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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548461/attending-learning-and-socioeconomic-disadvantage-developmental-cognitive-and-social-neuroscience-of-resilience-and-vulnerability
#1
REVIEW
Kylie Schibli, Kyle Wong, Nina Hedayati, Amedeo D'Angiulli
We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547746/the-support-needs-of-parents-having-a-child-with-a-chronic-kidney-disease-a-focus-group-study
#2
W W Geense, B G I van Gaal, J L Knoll, E A M Cornelissen, T van Achterberg
BACKGROUND: Parents of children with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a crucial role in the management of their child's disease. The burden on parents is high: they are often exhausted, depressed and experience high levels of stress and a low quality of life, which could have a negative impact on their child's health outcomes. Support aiming at preventing and reducing parental stress is essential. Therefore, it is necessary to have insight in the problems and support needs among these parents...
May 25, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545461/interventions-to-reduce-inequalities-in-health-and-early-child-development-in-europe-from-a-qualitative-perspective
#3
Joana Morrison, Hynek Pikhart, Peter Goldblatt
BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a critical stage of development. Inequalities in experiences affect children's wellbeing and determine their development. Early years interventions focusing on children and their parents may help address inequalities during this critical period. Understanding the experiences and perceptions of parents receiving early years programmes and staff providing these may help service development and delivery. The objective of this study was to describe staff and parents' accounts of how early childhood programmes in different European country contexts improved child development...
May 25, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542485/a-link-between-thrifty-phenotype-and-maternal-care-across-two-generations-of-intercrossed-mice
#4
Bruno Sauce, Carolina P Goes, Isabela Forti, Bruno Gabriel O do Monte, Isabela M Watanabe, Joao Cunha, Andrea C Peripato
Maternal effects are causal influences from mother to offspring beyond genetic information, and have lifelong consequences for multiple traits. Previously, we reported that mice whose mothers did not nurse properly had low birth weight followed by rapid fat accumulation and disturbed development of some organs. That pattern resembles metabolic syndromes known collectively as the thrifty phenotype, which is believed to be an adaptation to a stressful environment which prepares offspring for reduced nutrient supply...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541762/chronic-stress-exposure-and-generation-are-related-to-the-p-factor-and-externalizing-specific-psychopathology-in-youth
#5
Hannah R Snyder, Jami F Young, Benjamin L Hankin
Psychopathology is posited to be transdiagnostically linked to chronic stress. Yet efforts to understand the specificity and directionality of these links have been sparse, and the ubiquitous comorbidity of psychopathology has made the seemingly nonspecific links between psychological disorders and chronic stress difficult to interpret. The current study used a latent dimensional bifactor model of psychopathology to account for comorbidity and a multiwave prospective design to disentangle temporal associations between psychopathology and chronic stress longitudinally during the critical adolescent period for psychopathology risk and stress reactivity...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541669/effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-and-their-hydroxylated-metabolites-oh-pcbs-on-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Srishty Subramanian, Jerald L Schnoor, Benoit Van Aken
Plants metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into hydroxylated derivatives (OH-PCBs), which are sometimes more toxic than the parent PCBs. The objective of this research was to compare the toxicity of a suite of PCBs and OH-PCBs toward the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. While parent PCBs and higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs exhibited a low or non-detectable toxicity, lower-chlorinated OH-PCBs significantly inhibited the germination rate and plant growth, with IC50 ranging from 1.6 to 12.0 mg L-1. The transcriptomic response of A...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541526/maladaptive-coping-and-depressive-symptoms-partially-explain-the-association-between-family-stress-and-pain-related-distress-in-youth-with-ibd
#7
Bonney Reed-Knight, Miranda A L van Tilburg, Rona L Levy, Shelby L Langer, Joan M Romano, Tasha B Murphy, Melissa M DuPen, Andrew D Feld
To extend existing research on the pain burden experienced by youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by examining the complexity of psychosocial factors involved in pain-related distress. Parents completed measures of family stress and their child's pain-related expressions of distress and coping. Youth with IBD rated their depressive symptoms ( n  = 183 dyads). Mediation analyses were performed using regression-based techniques and bootstrapping. Greater family stress was positively related to children's pain-related expressions of distress and passive coping...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541057/promoting-resilience-in-stress-management-for-parents-prism-p-an-intervention-for-caregivers-of-youth-with-serious-illness
#8
Joyce P Yi-Frazier, Kaitlyn Fladeboe, Victoria Klein, Lauren Eaton, Claire Wharton, Elizabeth McCauley, Abby R Rosenberg
INTRODUCTION: It is well-known that parental stress and coping impacts the well-being of children with serious illness. The current study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and satisfaction of a novel resilience promoting intervention, the Promoting Resilience in Stress Management Intervention for Parents (PRISM-P) among parents of adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes or cancer. Secondary analyses explored the effect of the PRISM-P on parent-reported resilience and distress...
