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Saida Medjeldi, Lamjed Bouslama, Amina Benabdalla, Rim Essid, Soumaya Haou, Salem Elkahoui
The use of synthetic food additive and the appearance of antibiotic resistance are at the basis of important human health problems. The substitution of synthetic compounds with new natural substances extracted from plants or microorganisms is therefore the ideal solution to this scourge. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phyto-constituents (polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins), and to test the biological activities (antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral) of the Ajuga iva (L) aerial part extracts...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Karthik Subramani, Balu Kolathupalayam Shanmugam, Suriyaprabha Rangaraj, Manivasakan Palanisamy, Prabu Periasamy, Rajendran Venkatachalam
Nanomaterials play a vital role in textile industries due to their unique properties and applications. There is an increase in the use of nanoscale phyto products in textiles to control the bacterial infection in fabrics. Here, natural herbal nanoparticles of different sizes were prepared from shade-dried Aloe vera plant leaves using ball milling technique without any additives. The amorphous herbal A. vera nanoparticles possess an average particle size of 40 ± 2 nm and UV-absorption maximum at 269 nm...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Kai Wang, Li Zou, Xinxin Lu, Xiaozhen Mou
Marginal sea sediments receive organic substrates of different origins, but whether and to what extent sediment microbial communities are reflective of the different sources of organic substrates remain unclear. To address these questions, sediment samples were collected in two connected China marginal seas, i.e., Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, and their two major tributaries (Yellow River and Liao River). Sediment bacterial community composition (BCC) was examined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. In addition, physicochemical variables that describe environmental conditions and sediment features were measured...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mahban Rahimifard, Azadeh Manayi, Maryam Baeeri, Mahdi Gholami, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Mohammad Abdollahi
The genus Achillea (Asteraceae) consisting of important medicinal species, growing wildly in Iran, of which A. tenuifolia is found in Iran-o-Turan regions. Regarding the traditional use of Achillea species for treatment of diabetes and also lack of information on phyto-constituents of A. tenuifolia underground parts, in this study anti-diabetic activity of the plant have been reported. In order to find the main active components, underground parts of the plant were extracted with water and fractioned by hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and the separation of the main compounds were carried out via medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC)...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Shaozhe Cheng, Hua Yu, Meng Hu, Yue Wu, Liangliang Cheng, Qiuming Cai, Yuanyuan Tu, Tao Xia, Liangcai Peng
In this study, total eight distinct Miscanthus accessions were collected from the cadmium (Cd)-supplied soil pots, and mild alkali pretreatments (0.5%, 1% NaOH) were then performed to enhance biomass enzymatic saccharification. Due to large Cd accumulation, all Miscanthus accessions showed significantly reduced cellulose levels and features (CrI, DP) with much increased hemicellulose and pectin contents in the mature stems. Under mild alkali pretreatments, all Miscanthus samples exhibited largely increased hexoses yields released from enzymatic hydrolysis, and one desirable accession had an almost complete biomass saccharification with the hexoses yield at 100% (% cellulose)...
