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Cardiac electrophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778719/effect-of-heptanol-and-ethanol-on-excitation-wave-propagation-in-a-neonatal-rat-ventricular-myocyte-monolayer
#1
A D Podgurskaya, V A Tsvelaya, S R Frolova, I Y Kalita, N N Kudryashova, K I Agladze
In this work, the action of heptanol and ethanol was investigated in a two-dimensional (2D) model of cardiac tissue: the neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayer. Heptanol is known in electrophysiology as a gap junction uncoupler but may also inhibit voltage-gated ionic channels. Ethanol is often associated with the occurrence of arrhythmias. These substances influence sodium, calcium, and potassium channels, but the complete mechanism of action of heptanol and ethanol remains unknown. The optical mapping method was used to measure conduction velocities (CVs) in concentrations of 0...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761670/arrhythmic-events-in-brugada-syndrome-a-nationwide-israeli-survey-of-the-clinical-characteristics-treatment-and-long-term-follow-up-israbru-vf
#2
Eran Leshem, Michael Rahkovich, Anna Mazo, Mahmoud Suleiman, Miri Blich, Avishag Laish-Farkash, Yuval Konstantino, Rami Fogelman, Boris Strasberg, Michael Geist, Israel Chetboun, Moshe Swissa, Michael Ilan, Aharon Glick, Yoav Michowitz, Raphael Rosso, Michael Glikson, Bernard Belhassen
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists about detailed clinical characteristics and management of the small subset of Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients who had an arrhythmic event (AE). OBJECTIVES: To conduct the first nationwide survey focused on BrS patients with documented AE. METHODS: Israeli electrophysiology units participated if they had treated BrS patients who had cardiac arrest (CA) (lethal/aborted; group 1) or experienced appropriate therapy for tachyarrhythmias after prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation (group 2)...
May 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758359/probing-flecainide-block-of-i-na-using-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-ventricular-cardiomyocytes-adapted-to-automated-patch-clamping-and-2d-monolayers
#3
Lin Geng, Chi-Wing Kong, Andy O T Won, Angie Man-Yee Shum, Maggie Z Y Chow, Hui Che, Chenzi Zhang, Ka-Long Yau, Camie W Chan, Wendy Keung, Ronald A Li
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) are emerging tools for applications such as drug discovery and screening for pro-arrhythmogenicity and cardiotoxicity as leading causes for drug attrition. Understanding the electrophysiology (EP) of hPSC-CMs is essential but conventional manual patch-clamping is highly laborious and low-throughput. Here we adapted hPSC-CMs derived from two human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, HES2 and H7, for a 16-channel automated planar-recording approach for single-cell EP characterization...
May 11, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753550/rescue-procedure-for-an-electrical-storm-using-robotic-non-invasive-cardiac-radio-ablation
#4
Raphaël Jumeau, Mahmut Ozsahin, Juerg Schwitter, Véronique Vallet, Frédéric Duclos, Michele Zeverino, Raphaël Moeckli, Etienne Pruvot, Jean Bourhis
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging non-invasive treatment in the management of ventricular tachycardia (VT). We report here an intensive care patient suffering from an electrical storm due to incessant VT, unresponsive to catheter ablation and anti-arrhythmic drugs, showing an immediate and durable response to electrophysiology-guided cardiac SBRT.
May 9, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753045/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-zebrafish-k-2p-17-1-task-4-talk-2-two-pore-domain-k-channels
#5
Ingo Staudacher, Claudius Illg, Jakob Gierten, Sebastian Seehausen, Patrick A Schweizer, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
Human K2P 17.1 (TASK-4, TALK-2) two-pore-domain potassium (K2P ) channels have recently been implicated in heart rhythm disorders including atrial fibrillation and conduction disease. The functional in vivo significance of K2P 17.1 currents in cardiac electrophysiology remains incompletely understood. Danio rerio (zebrafish) may be utilized to elucidate the role of cardiac K2P channels in vivo. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the zebrafish ortholog of K2P 17.1 in comparison to its human counterpart...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752399/common-coding-variants-in-scn10a-are-associated-with-the-nav1-8-late-current-and-cardiac-conduction
#6
Vincenzo Macri, Jennifer A Brody, Dan E Arking, William J Hucker, Xiaoyan Yin, Honghuang Lin, Robert W Mills, Moritz F Sinner, Steven A Lubitz, Ching-Ti Liu, Alanna C Morrison, Alvaro Alonso, Ning Li, Vadim V Fedorov, Paul M Janssen, Joshua C Bis, Susan R Heckbert, Elena V Dolmatova, Thomas Lumley, Colleen M Sitlani, L Adrienne Cupples, Sara L Pulit, Christopher Newton-Cheh, John Barnard, Jonathan D Smith, David R Van Wagoner, Mina K Chung, Gus J Vlahakes, Christopher J O'Donnell, Jerome I Rotter, Kenneth B Margulies, Michael P Morley, Thomas P Cappola, Emelia J Benjamin, Donna Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Rebecca D Jackson, Jared W Magnani, Caroline N Herndon, Stephen S Rich, Bruce M Psaty, David J Milan, Eric Boerwinkle, Peter J Mohler, Nona Sotoodehnia, Patrick T Ellinor
BACKGROUND: Genetic variants at the SCN5A / SCN10A locus are strongly associated with electrocardiographic PR and QRS intervals. While SCN5A is the canonical cardiac sodium channel gene, the role of SCN10A in cardiac conduction is less well characterized. METHODS: We sequenced the SCN10A locus in 3699 European-ancestry individuals to identify variants associated with cardiac conduction, and replicated our findings in 21,000 individuals of European ancestry. We examined association with expression in human atrial tissue...
