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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447386/unraveling-the-pleiotropic-role-of-the-mceg-atpase-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#1
Julia García-Fernández, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Beatriz Galán, Christopher M Sassetti, José L García
The Mce systems are complex ABC transporters that are encoded by different numbers of homologous operons in Actinobacteria. While the four Mce systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are all energized by a single ATPase, MceG, each system appears to import different fatty acids or sterols. To explore if this behavior can be extended to saprophytic mycobacteria, whose more complex genomes encode more Mce systems, we have identified and characterized the MceG ortholog of Mycobacterium smegmatis. This bacterium relies on MceG to energize its 6 Mce systems that contribute to a variety of cellular functions including sterol uptake and cell envelope maintenance...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447066/neuronal-functions-of-foxo-daf-16
#2
REVIEW
Sun Y Kim, Ashley E Webb
The FOXO family of transcription factors plays a conserved role in longevity and tissue homeostasis across species. In the mammalian nervous system, emerging evidence has implicated FOXOs in cognitive performance, stem cell maintenance, regeneration, and protection against stress. Much of what we know about neuronal functions of FOXO emerged from recent studies in C. elegans. Similar to mammalian FOXO, the worm FOXO ortholog, called DAF-16, regulates learning and memory, regeneration, and stress resistance in neurons...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446920/two-highly-similar-poplar-paleo-subgenomes-suggest-an-autotetraploid-ancestor-of-salicaceae-plants
#3
Yinzhe Liu, Jinpeng Wang, Weina Ge, Zhenyi Wang, Yuxian Li, Nanshan Yang, Sangrong Sun, Liwei Zhang, Xiyin Wang
As a model plant to study perennial trees in the Salicaceae family, the poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genome was sequenced, revealing recurrent paleo-polyploidizations during its evolution. A comparative and hierarchical alignment of its genome to a well-selected reference genome would help us better understand poplar's genome structure and gene family evolution. Here, by adopting the relatively simpler grape (Vitis vinifera) genome as reference, and by inferring both intra- and inter-genomic gene collinearity, we produced a united alignment of these two genomes and hierarchically distinguished the layers of paralogous and orthologous genes, as related to recursive polyploidizations and speciation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445732/the-hect-family-ubiquitin-ligase-eel-1-regulates-neuronal-function-and-development
#4
Karla J Opperman, Ben Mulcahy, Andrew C Giles, Monica G Risley, Rayna L Birnbaum, Erik D Tulgren, Ken Dawson-Scully, Mei Zhen, Brock Grill
Genetic changes in the HECT ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 are associated with intellectual disability, but it remains unknown whether HUWE1 functions in post-mitotic neurons to affect circuit function. Using genetics, pharmacology, and electrophysiology, we show that EEL-1, the HUWE1 ortholog in C. elegans, preferentially regulates GABAergic presynaptic transmission. Decreasing or increasing EEL-1 function alters GABAergic transmission and the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance in the worm motor circuit, which leads to impaired locomotion and increased sensitivity to electroshock...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444444/bioinformatic-and-expression-analyses-on-carotenoid-dioxygenase-genes-in-fruit-development-and-abiotic-stress-responses-in-fragaria-vesca
#5
Yong Wang, Guanqun Ding, Tingting Gu, Jing Ding, Yi Li
Carotenoid dioxygenases, including 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases (NCEDs) and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), can selectively cleave carotenoids into various apocarotenoid products that play important roles in fleshy fruit development and abiotic stress response. In this study, we identified 12 carotenoid dioxygenase genes in diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca, and explored their evolution with orthologous genes from nine other species. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the NCED and CCDL groups moderately expanded during their evolution, whereas gene numbers of the CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, and CCD8 groups maintained conserved...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443114/tadir1-2-a-wheat-ortholog-of-lipid-transfer-protein-atdir1-contributes-to-negative-regulation-of-wheat-resistance-against-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#6
Soyed M Ahmed, Peng Liu, Qinghe Xue, Changan Ji, Tuo Qi, Jia Guo, Jun Guo, Zhensheng Kang
Very few LTPs have been shown to act through plasma membrane receptors or to be involved in the hypersensitive response (HR). DIR1, a new type of plant LTP interacts with lipids in vitro, moves to distant tissues during systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and therefore is thought to be involved in long-distance signaling during SAR. However, the exact functions of DIR1 orthologs in cereal species under biotic and abiotic stresses have not been thoroughly defined. In this study, a novel wheat ortholog of the DIR1 gene, TaDIR1-2, was isolated from Suwon11, a Chinese cultivar of wheat and functionally characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443032/fatty-acid-binding-protein-11a-is-required-for-brain-vessel-integrity-in-zebrafish
#7
