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Cardiac electrophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718622/graphene-sheet-induced-global-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Jiaxian Wang, Chang Cui, Haiyan Nan, Yuanfang Yu, Yini Xiao, Ellen Poon, Gang Yang, Xijie Wang, Chenchen Wang, Lingsong Li, Kenneth Richard Boheler, Xu Ma, Xin Cheng, Zhenhua Ni, Minglong Chen
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can proliferate infinitely. Their ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes provides abundant sources for disease modeling, drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) display a low degree of maturation and fetal-like properties. Current in vitro differentiation methods do not mimic the structural, mechanical, and physiological properties of the cardiogenesis niche. Recently, we present an efficient cardiac maturation platform that combines hiPSCs monolayer cardiac differentiation with graphene substrate which is a biocompatible and superconductive material...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711067/pa-6-inhibits-inward-rectifier-currents-carried-by-v93i-and-d172n-gain-of-function-kir2-1-channels-but-increases-channel-protein-expression
#2
Yuan Ji, Marlieke G Veldhuis, Jantien Zandvoort, Fee L Romunde, Marien J C Houtman, Karen Duran, Gijs van Haaften, Eva-Maria Zangerl-Plessl, Hiroki Takanari, Anna Stary-Weinzinger, Marcel A G van der Heyden
BACKGROUND: The inward rectifier potassium current IK1 contributes to a stable resting membrane potential and phase 3 repolarization of the cardiac action potential. KCNJ2 gain-of-function mutations V93I and D172N associate with increased IK1, short QT syndrome type 3 and congenital atrial fibrillation. Pentamidine-Analogue 6 (PA-6) is an efficient (IC50 = 14 nM with inside-out patch clamp methodology) and specific IK1 inhibitor that interacts with the cytoplasmic pore region of the KIR2...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710827/comparison-of-non-coding-rnas-in-exosomes-and-functional-efficacy-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-versus-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#3
Won Hee Lee, Wenyi Chen, Ning-Yi Shao, Dan Xiao, Xulei Qin, Natalie Baker, Hye Ryeong Michelle Bae, Praveen Shukla, Haodi Wu, Kazuki Kodo, Sang-Ging Ong, Joseph C Wu
BACKGROUND: Both human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) can serve as unlimited cell sources for cardiac regenerative therapy. However, the functional equivalency between human ESC-CMs and iPSC-CMs for cardiac regenerative therapy has not been demonstrated. Here we performed a head-to-head comparison of ESC-CMs and iPSC-CMs in their ability to restore cardiac function in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model as well as their exosomal secretome...
July 14, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710068/gq-activated-fibroblasts-induce-cardiomyocyte-action-potential-prolongation-and-automaticity-in-a-3d-microtissue-environment
#4
Celinda M Kofron, Tae Yun Kim, Michelle E King, An Xie, Feng Feng, Elizabeth Park, Zhilin Qu, Bum-Rak Choi, Ulrike Mende
Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) are known to regulate cardiomyocyte (CM) function in vivo and in 2D in vitro cultures. This study examined the effect of CF activation on the regulation of CM electrical activity in a 3D microtissue environment. Using a scaffold-free 3D platform with interspersed neonatal rat ventricular CMs and CFs, Gq-mediated signaling was selectively enhanced in CFs by Gαq adenoviral infection prior to co-seeding with CMs in non-adhesive hydrogels. After 3 days, the microtissues were analyzed by signaling assay, histological staining, quantitative PCR, Western blots, optical mapping with voltage- or calcium-sensitive dyes, and microelectrode recordings of CF resting membrane potential (RMPCF)...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709811/arrhythmic-risk-stratification-in-non-ischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy-where-do-we-stand-after-danish
#5
REVIEW
Polychronis Dilaveris, Christos-Konstantinos Antoniou, Konstantinos A Gatzoulis
Publication of the DANISH randomized trial led to considerable debate, given that it demonstrated no survival benefit stemming from current implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) allocation criteria in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). Consequently, a thorough reconsideration of our approach to sudden cardiac death (SCD)-risk stratification appears to be in order. NIDCM encompasses a wide spectrum of disease entities, often with differing arrhythmogenicity; however, in its kernel, is still defined by the fundamentals of electrophysiology that dictate that abnormal tissue, exhibiting altered electrophysiological properties is necessary for arrhythmogenesis, but not enough, given that formation of functional circuits is required...
June 7, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709808/editorial-commentary-important-contributions-of-basic-electrophysiology-to-the-prevention-and-therapy-of-drug-induced-cardiac-arrhythmias
#6
EDITORIAL
Andrew L Wit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707396/role-of-abnormal-repolarization-in-the-mechanism-of-cardiac-arrhythmia
#7
O E Osadchii
In cardiac patients, life-threatening tachyarrhythmia is often precipitated by abnormal changes in ventricular repolarization and refractoriness. Repolarization abnormalities typically evolve as a consequence of impaired function of outward K(+) currents in cardiac myocytes, which may be caused by genetic defects or result from various acquired pathophysiological conditions, including electrical remodelling in cardiac disease, ion channel modulation by clinically used pharmacological agents, and systemic electrolyte disorders seen in heart failure, such as hypokalaemia...