May 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752376/effects-of-prolonged-spaceflight-on-atrial-size-atrial-electrophysiology-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#7
Htet W Khine, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Jeffrey L Hastings, Jamie Kowal, James D Daniels, Richard L Page, Jeffery J Goldberger, Jason Ng, Beverley Adams-Huet, Michael W Bungo, Benjamin D Levine
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in active astronauts is ≈5%, similar to the general population but at a younger age. Risk factors for AF include left atrial enlargement, increased number of premature atrial complexes, and certain parameters on signal-averaged electrocardiography, such as P-wave duration, root mean square voltage for the terminal 20 ms of the signal-averaged P wave, and P-wave amplitude. We aimed to evaluate changes in atrial structure, supraventricular beats, and atrial electrophysiology to determine whether spaceflight could increase the risk of AF...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751595/optical-electrophysiology-in-the-developing-heart
#8
REVIEW
Kandace Thomas, Julie Goudy, Trevor Henley, Michael Bressan
The heart is the first organ system to form in the embryo. Over the course of development, cardiomyocytes with differing morphogenetic, molecular, and physiological characteristics are specified and differentiate and integrate with one another to assemble a coordinated electromechanical pumping system that can function independently of any external stimulus. As congenital malformation of the heart presents the leading class of birth defects seen in humans, the molecular genetics of heart development have garnered much attention over the last half century...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749932/cardiac-optogenetics-2018
#9
REVIEW
Patrick M Boyle, Thomas V Karathanos, Natalia A Trayanova
Cardiac optogenetics is an emergent research area involving the delivery of light-sensitive proteins (opsins) to excitable heart tissue to enable optical modulation of cardiac electrical function. Optogenetic stimulation has many noteworthy advantages over conventional electrical methods, including selective electrophysiological modulation in specifically targeted cell subpopulations, high-resolution spatiotemporal control via patterned illumination, and use of different opsins to elicit inward or outward transmembrane current...
February 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748816/epicatechin-s-cardiovascular-protective-effects-are-mediated-via-opioid-receptors-and-nitric-oxide
#10
Kirsty MacRae, Kylie Connolly, Rebecca Vella, Andrew Fenning
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality globally. Epicatechin has previously been shown to improve vascular responses and possess cardioprotective properties. However, the mechanisms underpinning these cardiotropic outcomes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to further identify epicatechin's mechanism of action in the cardiovasculature. METHODS: The effects of epicatechin on isolated rat conduit arteries, resistance vessels and cardiac electrophysiology were investigated on resting tension and precontracted vessels and cardiac action potential parameters, both in the presence and in the absence of various antagonists...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747546/utilizing-postmortem-drug-concentrations-in-mechanistic-modeling-and-simulation-of-cardiac-effects-a-proof-of-concept-study-with-methadone
#11
Christian Reuss Mikkelsen, Jakob Ross Jornil, Ljubica Vukelic Andersen, Jørgen Bo Hasselstrøm, Sebastian Polak
Methadone-related poisoning has been found to be the leading and increasing cause of death among intoxication cases in several countries. Aside from respiratory depression, methadone is known to cause QT-prolongation, which may lead to sudden cardiac death. Concentrations in heart tissue should be more accurate for estimating cardiotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of methadone on the QT-interval could be simulated and whether the concentrations in heart tissues allowed for better prediction of the Bazett corrected QT-interval (QTcB)...
May 11, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746887/cardiac-ca-2-signalling-in-zebrafish-translation-of-findings-to-man
#12
REVIEW
Chantal J M van Opbergen, Stephanie M van der Voorn, Marc A Vos, Teun P de Boer, Toon A B van Veen
Sudden cardiac death is a leading cause of death worldwide, mainly caused by highly disturbed electrical activation patterns in the heart. Currently, murine models are the most popular model to study underlying molecular mechanisms of inherited or acquired cardiac electrical abnormalities, although the numerous electrophysiological discrepancies between mouse and human raise the question whether mice are the optimal model to study cardiac rhythm disorders. Recently it has been uncovered that the zebrafish cardiac electrophysiology seems surprisingly similar to the human heart, mainly because the zebrafish AP contains a clear plateau phase and ECG characteristics show alignment with the human ECG...