May 25, 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538494/committee-opinion-no-704-summary-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#9
(no author information available yet)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with anogenital cancer (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and anal), oropharyngeal cancer, and genital warts. The HPV vaccination significantly reduces the incidence of anogenital cancer and genital warts. Despite the benefits of HPV vaccines, only 41.9% of girls in the recommended age group, and only 28.1% of males in the recommended age group have received all recom-mended doses. Compared with many other countries, HPV vaccination rates in the United States are unacceptably low...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536916/advanced-parental-age-impaired-fear-conditioning-and-hippocampal-ltd-in-adult-female-rat-offspring
#10
Lilu Luo, Tingting Sun, Xin Guan, Yiling Ni, Liqiang Yang, Quan Zhao, Xiangyang Kong, Yanmei Chen, Jichuan Zhang
Advanced maternal or paternal age is associated with increased risks of cognitive and emotional disorders. Chronic stress is also a common experience in human life that causes psychiatric diseases. However, the synergistic effects of these two factors on offspring are rarely studied. In the present study, the offspring of both young (3-4 months) and old (12-14 months) rat parents were given CUMS for 21 days at the age of 4 weeks. The effects of advanced parental age and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on emotional and cognitive behaviors and the related cellular mechanisms were investigated by using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques...
May 23, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536873/bending-the-curve-a-community-based-behavioral-parent-training-model-to-address-adhd-related-concerns-in-the-voluntary-sector-in-denmark
#11
Anil Chacko, Christoffer Scavenius
Limited access to evidence-based behavioral parent training (BPT) for addressing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been a growing concern internationally. Models to improve access to BPT are needed, particularly those that can be readily implemented in community settings and that leverage the potential workforce to increase capacity to deliver BPT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a BPT model which included oft-used content, methods, processes of BPT (common-elements), non-professionally delivered (task-shifted/shared) BPT intervention, and an efficient ancillary support system (training, fidelity, and supervision methods) for families of youth with parental concerns about ADHD...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536586/ancestral-qtl-alleles-from-wild-emmer-wheat-enhance-root-development-under-drought-in-modern-wheat
#12
Lianne Merchuk-Ovnat, Tzion Fahima, Jhonathan E Ephrath, Tamar Krugman, Yehoshua Saranga
A near-isogenic line (NIL-7A-B-2), introgressed with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 7AS from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) into the background of bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cv. BarNir, was recently developed and studied in our lab. NIL-7A-B-2 exhibited better productivity and photosynthetic capacity than its recurrent parent across a range of environments. Here we tested the hypothesis that root-system modifications play a major role in NIL-7A-B-2's agronomical superiority...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536510/influence-of-pre-reproductive-maternal-enrichment-on-coping-response-to-stress-and-expression-of-c-fos-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-adolescent-offspring
#13
Debora Cutuli, Erica Berretta, Greta Pasqualini, Paola De Bartolo, Paola Caporali, Daniela Laricchiuta, Patricia Sampedro-Piquero, Francesca Gelfo, Matteo Pesoli, Francesca Foti, Azucena Begega, Laura Petrosini
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental setting broadly used for investigating the effects of complex social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations on brain structure and function. Recent studies point out that parental EE experience, even occurring in the pre-reproductive phase, affects neural development and behavioral trajectories of the offspring. In the present study we investigated the influences of pre-reproductive EE of female rats on maternal behavior and adolescent male offspring's coping response to an inescapable stressful situation after chronic social isolation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535839/separation-from-parents-during-childhood-trauma-predicts-adult-attachment-security-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#14
R A Bryant, M Creamer, M O'Donnell, D Forbes, K L Felmingham, D Silove, G Malhi, M van Hoof, A C McFarlane, A Nickerson
BACKGROUND: Prolonged separation from parental support is a risk factor for psychopathology. This study assessed the impact of brief separation from parents during childhood trauma on adult attachment tendencies and post-traumatic stress. METHOD: Children (n = 806) exposed to a major Australian bushfire disaster in 1983 and matched controls (n = 725) were assessed in the aftermath of the fires (mean age 7-8 years) via parent reports of trauma exposure and separation from parents during the fires...
