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Andrea Gandini, Ahmed A Amin, Hawraz Ibrahim M Amin, Davide Corriero, Alessio Porta, Giuseppe Zanoni
A practical methodology for the synthesis of key intermediates for isoprostane, neuroprostane and dihomo-isoprostane preparation has been described. The key strategy involved a three stage C-12 stereocenter inversion of the configuration of a Corey lactone, commercially available in an enantiopure form. The key intermediate was then used to prepare 17-E2c-dihomo-isoprostane and 17-F2c-dihomo-isoprostane.
March 21, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Xianqiang Tang, Qingyun Li, Zhenhua Wang, Yanping Hu, Yuan Hu, Miklas Scholz
Novel soil remediation equipment based on electro-kinetic geosynthetics (EKG) was developed for in situ isolation of metals from paddy soil. Two mutually independent field plot experiments A and B (with and without electric current applied) were conducted. After saturation using ferric chloride (FeCl3 ) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 ), soil water drainage capacity, soil cadmium (Cd) removal performance, energy consumption as well as soil residual of iron (Fe) and chloride (Cl) were assessed. Cadmium dissolved in the soil matrix and resulted in a 100% increase of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extracted phyto-available Cd...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rajendran Selvakumar, Govindarajan Ramadoss, Mridula P Menon, Karuppuli Rajendran, Palanisami Thavamani, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Uranium contamination of soil has been a major concern with respect to its toxicity, accumulation in the food chain and persistence in the environment. Owing to these problems, remediation of uranium-contaminated soils has been investigated by various techniques. This review focuses on the challenges and complexities associated with the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil at field level. Therefore, laboratory studies have been excluded from this review. Challenges faced during remediation of uranium-contaminated soil using various techniques such as microbial/phyto/chemical/material based strategies have been discussed with suitable examples...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Lu Wang, Yanan Wu, Jia Xie, Sheng Wu, Zhenqiang Wu
The green synthesis of nanoparticles has become increasingly promising due to their potential applications in nanomedicine and materials science. In this study, silver nanoparticles (P-AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous extracts of P. guajava L. leaf. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 438 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and zetasizer analyses showed that the average sizes of the P-AgNPs were 20-35 nm, 25 nm, and 25-35 nm, respectively...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Juan I Vílchez, Karsten Niehaus, David N Dowling, Jesús González-López, Maximino Manzanera
Drought tolerance of plants such as tomato or pepper can be improved by their inoculation with rhizobacteria such as Microbacterium sp. 3J1. This interaction depends on the production of trehalose by the microorganisms that in turn modulate the phyto-hormone profile of the plant. In this work we describe the characterization of metabolic changes during the interaction of pepper plants with Microbacterium sp. 3J1 and of the microorganism alone over a period of drought. Our main findings include the observation that the plant responds to the presence of the microorganism by changing the C and N metabolism based on its glutamine and α-ketoglutarate content, these changes contribute to major changes in the concentration of molecules involved in the balance of the osmotic pressure...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mina Cheraghi Nirumand, Marziyeh Hajialyani, Roja Rahimi, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Stéphane Zingue, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Anupam Bishayee
Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Rubia cordifolia (common madder), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pistacia lentiscus (mastic), Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Dolichos biflorus ( horse gram ), Ammi visnaga (khella), Nigella sativa (black-cumin), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle), and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carolina Bussoletti, Maria V Tolaini, Leonardo Celleno
BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in both males as well as females, occurring in up to 57% of women by the age of 80 years. Androgenetic alopecia is associated with a high psychological burden and often results in substantially reduced quality of life, poor body image and low self-esteem, particularly in women. Caffeine-based products have shown promise, both in vitro and in vivo, as potential treatments for AGA. This study was performed to determine the efficacy of a phyto-caffeine- containing shampoo used over a 6-month period in female subjects with AGA...
March 6, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Bubuya Masola, Oluwafemi O Oguntibeju, Ayodeji B Oyenihi
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Family: Apiaceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to elevate mood, improve memory, treat wounds and manage kidney-related ailments in African traditional medicine practice. This study evaluated the potential benefits of C. asiatica (CA) on diabetes-induced stress in kidney and brain of rats. Following the induction of diabetes mellitus (DM), rats were orally treated with vehicle, CA or Metformin daily for 14 days. After treatment, renal and brain levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 were assessed...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Efrem N Tessema, Tsige Gebre-Mariam, Getahun Paulos, Johannes Wohlrab, Reinhard H H Neubert
Deficiency or altered composition of stratum corneum (SC) lipids such as ceramides (CERs), causing skin barrier dysfunction and skin dryness, have been associated with skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, and ageing. Replenishing the depleted native CERs with exogenous CERs has also been shown to have beneficial effects in restoring the skin barrier. Phyto-derived CERs such as oat CERs were shown to be potential for skin barrier reinforcement. To effect this, however, the oat CERs should overcome the SC barrier and delivered deep into the lipid matrix using the various novel formulations...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Guorui Li, Jinguang Huang, Jun Yang, Dan He, Chao Wang, Xiaoxuan Qi, Ian A Taylor, Junfeng Liu, You-Liang Peng