Jie Zhang, Jialing Qi, Shuilong Wu, Lijiao Peng, Yunwei Shi, Jinxian Yang, Zhenhua Yin, Yu Gao, Chengniu Wang, Jie Gong, Haijun Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Dong Liu
The monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs) lining the intima of all blood vessel wall forms a semipermeable barrier that regulates tissue-fluid homeostasis, transport of nutrients, and migration of blood cells across the barrier. A number of signaling pathways and molecules mediate endothelial permeability, which plays important roles in a variety of the physiological and pathological conditions. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are able to bind various hydrophobic molecules, such as long-chain fatty acids, prostaglandins and eicosanoids...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442993/alcohol-induced-neuroadaptation-is-orchestrated-by-the-histone-acetyltransferase-cbp
#8
Alfredo Ghezzi, Xiaolei Li, Linda K Lew, Thilini P Wijesekera, Nigel S Atkinson
Homeostatic neural adaptations to alcohol underlie the production of alcohol tolerance and the associated symptoms of withdrawal. These adaptations have been shown to persist for relatively long periods of time and are believed to be of central importance in promoting the addictive state. In Drosophila, a single exposure to alcohol results in long-lasting alcohol tolerance and symptoms of withdrawal following alcohol clearance. These persistent adaptations involve mechanisms such as long-lasting changes in gene expression and perhaps epigenetic restructuring of chromosomal regions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442417/cloning-expression-analysis-and-antibacterial-propertiesof-three-serum-amyloid-a-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#9
Juhua Yu, Yongkai Tang, Jianlin Li, Hongxia Li, Fan Yu, Wenjuan Yu, Feng He, Chunjie Fu, Shuntao Mao
Three serum amyloid A (SAA) genes were identified from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by PCR and RT-PCR. Considering both direction and sequence similarity with mammal's orthologs, they were named CcSAA3a, CcSAA3b and CcSAA1. CcSAA3b and CcSAA1 are adjacent on contig LHQP01017858, suggesting that the prototype of or the simplest SAA multigene family have occurred in common carp. A phylogenetic analysis of the SAAs indicated that the fish SAAs were closer to those of invertebrates and Ornithorhynchus anatinus, a primitive mammal, than to mammalian SAAs...
April 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441401/ancient-genes-establish-stress-induced-mutation-as-a-hallmark-of-cancer
#10
Luis Cisneros, Kimberly J Bussey, Adam J Orr, Milica Miočević, Charles H Lineweaver, Paul Davies
Cancer is sometimes depicted as a reversion to single cell behavior in cells adapted to live in a multicellular assembly. If this is the case, one would expect that mutation in cancer disrupts functional mechanisms that suppress cell-level traits detrimental to multicellularity. Such mechanisms should have evolved with or after the emergence of multicellularity. This leads to two related, but distinct hypotheses: 1) Somatic mutations in cancer will occur in genes that are younger than the emergence of multicellularity (1000 million years [MY]); and 2) genes that are frequently mutated in cancer and whose mutations are functionally important for the emergence of the cancer phenotype evolved within the past 1000 million years, and thus would exhibit an age distribution that is skewed to younger genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439280/insights-on-structure-and-function-of-a-late-embryogenesis-abundant-protein-from-amaranthus-cruentus-an-intrinsically-disordered-protein-involved-in-protection-against-desiccation-oxidant-conditions-and-osmotic-stress
#11
Alma L Saucedo, Eric E Hernández-Domínguez, Luis A de Luna-Valdez, Angel A Guevara-García, Abraham Escobedo-Moratilla, Esaú Bojorquéz-Velázquez, Federico Del Río-Portilla, Daniel A Fernández-Velasco, Ana P Barba de la Rosa
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are part of a large protein family that protect other proteins from aggregation due to desiccation or osmotic stresses. Recently, the Amaranthus cruentus seed proteome was characterized by 2D-PAGE and one highly accumulated protein spot was identified as a LEA protein and was named AcLEA. In this work, AcLEA cDNA was cloned into an expression vector and the recombinant protein was purified and characterized. AcLEA encodes a 172 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 18...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439089/transcriptome-analysis-on-the-exoskeleton-formation-in-early-developmetal-stages-and-reconstruction-scenario-in-growth-moulting-in-litopenaeus-vannamei
#12
Yi Gao, Jiankai Wei, Jianbo Yuan, Xiaojun Zhang, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
Exoskeleton construction is an important issue in shrimp. To better understand the molecular mechanism of exoskeleton formation, development and reconstruction, the transcriptome of the entire developmental process in Litopenaeus vannamei, including nine early developmental stages and eight adult-moulting stages, was sequenced and analysed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 117,539 unigenes were obtained, with 41.2% unigenes predicting the full-length coding sequence. Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and functional annotation of all unigenes gave a better understanding of the exoskeleton developmental process in L...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#13
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431118/combining-human-epigenetics-and-sleep-studies-in-c-elegans-a-cross-species-approach-for-finding-conserved-genes-regulating-sleep
#14