July 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706585/atrial-tachyarrhythmia-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#8
REVIEW
Arsha Karbassi, Krishnakumar Nair, Louise Harris, Rachel M Wald, S Lucy Roche
The adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population continues to grow and most cardiologists, emergency room physicians and family doctors will intermittently come into contact with these patients. Oftentimes this may be in the setting of a presentation with atrial tachyarrhythmia; one of the commonest late complications of ACHD and problem with potentially serious implications. Providing appropriate initial care and ongoing management of atrial tachyarrhythmia in ACHD patients requires a degree of specialist knowledge and an awareness of certain key issues...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705875/electrical-and-structural-substrate-of-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-determined-using-noninvasive-electrocardiographic-imaging-and-late-gadolinium-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Christopher M Andrews, Neil T Srinivasan, Stefania Rosmini, Heerajnarain Bulluck, Michele Orini, Sharon Jenkins, Antonis Pantazis, William J McKenna, James C Moon, Pier D Lambiase, Yoram Rudy
BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a significant cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. Improved noninvasive assessment of ARVC and better understanding of the disease substrate are important for improving patient outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 20 genotyped ARVC patients with a broad spectrum of disease using electrocardiographic imaging (a method for noninvasive cardiac electrophysiology mapping) and advanced late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance scar imaging...
July 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698617/loss-of-md1-exacerbates-pressure-overload-induced-left-ventricular-structural-and-electrical-remodelling
#10
Jianye Peng, Yu Liu, Xiaoju Xiong, Congxin Huang, Yang Mei, Zhiqiang Wang, Yanhong Tang, Jing Ye, Bin Kong, Wanli Liu, Teng Wang, He Huang
Myeloid differentiation protein 1 (MD1) has been implicated in numerous pathophysiological processes, including immune regulation, obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. However, the role of MD1 in cardiac remodelling remains incompletely understood. We used MD1-knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type littermates to determine the functional significance of MD1 in the regulation of aortic banding (AB)-induced left ventricular (LV) structural and electrical remodelling and its underlying mechanisms. After 4 weeks of AB, MD1-KO hearts showed substantial aggravation of LV hypertrophy, fibrosis, LV dilation and dysfunction, and electrical remodelling, which resulted in overt heart failure and increased electrophysiological instability...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696268/personalizing-risk-stratification-for-sudden-death-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy-the-past-present-and-future
#11
REVIEW
Brian P Halliday, John G F Cleland, Jeffrey J Goldberger, Sanjay K Prasad
Results from the DANISH Study (Danish Study to Assess the Efficacy of ICDs in Patients With Non-Ischemic Systolic Heat Failure on Mortality) suggest that for many patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators do not increase longevity. Accurate identification of patients who are more likely to die of an arrhythmia and less likely to die of other causes is required to ensure improvement in outcomes and wise use of resources. Until now, left ventricular ejection fraction has been used as a key criterion for selecting patients with DCM for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention purposes...
July 11, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691717/interaction-between-urethane-and-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-agonist-and-antagonist-in-penicillin-induced-epileptiform-activity
#12
Gokhan Arslan, Sabiha Kubra Alici, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Erdal Agar
Previous experimental studies have shown that various anesthetics alter the effects of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists on the cardiac response to different stimuli. Since no data have shown an interaction between urethane and cannabinoid signaling in epilepsy, we examined the suitability of urethane with regard to testing the effects of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and an antagonist on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Permanent screw electrodes for electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings, and a permanent cannula for administration of the substances to the brain ventricles, were placed into the cranium of rats...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691539/investigational-antiarrhythmic-agents-promising-drugs-in-early-clinical-development
#13
Jordi Heijman, Shokoufeh Ghezelbash, Dobromir Dobrev
Although there have been important technological advances for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., catheter ablation technology), antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) remain the cornerstone therapy for the majority of patients with arrhythmias. Most of the currently available AADs were coincidental findings and did not result from a systematic development process based on known arrhythmogenic mechanisms and specific targets. During the last 20 years, our understanding of cardiac electrophysiology and fundamental arrhythmia mechanisms has increased significantly, resulting in the identification of new potential targets for mechanism-based antiarrhythmic therapy...
July 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689505/revision-review-of-non-elective-hospitalisations-of-adults-with-chd
#14
Alexandra Soufi, Jack M Colman, Qunyu Li, Erwin N Oechslin, Adrienne H Kovacs
Introduction The adult CHD population is increasing and ageing and remains at high risk for morbidity and mortality. In a retrospective single-centre study, we conducted a comprehensive review of non-elective hospitalisations of adults with CHD and explored factors associated with length of stay. METHODS: We identified adults (⩾18 years) with CHD admitted during a 12-month period and managed by the adult CHD service. Data regarding demographics, cardiac history, hospital admission, resource utilisation, and length of stay were extracted...