Magnaporthe oryzae is a model fungal plant pathogen employed for studying plant-fungi interactions. Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses revealed that this fungal pathogen has more than 12,000 protein-coding genes with 65% of the genes remaining functionally un-annotated. Here, we determine the structure of the hypothetical protein, MGG_01005 and show that it is the Magnaporthe oryzae Dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 (dynlt1/3), demonstrated by its structural similarity to other orthologous dynlt1 proteins and its conserved interaction with the N-terminus of the Magnaporthe oryzae dynein intermediate chain, MoDyn1I2...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Chuanlong Li, Faran Nabeel, Muhammad Khalid, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Herein, we reported a facile, green and environmental friendlier biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the Convolvulus arvensis extract. The influences of various physicochemical factors such as the concentration of the plant extract, reaction time, and different pH levels were investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The UV-Visible absorption spectrum of biogenic silver nanoparticles at λmax around ~400 nm suggested the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to confirm the chemical transformation and role of various phyto-reductants in the conversion of Ag+ to Ag0 ...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
D Arumai Selvan, D Mahendiran, R Senthil Kumar, A Kalilur Rahiman
Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved using aqueous garlic, green tea and turmeric extracts, and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of rich amount of biochemicals in these extracts, which serve as reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into AgNPs. FT IR spectroscopy confirmed the role of biomolecules in the bioreduction and efficient stabilization of AgNPs. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed a band around 450 nm characteristics of AgNPs...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Zhenfang Gao, Cuicui Yu, Haiyue Liang, Xuekai Wang, Yue Liu, Xin Li, Kai Ji, Hui Xu, Mingyan Yang, Ke Liu, Dong Qi, Huaying Fan
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation and leads to an increased risk of colon cancer. There are many studies using phyto-ingredients as a novel approach for the treatment of UC. The plant Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) is a safe and edible vegetable that has been extensively adopted in traditional Chinese medicine for conditions involving inflammation, and the most active phytochemical agent is andrographolide...
February 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Asma A Al-Huqail, Maysa M Hatata, Arwa A Al-Huqail, Mohamed M Ibrahim
The current study reports rapid and easy method for synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Coriandrum sativum leaves extract as a reducing and covering agent. The bio-reductive synthesis of AgNPs was monitored using a scanning double beam UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the morphology of AgNPs obtained from plant extracts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of AgNPs indicate that the structure of AgNPs is the face centered cubic structure of metallic silver...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Xingzhi Jing, Weifeng Yin, Hongtao Tian, Mengcun Chen, Xudong Yao, Wentao Zhu, Fengjing Guo, Yaping Ye
AIMS: Cell communication between mesenchymal stem cells and blood vessel cells are crucial for bone repair. We have previously shown that the phyto-molecule icariin significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between icariin induced osteogenic differentiation of ASCs and angiogenesis of rat endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Besides, we used icariin doped 45S5 Bioglass seeded with ASCs to promote bone healing in rat calvarial bone defect models...
February 19, 2018: Life Sciences
Myungsuk Kim, Jisun Lim, Jung-Hee Lee, Kyung-Mi Lee, Suji Kim, Kye Won Park, Chu Won Nho, Yoon Shin Cho
Genistein, a phyto-estrogen, can potentially replace endogenous estrogens in postmenopausal women, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. To obtain insight into the effect of genistein on bone differentiation, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in genistein-treated vs. untreated MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells. Osteoblastic cell differentiation was monitored by measuring osteoblast differentiation factors (ALP production, bone mineralization, and expression of osteoblast differentiation markers)...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Cabrini, F Cerino, A de Olazabal, E Di Poi, C Fabbro, D Fornasaro, A Goruppi, V Flander-Putrle, J Francé, S Gollasch, M Hure, L Lipej, D Lučić, E Magaletti, P Mozetič, T Tinta, A Tornambè, V Turk, J Uhan, M David
Ballast water discharges may cause negative impacts to aquatic ecosystems, human health and economic activities by the introduction of potentially harmful species. Fifty untreated ballast water tanks, ten in each port, were sampled in four Adriatic Italian ports and one Slovenian port. Salinity, temperature and fluorescence were measured on board. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), phyto- and zooplankton were qualitatively and quantitatively determined to identify the species assemblage arriving in ballast water...
February 14, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Anna Aryani Amir, Jennifer M Kelly, David O Kleemann, Zoey Durmic, Dominique Blache, Graeme B Martin
Phyto-oestrogens such as isoflavones are natural compounds that can profoundly affect reproductive function. In the present study, we tested whether including isoflavone compounds (genistein, biochanin A, formononetin) in the maturation medium would affect the outcomes for ovine oocytes in vitro. Each isoflavone compound was evaluated at five concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25µgmL-1) and the entire protocol was repeated four times. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were randomly allocated to the treatments, then fertilised and cultured in vitro...
February 16, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Peter Malfertheiner
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are very common and affect populations worldwide. A majority of patients are affected by a variety of heterogenous gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) related to the upper and lower digestive system with frequent overlap and mostly of mild to moderate degree. The herbal medicinal preparation STW 5 is documented as an effective therapeutic option for treating FGID. Studies Conducted in Summary: STW 5 has been in use for more than 50 years in clinical practice and proven to be effective and safe in the management of FGID...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
Alireza Khataee, Rana Honarnezhad, Mehrangiz Fathinia
In the present work, the sonocatalytic degradation of sodium isopropyl xanthate (SIPX) was investigated in the presence of Cu2S nanoparticles. Cu2S nanoparticles were produced by means of a high-energy planetary mechanical ball milling method within the processing times of 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 h. The physical and chemical characteristics of Cu2S particles were studied before and after ball milling process using various analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and nanoparticles size distribution (NSD)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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