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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238686/expression-and-evolutionary-analyses-of-three-acetylcholinesterase-genes-mi-ace-1-mi-ace-2-mi-ace-3-in-the-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita
#1
Ruqiang Cui, Lei Zhang, Yuyan Chen, Wenkun Huang, Chengming Fan, Qingsong Wu, Deliang Peng, Washington da Silva, Xiaotang Sun
The full cDNA of Mi-ace-3 encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in Meloidogyne incognita was cloned and characterized. Mi-ace-3 had an open reading frame of 1875 bp encoding 624 amino acid residues. Key residues essential to AChE structure and function were conserved. The deduced Mi-ACE-3 protein sequence had 72% amino acid similarity with that of Ditylenchus destructor Dd-AChE-3. Phylogenetic analyses using 41 AChEs from 24 species showed that Mi-ACE-3 formed a cluster with 4 other nematode AChEs. Our results revealed that the Mi-ace-3 cloned in this study, which is orthologous to Caenorhabditis elegans AChE, belongs to the nematode ACE-3/4 subgroup...
February 23, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238660/structure-function-studies-link-class-ii-viral-fusogens-with-the-ancestral-gamete-fusion-protein-hap2
#2
Jennifer Fricke Pinello, Alex L Lai, Jean K Millet, Donna Cassidy-Hanley, Jack H Freed, Theodore G Clark
The conserved transmembrane protein, HAP2/GCS1, has been linked to fertility in a wide range of taxa and is hypothesized to be an ancient gamete fusogen. Using template-based structural homology modeling, we now show that the ectodomain of HAP2 orthologs from Tetrahymena thermophila and other species adopt a protein fold remarkably similar to the dengue virus E glycoprotein and related class II viral fusogens. To test the functional significance of this predicted structure, we developed a flow-cytometry-based assay that measures cytosolic exchange across the conjugation junction to rapidly probe the effects of HAP2 mutations in the Tetrahymena system...
February 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237966/drosophila-model-of-myeloproliferative-neoplasm-reveals-a-feed-forward-loop-in-the-jak-pathway-mediated-by-p38-mapk-signalling
#3
Ana Terriente-Félix, Lidia Pérez, Sarah J Bray, Angel R Nebreda, Marco Milán
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) of the Philadelphia-negative class comprise polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). They are associated with aberrant amounts of myeloid lineage cells in the blood, and in the case of overt PMF, with the development of myelofibrosis in the bone marrow and the failure to produce normal blood cells. These diseases are usually caused by gain-of-function mutations in the kinase JAK2 Here we use Drosophila to investigate the consequences of activation of the JAK2 ortholog in hematopoiesis...
February 24, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235825/genome-wide-screen-reveals-sec21-mutants-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-are-methotrexate-resistant
#4
Lai H Wong, Stephane Flibotte, Sunita Sinha, Jennifer Chiang, Guri Giaever, Corey Nislow
Exposure of cells to small molecules and drug therapies imposes a strong selective pressure. As a result, cells rapidly acquire mutations in order to survive. These include resistant variants of the drug target as well as those that modulate drug transport and detoxification. To systematically explore how cells acquire drug resistance in an unbiased manner, rapid cost-effective approaches are required. Methotrexate, as one of the first rationally designed anticancer drug, has served as a prototypic example of such acquired resistance...
February 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228545/ablation-of-rnai-and-retrotransposons-accompany-acquisition-and-evolution-of-transposases-to-heterochromatin-protein-cenpb
#5
Udita Upadhyay, Suchita Srivastava, Indu Khatri, Jagpreet Singh Nanda, Srikrishna Subramanian, Amit Arora, Jagmohan Singh
Inactivation of retrotransposons is accompanied by the emergence of CENPB (centromere binding protein-B) in Schizosaccharomyces as well as in metazoans. The RNAi-induced Transcriptional Silencing (RITS) Complex, comprising Chp1 (chromodomain protein-1), Tas3 (protein with unknown function) and Ago1 (Argonaute), plays an important role in RNAi-mediated heterochromatinization. We find that while the Ago1 subunit of the RITS complex is highly conserved, Tas3 is lost and Chp1 is truncated in S. cryophilus and S...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226201/genomewide-association-study-of-alcohol-dependence-identifies-risk-loci-altering-ethanol-response-behaviors-in-model-organisms
#6
Amy E Adkins, Laura M Hack, Tim B Bigdeli, Vernell S Williamson, G Omari McMichael, Mohammed Mamdani, Alexis Edwards, Fazil Aliev, Robin F Chan, Poonam Bhandari, Richard C Raabe, Joseph T Alaimo, GinaMari G Blackwell, Arden A Moscati, Ryan S Poland, Benjamin Rood, Diana G Patterson, Dermot Walsh, John B Whitfield, Gu Zhu, Grant W Montgomery, Anjali K Henders, Nicholas G Martin, Andrew C Heath, Pamela A F Madden, Josef Frank, Monika Ridinger, Norbert Wodarz, Michael Soyka, Peter Zill, Marcus Ising, Markus M Nöthen, Falk Kiefer, Marcella Rietschel, Joel Gelernter, Richard Sherva, Ryan Koesterer, Laura Almasy, Hongyu Zhao, Henry R Kranzler, Lindsay A Farrer, Brion S Maher, Carol A Prescott, Danielle M Dick, Silviu A Bacanu, Laura D Mathies, Andrew G Davies, Vladimir I Vladimirov, Mike Grotewiel, M Scott Bowers, Jill C Bettinger, Bradley T Webb, Michael F Miles, Kenneth S Kendler, Brien P Riley
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Dependence (AD) shows evidence for genetic liability, but genes influencing risk remain largely unidentified. METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study in 706 related AD cases and 1748 unscreened population controls from Ireland. We sought replication in 15,496 samples of European descent. We used model organisms to assess the role of orthologous genes in ethanol response behaviors. We tested one primate-specific gene for expression differences in case/control post-mortem brain tissue...