July 10, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687671/tachycardia-induced-j-wave-changes-in-patients-with-and-without-idiopathic-ventricular-fibrillation
#15
Yoshiyasu Aizawa, Seiji Takatsuki, Takahiko Nishiyama, Takehiro Kimura, Shun Kohsaka, Yoshiaki Kaneko, Yasuya Inden, Naohiko Takahashi, Satoshi Nagase, Yoshifusa Aizawa, Keichi Fukuda
BACKGROUND: To know the underlying mechanisms of J waves, the response to atrial pacing was studied in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and patients with non-IVF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 8 patients with IVF, the J-wave amplitude was measured before, during, and after atrial pacing. All patients had episodes of ventricular fibrillation without structural heart disease. The responses of J waves were compared with those of the 17 non-IVF control subjects who revealed J waves but no history of cardiac arrest and underwent electrophysiological study...
July 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677509/therapy-of-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-children-an-emerging-role-of-electroanatomical-mapping-systems
#16
Casale Matteo, Mezzetti Maurizio, Tulino Viviana, Michele Scarano, Busacca Paolo, Dattilo Giuseppe
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac arrhythmias are challenging diseases in childhood. Most of them in pediatric subjects (90.2%) are atrioventricular reentrant tachycardias and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardias. The standard 12-lead ECG is a highly accurate diagnostic tool but an invasive electrophysiological study is often required. The main concern about this kind of procedures is their invasive nature and the need of radiations, so antiarrhythmic agents are currently the first line therapy...
July 5, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675579/interlead-heterogeneity-of-r-and-t-wave-morphology-in-standard-12-lead-ecgs-predicts-sustained-ventricular-tachycardia-fibrillation-and-arrhythmic-death-in-patients-with-cardiomyopathy
#17
Alex Y Tan, Bruce D Nearing, Michael Rosenberg, Reza Nezafat, Mark E Josephson, Richard L Verrier
INTRODUCTION: Nonuniformities in depolarization and repolarization morphology are critical factors in ventricular arrhythmogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed interlead R-wave and T-wave heterogeneity (RWH, TWH) in standard 12-lead electrocardiograms using second central moment analysis. This technique quantifies variance about the mean morphology of beats in adjoining precordial leads, V4 , V5 , and V6 . The study was conducted in 120 consecutive patients without an apparent reversible trigger for VT, recent myocardial infarction, or active ischemia, who presented for electrophysiologic study, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement, or generator change at our institution from 2008 to 2011...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674041/transient-notch-activation-induces-long-term-gene-expression-changes-leading-to-sick-sinus-syndrome-in-mice
#18
Yun Qiao, Catherine Lipovsky, Stephanie Hicks, Somya Bhatnagar, Gang Li, Aditi Khandekar, Robert Guzy, Kel Vin Woo, Colin G Nichols, Igor R Efimov, Stacey Rentschler
Rationale: Notch signaling programs cardiac conduction during development, and in the adult ventricle, injury-induced Notch reactivation initiates global transcriptional and epigenetic changes. Objective: To determine whether Notch reactivation may stably alter atrial ion channel gene expression and arrhythmia inducibility. Methods and Results: To model an injury response and determine the effects of Notch signaling on atrial electrophysiology, we transiently activate Notch signaling within adult myocardium using a doxycycline-inducible genetic system (iNICD)...
July 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667560/cardiac-autoimmunity-myocarditis
#19
William Bracamonte-Baran, Daniela Čiháková
Myocarditis is the inflammation of the muscle tissues of the heart (myocardium). After a pathologic cardiac-specific inflammatory process, it may progress to chronic damage and dilated cardiomyopathy. The latter is characterized by systolic dysfunction, whose clinical correlate is heart failure. Nevertheless, other acute complications may arise as consequence of tissue damage and electrophysiologic disturbances. Different etiologies are involved in triggering myocarditis. In some cases, such as giant cell myocarditis or eosinophilic necrotizing myocarditis, it is an autoimmune process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662005/camkii-activation-promotes-cardiac-electrical-remodeling-and-increases-the-susceptibility-to-arrhythmia-induction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-with-hyperlipidemia-conditions
#20
Peng Zhong, Dajun Quan, Yan Huang, He Huang
BACKGROUND: Obesity/hyperlipidemia is closely related to both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. CaMKII, a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, has been involved in cardiac arrhythmias of different etiology. However, its role in obesity/hyperlipidemia-related cardiac arrhythmia is unexplored. The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of CaMKII in the process. METHODS: Adult male APOE-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), administrated with KN93 (10mg/kg/2d), a specific inhibitor of CaMKII...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
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