exhibiting different symmetries coexist within a 0...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529265/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-identifies-reprogramming-and-differentiation-genes-differentially-expressed-in-uipscs-and-escs
#17
Liang Shi, Yazhou Cui, Xiaoyan Zhou, Jing Luan, Linli Wang, Jinxiang Han
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) technology has garnered worldwide attention for its therapeutic applications in vivo. Researchers have previously shown that non-viral induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated from urine. As a potential alternative, Urinary iPSCs (UiPSCs) are highly similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in many aspects such as morphology, expression of pluripotency markers and the capacity to develop into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. However, the degree of gene expression similarity between iPSCs and ESCs has not been completely elucidated...
May 20, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527735/advances-in-combination-therapy-of-lung-cancer-rationales-delivery-technologies-and-dosage-regimens
#18
REVIEW
Lan Wu, Donglei Leng, Dongmei Cun, Camilla Foged, Mingshi Yang
Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy using different pharmaceuticals has been proven highly effective due to the ability to affect multiple cellular pathways involved in the disease progression. However, the currently used drug combination designs are primarily based on empirical clinical studies, and little attention has been given to dosage regimens, i...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525746/silicon-valley-meets-biomedical-research-in-the-chan-zuckerberg-initiative
#19
Diana Crow
The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, the philanthropy launched by Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan, drew attention with its stated goal of helping to "cure, manage, or treat all diseases" by the end of the century. They intend to do it through funding basic research and addressing gaps in biomedical technology.
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524449/technical-feasibility-and-safety-of-image-guided-parieto-occipital-ventricular-catheter-placement-with-the-assistance-of-a-wearable-head-up-display
#20
Jang W Yoon, Robert E Chen, Karim ReFaey, Roberto J Diaz, Ronald Reimer, Ricardo J Komotar, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Benjamin L Brown, Robert E Wharen
BACKGROUND: Wearable technology is growing in popularity as a result of its ability to interface with normal human movement and function. METHODS: Using proprietary hardware and software, neuronavigation images were captured and transferred wirelessly via a password-encrypted network to the head-up display. The operating surgeon wore a loupe-mounted wearable head-up display during image-guided parieto-occipital ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in two patients...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
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