February 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223504/transcriptome-wide-microrna-and-target-dynamics-in-the-fat-body-during-the-gonadotrophic-cycle-of-aedes-aegypti
#7
Xiufeng Zhang, Emre Aksoy, Thomas Girke, Alexander S Raikhel, Fedor V Karginov
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of numerous viral diseases, because it requires a blood meal to facilitate egg development. The fat body, a counterpart of mammalian liver and adipose tissues, is the metabolic center, playing a key role in reproduction. Therefore, understanding of regulatory networks controlling its functions is critical, and the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the process is largely unknown. We aimed to explore miRNA expression and potential targets in the female fat body of Ae. aegypti, as well as their changes postblood meal (PBM)...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223383/requirement-of-the-crors-two-component-system-for-resistance-to-cell-wall-targeting-antimicrobials-in-enterococcus-faecium
#8
Stephanie L Kellogg, Jaime L Little, Jessica S Hoff, Christopher J Kristich
Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell-wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell-wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell-wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell-wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222786/post-translational-modification-of-parkin
#9
REVIEW
Joy Chakraborty, Valentina Basso, Elena Ziviani
: Mutations in the gene encoding for the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin are associated to a rare form of familiar autosomal recessive Parkinsonism. Despite decades of research on the Parkin protein, whose structure has been recently solved, little is known about the specific signalling pathways that lead to Parkin activation. Parkin activity spans from mitochondria quality control to tumor suppression and stress protection; it is thus tempting to hypothesize that the broad impact of Parkin on cellular physiology might be the result of different post translational modifications that can be controlled by balanced opposing events...
February 21, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222695/evolution-and-expression-of-the-fructokinase-gene-family-in-saccharum
#10
Yihong Chen, Qing Zhang, Weichang Hu, Xingtan Zhang, Liming Wang, Xiuting Hua, Qingyi Yu, Ray Ming, Jisen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is an important sugar crop contributing up to about 80% of the world sugar production. Efforts to characterize the genes involved in sugar metabolism at the molecular level are growing since increasing sugar content is a major goal in the breeding of new sugarcane varieties. Fructokinases (FRK) are the main fructose phosphorylating enzymes with high substrate specificity and affinity. RESULTS: In this study, by combining comparative genomics approaches with BAC resources, seven fructokinase genes were identified in S...