April 19, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jiang-Shan Li, Lei Wang, Jin-Li Cui, Chi Sun Poon, Jingzi Beiyuan, Daniel C W Tsang, Xiang-Dong Li
The low-alkalinity stabilization/solidification (S/S) treatment of the soil containing high concentrations of geogenic As by physical encapsulation is considered as a proper management before land development; however, the choice of an effective binder and the leaching potential of As remain uncertain. In this study, the influence of S/S binders (cement blended with fuel ash (FA), furnace bottom ash (FBA), or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)) on the speciation and leaching characteristics of geogenic As was studied...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rafi Ullah, Jehan Bakht, Mohammad Shafi
The present study investigates the phyto-chemical analysis, phytotoxic activity and insecticidal activity of the stem and root tissues of medicinally important Periploca hydaspidis. All the extracted samples exhibited the phytotoxic activity. The data confirmed that water was the best solvent to extract the phytotoxic compounds from stem and root tissues. Roots extracted with different solvents exhibited better phytotoxic potential than samples obtained from the stem tissues. Samples extracted in methanol and water from both stems and roots tissues were active against the subject insects while hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol extracted samples in both parts exhibited no insecticidal activity...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Masoud Veissi, Sima Jafarirad, Akram Ahangarpour, Seyede Marjan Mohaghegh, Amal Saki Malehi
OBJECTIVES: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen, which is commonly used as a monomer of polycarbonate plastics food containers and epoxy resins. Little is known about the interaction effects between xeno- and phyto- estrogens on glucose homeostasis or other metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine effects of individual or combined exposure to low doses of BPA and soy extract on glucose metabolism in mice with the goal to establish its potential mechanisms. METHODS: Fifty-four male mice were randomly divided into six groups...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
Kiran Gupta, Kumkum Mishra, Sudhakar Srivastava, Amit Kumar
A study was performed for phyto-genotoxic assay of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) through Allium cepa. Various concentrations (0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 mg L-1 ) of Cr and As for 48 and 168 h time points exposed to A. cepa. The phytotoxic effects of metal(loid) were evident through inhibited root length and root protein. Metal(loid) toxicity also lead to genotoxic effects, which included depression of mitotic index and increased frequency of chromosomes aberrations like break, fragments, c-metaphase, multipolar arrangements etc...
April 27, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Zeng-Bing Xia, Yong-Jian Yuan, Qiang-Hua Zhang, Heng Li, Ji-Lin Dai, Ji-Kang Min
BACKGROUND Salvianolic acid B (SB) is a major active phyto-component of the plant Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is traditionally used to treat joint pain and arthritis. The present study examined the anti-rheumatoid arthritis efficacy of SB on collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (CIA) in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-eight rats were divided into 4 groups: Control rats treated with saline (Group I), rats subjected to CIA induction by intradermal injection of bovine collagen II type at the tail (Group II), and rats subjected to CIA and supplemented with either 20 or 40 mg/kg of SB for 28 days (group III or IV)...
April 25, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Cherukuri Sowmya, Vuppalapati Lavakumar, Narayanan Venkateshan, Velayutham Ravichandiran, D V R Saigopal
In our present investigation, synthesis of nontoxic, eco friendly and cost effective silver nanoparticles, Phyllanthus acidus (P. acidus) was used as starting material. The influence of phyto-constituents present in aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus acidus was found to be effective in reduction of silver nitrate to free silver nanoparticles (PA-AgNPs). HPTLC finger print analysis reveals the presence of flavonoid, quercetin in aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus acidus. Surface plasmon racemonance exhibited λ max at 462 nm through UV-Vis spectroscopy...
April 20, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Gabriel O Eniafe, Damilohun S Metibemu, Olaposi I Omotuyi, Adewale J Ogunleye, Olumide K Inyang, Niyi S Adelakun, Yakubu O Adeniran, Bamidele Adewumi, Ojochenemi A Enejoh, Joseph O Osunmuyiwa, Sidiqat A Shodehinde, Oluwatoba E Oyeneyin
Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airway that poses a major threat to human health. With increase industrialization in the developed and developing countries, the incidence of asthma is on the rise. The β2-adrenergic receptor is an important target in designing anti-asthmatic drugs. The synthetic agonists of the β2-adrenergic receptor used over the years proved effective, but with indispensable side effects, thereby limiting their therapeutic use on a long-term scale. Inverse agonists of this receptor, although initially contraindicated, had been reported to have long-term beneficial effects...