May 7, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745425/arrhythmic-hazard-map-for-a-3d-whole-ventricles-model-under-multiple-ion-channel-block
#13
Jun-Ichi Okada, Takashi Yoshinaga, Junko Kurokawa, Takumi Washio, Tetsushi Furukawa, Kohei Sawada, Seiryo Sugiura, Toshiaki Hisada
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To date, proposed in silico models for preclinical cardiac safety testing are limited in their predictability and usability. We previously reported a multi-scale heart simulation that accurately predicts arrhythmogenic risk for benchmark drugs. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We extend this approach and report the first comprehensive hazard map of drug-induced arrhythmia based on the exhaustive in silico electrocardiogram (ECG) database of drug effects, developed using a petaflop computer...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739992/conduction-in-the-heart-wall-helicoidal-fibers-minimize-diffusion-bias
#14
Tristan Aumentado-Armstrong, Amir Kadivar, Peter Savadjiev, Steven W Zucker, Kaleem Siddiqi
The mammalian heart must function as an efficient pump while simultaneously conducting electrical signals to drive the contraction process. In the ventricles, electrical activation begins at the insertion points of the Purkinje network in the endocardium. How does the diffusion component of the subsequent excitation wave propagate from the endocardium in a healthy heart wall without creating directional biases? We show that this is a consequence of the particular geometric organization of myocytes in the heart wall...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739265/therapeutic-hypothermia-promotes-cerebral-blood-flow-recovery-and-brain-homeostasis-after-resuscitation-from-cardiac-arrest-in-a-rat-model
#15
Qihong Wang, Peng Miao, Hiren R Modi, Sahithi Garikapati, Raymond C Koehler, Nitish V Thakor
Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that therapeutic hypothermia (TH), when applied as soon as possible after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA), results in better neurological outcome. This study tested the hypothesis that TH would promote cerebral blood flow (CBF) restoration and its maintenance after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) from CA. Twelve Wistar rats resuscitated from 7-min asphyxial CA were randomized into two groups: hypothermia group (7 H, n = 6), treated with mild TH (33-34℃) immediately after ROSC and normothermia group (7 N, n = 6,37...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737257/electrophysiologic-considerations-after-sudden-cardiac-arrest
#16
Prakash Suryanarayana, Hyon-He K Garza, Jacob Klewer, Mathew D Hutchinson
In this review, we discuss electrophysiologic management in SCA survivors, including both pharmacological and invasive therapies.
May 7, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736890/a-tutorial-on-model-informed-approaches-to-cardiovascular-safety-with-focus-on-cardiac-repolarisation
#17
S Y A Cheung, J Parkinson, U Wählby-Hamrén, C D Dota, Å M Kragh, L Bergenholm, T Vik, T Collins, C Arfvidsson, C E Pollard, H K Tomkinson, B Hamrén
Drugs can affect the cardiovascular (CV) system either as an intended treatment or as an unwanted side effect. In both cases, drug-induced cardiotoxicities such as arrhythmia and unfavourable hemodynamic effects can occur, and be described using mathematical models; such a model informed approach can provide valuable information during drug development and can aid decision-making. However, in order to develop informative models, it is vital to understand CV physiology. The aims of this tutorial are to present (1) key background biological and medical aspects of the CV system, (2) CV electrophysiology, (3) CV safety concepts, (4) practical aspects of development of CV models and (5) regulatory expectations with a focus on using model informed and quantitative approaches to support nonclinical and clinical drug development...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736398/educational-software-applied-in-teaching-electrocardiogram-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Paulo A I Pontes, Rafael O Chaves, Roberto C Castro, Érica F de Souza, Marcos C R Seruffo, Carlos R L Francês
Background: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most used diagnostic tool in medicine; in this sense, it is essential that medical undergraduates learn how to interpret it correctly while they are still on training. Naturally, they go through classic learning (e.g., lectures and speeches). However, they are not often efficiently trained in analyzing ECG results. In this regard, methodologies such as other educational support tools in medical practice, such as educational software, should be considered a valuable approach for medical training purposes...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736058/effects-of-electrical-stimulus-composition-on-cardiac-electrophysiology-in-a-rodent-model-of-electroconvulsive-therapy
#19
Nagendra Madan Singh, T N Sathyaprabha, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Chittaranjan Andrade
Background: No electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) study on humans or in animal models has so far examined whether differently composed electrical stimuli exert different cardiac electrophysiological effects at constant electrical dose. The subject is important because cardiac electrophysiological changes may provide indirect information about ECT seizure quality as modulated by stimulus composition. Materials and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats ( n = 20/group) received fixed, moderately suprathreshold (18 mC) electrical stimuli...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728395/-scn5a-na-v-1-5-variant-functional-perturbation-and-clinical-presentation-variants-of-a-certain-significance
#20
Brett M Kroncke, Andrew M Glazer, Derek K Smith, Jeffrey D Blume, Dan M Roden
BACKGROUND: Accurately predicting the impact of rare nonsynonymous variants on disease risk is an important goal in precision medicine. Variants in the cardiac sodium channel SCN5A (protein NaV 1.5; voltage-dependent cardiac Na+ channel) are associated with multiple arrhythmia disorders, including Brugada syndrome and long QT syndrome. Rare SCN5A variants also occur in ≈1% of unaffected individuals. We hypothesized that in vitro electrophysiological functional parameters explain a statistically significant portion of the variability in disease penetrance...
May 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
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