May 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534822/violence-victimization-in-korean-adolescents-risk-factors-and-psychological-problems
#15
Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Hyesue Jang, Minkyung Jo
We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534022/mental-health-problems-in-parents-of-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#16
REVIEW
Gerasimos A Kolaitis, Maya G Meentken, Elisabeth M W J Utens
This review will provide a concise description of mental health problems in parents of children with a (non-syndromic) congenital heart disease (CHD) during different stressful periods. Predictors of these problems and also implications for clinical practice will be mentioned. Having a child with CHD can be very stressful for parents, who have to face overwhelming emotions and also extra physical, financial, and other practical challenges. Parental distress has been reported in 30-80% of parents and appears not to be related to severity of CHD...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533240/heterocycle-thiazole-compounds-exhibit-antifungal-activity-through-increase-in-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-cryptococcus-gattii-species-complex
#17
Nívea Pereira de Sá, Caroline Miranda de Lima, Cleudiomar Inácio Lino, Paulo Jorge Sanches Barbeira, Ludmila de Matos Baltazar, Daniel Assis Santos, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Susana Johann
Human cryptococcosis can occur as a primary or opportunistic infection and develops as an acute, sub-acute, or chronic systemic infection, involving different organs of the host. Given the limited therapeutic options and the occasional resistance to fluconazole, there is a need to develop novel drugs for the treatment of cryptococcosis. In this report, we describe promising thiazoles 1, 2, 3, and 4 and explore their possible modes of action against Cryptococcus. To this end, we show evidence of interference in the Cryptococcus antioxidant system...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532466/baseline-and-stress-induced-levels-of-corticosterone-in-male-and-female-afrotropical-and-european-temperate-stonechats-during-breeding
#18
Beate Apfelbeck, Barbara Helm, Juan Carlos Illera, Kim G Mortega, Patrick Smiddy, Neil P Evans
BACKGROUND: Latitudinal variation in avian life histories falls along a slow-fast pace of life continuum: tropical species produce small clutches, but have a high survival probability, while in temperate species the opposite pattern is found. This study investigated whether differential investment into reproduction and survival of tropical and temperate species is paralleled by differences in the secretion of the vertebrate hormone corticosterone (CORT). Depending on circulating concentrations, CORT can both act as a metabolic (low to medium levels) and a stress hormone (high levels) and, thereby, influence reproductive decisions...
May 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532235/development-and-preliminary-validation-of-the-paediatric-awareness-questionnaire-for-children-and-adolescents-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Owen Lloyd, Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck
There is a lack of validated measures for assessing self-awareness of deficits after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Paediatric Awareness Questionnaire (PAQ), and investigate factors related to self-awareness. The PAQ was administered to 32 children aged 8-16 years with mild to severe TBI (72% male, M age = 11.75, SD = 2.9), their parents, and treating clinicians, and to 32 age- and gender-matched typically developing controls and their parents...
May 23, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531178/zebrafish-exposure-to-environmentally-relevant-concentration-of-depleted-uranium-impairs-progeny-development-at-the-molecular-and-histological-levels
#20
Olivier Armant, Kewin Gombeau, Sophia Murat El Houdigui, Magali Floriani, Virginie Camilleri, Isabelle Cavalie, Christelle Adam-Guillermin
Uranium is an actinide naturally found in the environment. Anthropogenic activities lead to the release of increasing amounts of uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in the environment, posing potential risks to aquatic organisms due to radiological and chemical toxicity of this radionucleide. Although environmental contaminations with high levels of uranium have already been observed, chronic exposures of non-human species to levels close to the environmental quality standards remain scarcely characterized. The present study focused on the identification of the molecular pathways impacted by a chronic exposure of zebrafish to 20 μg/L of DU during 10 days...
2017: PloS One
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