2018: Bioinformation
Nathalie Hinfray, Cleo Tebby, Benjamin Piccini, Gaelle Bourgine, Sélim Aït-Aïssa, Jean-Marc Porcher, Farzad Pakdel, François Brion
Comprehension of compound interactions in mixtures is of increasing interest to scientists, especially from a perspective of mixture risk assessment. However, most of conducted studies have been dedicated to the effects on gonads, while only few of them were. interested in the effects on the central nervous system which is a known target for estrogenic compounds. In the present study, the effects of estradiol (E2), a natural estrogen, and genistein (GEN), a phyto-estrogen, on the brain ER-regulated cyp19a1b gene in radial glial cells were investigated alone and in mixtures...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Khanchuila Shingnaisui, Tapan Dey, Prasenjit Manna, Jatin Kalita
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Family: Saururaceae) is an herbaceous perennial plant that grows in moist and shady places. The plant is well known among the people of diverse cultures across Japan, Korea, China and North-East India for its medicinal properties. Traditionally the plant is used for its various beneficial properties against inflammation, pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, muscular sprain, stomach ulcer etc. Oxidative stress and inflammation were found to be linked with most of the diseases in recent times...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Palanivel Ganesan, Prakash Ramalingam, Govindarajan Karthivashan, Young Tag Ko, Dong-Kug Choi
Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) delivery systems have a wide applicability in the delivery of phyto-bioactive compounds to treat various chronic diseases, including diabetes, cancer, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases. The multiple benefits of SLN delivery include improved stability, smaller particle size, leaching prevention and enhanced lymphatic uptake of the bioactive compounds through oral delivery. However, the burst release makes the SLN delivery systems inadequate for the oral delivery of various phyto-bioactive compounds that can treat such chronic diseases...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Christoph-Martin Geilfus
The chloride concentration in the plant determines yield and quality formation for two reasons. First, chlorine is a mineral nutrient and deficiencies thereof induce metabolic problems that interfere with growth. However, due to low requirement of most crops, deficiency of chloride hardly appears in the field. Second, excess of chloride, an event that occurs under chloride-salinity, results in severe physiological dysfunctions impairing both quality and yield formation. The chloride ion can effect quality of plant-based products by conferring a salty taste that decreases market appeal of e...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Bharat P Gurale, Mysore S Shashidhar, Richa S Sardessai, Rajesh G Gonnade
A method for the preparation of benzene derivatives from myo-inositol, an abundantly available phyto chemical is described. 1,3-Bridged acetals of inososes undergo step-wise elimination leading to the formation of polyoxygenated benzene derivatives. This aromatization reaction proceeds through the intermediacy of a β-alkoxyenone, which could be isolated. This sequence of reactions starting from myo-inositol, provides a novel route for the preparation of polyoxygenated benzene derivatives including polyoxygenated biphenyl...
March 14, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Yogini Jaiswal, Zhitao Liang, Alan Ho, Hubiao Chen, Leonard Williams, Zhongzhen Zhao
Achyranthes bidentata and Achyranthes aspera are saponin and steroid rich medicinal plants, used extensively for therapeutic treatments in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. A. bidentata is reported to be one of the rare and extensively exploited medicinal plant species that face the issue of being endangered. Finding qualitative substitute with identical phyto-constituents contributing to similar composition and pharmacological benefits will help in reducing the burden of exploitation of the natural habitats of such plants...
February 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Andrea Gandini, Ahmed A Amin, Hawraz Ibrahim M Amin, Davide Corriero, Alessio Porta, Giuseppe Zanoni
A practical methodology for the synthesis of key intermediates for isoprostane, neuroprostane and dihomo-isoprostane preparation has been described. The key strategy involved a three stage C-12 stereocenter inversion of the configuration of a Corey lactone, commercially available in an enantiopure form. The key intermediate was then used to prepare 17-E2c-dihomo-isoprostane and 17-F2c-dihomo-isoprostane.
March 21, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Xianqiang Tang, Qingyun Li, Zhenhua Wang, Yanping Hu, Yuan Hu, Miklas Scholz
Novel soil remediation equipment based on electro-kinetic geosynthetics (EKG) was developed for in situ isolation of metals from paddy soil. Two mutually independent field plot experiments A and B (with and without electric current applied) were conducted. After saturation using ferric chloride (FeCl3 ) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 ), soil water drainage capacity, soil cadmium (Cd) removal performance, energy consumption as well as soil residual of iron (Fe) and chloride (Cl) were assessed. Cadmium dissolved in the soil matrix and resulted in a 100% increase of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extracted phyto-available Cd...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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