Huiyan Huang, Yong Zhu, Melissa N Eliot, Valerie S Knopik, John E McGeary, Mary A Carskadon, Anne C Hart
Study Objectives: We aimed to test a combined approach to identify conserved genes regulating sleep and to explore the association between DNA methylation and sleep length. Methods: We identified candidate genes associated with shorter versus longer sleep duration in college students based on DNA methylation using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. Orthologous genes in Caenorhabditiselegans were identified and we examined whether their loss of function affected C...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430864/the-gnih-lpxrfa-system-s-regulation-of-reproduction-in-the-brain-pituitary-axis-of-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#15
Olivia Smith Spicer, Nilli Zmora, Ten-Tsao Wong, Matan Golan, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Yoav Gothilf, Yonathan Zohar
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) was discovered in quail with the ability to reduce gonadotropin expression/secretion in the pituitary. There have been few studies on GNIH orthologs in teleosts (Lpxrfa peptides), which have provided inconsistent results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the roles and modes of action by which Lpxrfa exerts its functions in the brain-pituitary axis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We localized Lpxrfa soma to the ventral hypothalamus, with fibers extending throughout the brain and to the pituitary...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430818/comparative-genomics-of-burkholderia-multivorans-a-ubiquitous-pathogen-with-a-highly-conserved-genomic-structure
#16
Charlotte Peeters, Vaughn S Cooper, Philip J Hatcher, Bart Verheyde, Aurélien Carlier, Peter Vandamme
The natural environment serves as a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. A well-established method for studying the epidemiology of such opportunists is multilocus sequence typing, which in many cases has defined strains predisposed to causing infection. Burkholderia multivorans is an important pathogen in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and its epidemiology suggests that strains are acquired from non-human sources such as the natural environment. This raises the central question of whether the isolation source (CF or environment) or the multilocus sequence type (ST) of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430080/generation-and-characterization-of-inhibitory-antibodies-specific-to-guinea-pig-cxcr1-and-cxcr2
#17
Kento Tanaka, Chigusa Yoshimura, Tetsuo Shiina, Tomoko Terauchi, Tomomi Yoshitomi, Kazuki Hirahara
CXCR1 and CXCR2 are chemokine receptors that have different selectivity of chemokine ligands, but the distinct role of each receptor is not clearly understood. This is due to the absence of specific inhibitors in guinea pigs, which are the appropriate species for investigation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 because of their functional similarity to humans. In this study, we generated and evaluated monoclonal antibodies that specifically bound to guinea pig CXCR1 (gpCXCR1) and guinea pig CXCR2 (gpCXCR2) for acquisition of specific inhibitors...
April 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429829/molecular-adaptation-in-the-world-s-deepest-living-animal-insights-from-transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-hadal-amphipod-hirondellea-gigas
#18
Yi Lan, Jin Sun, Renmao Tian, Douglas H Bartlett, Runsheng Li, Yue Him Wong, Weipeng Zhang, Jian-Wen Qiu, Ting Xu, Li-Sheng He, Harry G Tabata, Pei-Yuan Qian
The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the oceans of our planet. Understanding how animals adapt to this harsh environment characterized by high hydrostatic pressure, food-limited, dark, and cold is of great scientific interest. Of the animals dwelling in the Challenger Deep, amphipods have been captured using baited traps. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of the amphipod Hirondellea gigas collected at a depth of 10,929 m from the East Pond of the Challenger Deep...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429799/expression-control-of-the-ampk-regulatory-subunit-and-its-functional-significance-in-yeast-er-stress-response
#19
Yuichi Kimura, Kenji Irie, Tomoaki Mizuno
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric kinase complex consisting of a catalytic subunit, α, and two regulatory subunits, β and γ. Previously, we demonstrated that Snf1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of AMPK, negatively regulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and the Hog1 MAP kinase pathway in ER stress response. However, it remains unclear how the alternate three β subunits, Sip1, Sip2, and Gal83, of the Snf1 complex participate in ER stress response...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428286/a-genetic-analysis-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-detoxification-response
#20
Tetsunari Fukushige, Harold E Smith, Johji Miwa, Michael W Krause, John A Hanover
Oxidative damage contributes to human diseases of aging including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. Reactive oxygen species resulting from xenobiotic and endogenous metabolites are sensed by a poorly understood process, triggering a cascade of regulatory factors and leading to the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 (SKN-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans). Nrf2/SKN-1 activation promotes the induction of the Phase II detoxification system that serves to limit oxidative stress. We have extended a previous C...
April 19, 2017: Genetics
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