February 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222538/vps35-the-retromer-complex-and-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Erin T Williams, Xi Chen, Darren J Moore
Mutations in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene encoding a core component of the retromer complex, have recently emerged as a new cause of late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD). A single missense mutation, AspD620Asn (D620N), has so far been unambiguously identified to cause PD in multiple individuals and families worldwide. The exact molecular mechanism(s) by which VPS35 mutations induce progressive neurodegeneration in PD are not yet known. Understanding these mechanisms, as well as the perturbed cellular pathways downstream of mutant VPS35, is important for the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222154/a-non-synonymous-snp-with-the-allele-frequency-correlated-with-the-altitude-may-contribute-to-the-hypoxia-adaptation-of-tibetan-chicken
#12
Sichen Li, Diyan Li, Xiaoling Zhao, Yan Wang, Huadong Yin, Lanyun Zhou, Chengling Zhong, Qing Zhu
The hypoxia adaptation to high altitudes is of considerable interest in the biological sciences. As a breed with adaptability to highland environments, the Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domestics), provides a biological model to search for genetic differences between high and lowland chickens. To address mechanisms of hypoxia adaptability at high altitudes for the Tibetan chicken, we focused on the Endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1), a key regulatory factor in hypoxia responses. Detected were polymorphisms of EPAS1 exons in 157 Tibetan chickens from 8 populations and 139 lowland chickens from 7 breeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216628/genome-wide-primary-transcriptome-analysis-of-h2-producing-archaeon-thermococcus-onnurineus-na1
#13
Suhyung Cho, Min-Sik Kim, Yujin Jeong, Bo-Rahm Lee, Jung-Hyun Lee, Sung Gyun Kang, Byung-Kwan Cho
In spite of their pivotal roles in transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes, the regulatory elements of archaeal genomes are not yet fully understood. Here, we determine the primary transcriptome of the H2-producing archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1. We identified 1,082 purine-rich transcription initiation sites along with well-conserved TATA box, A-rich B recognition element (BRE), and promoter proximal element (PPE) motif in promoter regions, a high pyrimidine nucleotide content (T/C) at the -1 position, and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) motifs (GGDGRD) in 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs)...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213271/woodchuck-sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-supports-low-level-hepatitis-b-and-d-virus-entry
#14
Liran Fu, Hongjie Hu, Yang Liu, Zhiyi Jing, Wenhui Li
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is the functional receptor for human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV). Species barriers to HBV/HDV infection are mainly determined at entry level by variations in the sequences of particular NTCP orthologs. In this study, we sought to determine whether the NTCP ortholog in woodchuck (Marmota monax), woodchuck NTCP (wNTCP) supports viral infection. We found that wNTCP is capable of supporting HBV/HDV infection in HepG2 cells, but to much lower extent than human NTCP (hNTCP), which is about 90% reduction of hNTCP...
February 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212935/dissecting-biochemical-peculiarities-of-the-atpase-activity-of-tcsub2-a-component-of-the-mrna-export-pathway-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#15
Ize de Aguiar Bittencourt, Mariana Serpeloni, Priscila Mazzochi Hiraiwa, Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil de Souza, Andréa Rodrigues Ávila
The RNA helicase DEAD-box protein Sub2 (yeast)/UAP56 (mammals) is conserved across eukaryotes and is essential for mRNA export in trypanosomes. Despite the high conservation of Sub2 in lower eukaryotes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, the low conservation of other mRNA export factors raises questions regarding whether the mode of action of TcSub2 is similar to that of orthologs from other eukaryotes. Mutation of the conserved K87 residue of TcSub2 abolishes ATPase activity, showing that its ATPase domain is functional...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212382/de-novo-assembly-of-the-sea-trout-salmo-trutta-m-trutta-skin-transcriptome-to-identify-putative-genes-involved-in-the-immune-response-and-epidermal-mucus-secretion
#16
Magdalena Malachowicz, Roman Wenne, Artur Burzynski
In fish, the skin is a multifunctional organ and the first barrier against pathogens. Salmonids differ in their susceptibility to microorganisms due to varied skin morphology and gene expression patterns. The brown trout is a salmonid species with important commercial and ecological value in Europe. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the genes involved in the immune response and mucus secretion in the skin of this fish. Thus, we characterized the skin transcriptome of anadromous brown trout using next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210240/distinctive-nuclear-localization-signals-in-the-oomycete-phytophthora-sojae
#17
Yufeng Fang, Hyo Sang Jang, Gregory W Watson, Dulani P Wellappili, Brett M Tyler
To date, nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that target proteins to nuclei in oomycetes have not been defined, but have been assumed to be the same as in higher eukaryotes. Here, we use the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae as a model to investigate these sequences in oomycetes. By establishing a reliable in vivo NLS assay based on confocal microscopy, we found that many canonical monopartite and bipartite classical NLSs (cNLSs) mediated nuclear import poorly in P. sojae. We found that efficient localization of P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207763/an-inhibitory-mono-ubiquitylation-of-the-drosophila-initiator-caspase-dronc-functions-in-both-apoptotic-and-non-apoptotic-pathways
#18
Hatem Elif Kamber Kaya, Mark Ditzel, Pascal Meier, Andreas Bergmann
Apoptosis is an evolutionary conserved cell death mechanism, which requires activation of initiator and effector caspases. The Drosophila initiator caspase Dronc, the ortholog of mammalian Caspase-2 and Caspase-9, has an N-terminal CARD domain that recruits Dronc into the apoptosome for activation. In addition to its role in apoptosis, Dronc also has non-apoptotic functions such as compensatory proliferation. One mechanism to control the activation of Dronc is ubiquitylation. However, the mechanistic details of ubiquitylation of Dronc are less clear...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202598/early-flowering-3-redundancy-fine-tunes-photoperiod-sensitivity
#19
Andrew J S Rubenach, Valerie Fg Hecht, Jacqueline K Vander Schoor, Lim Chee Liew, Gregoire Aubert, Judith Burstin, James L Weller
Three pea loci controlling photoperiod sensitivity, HIGH RESPONSE (HR), DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE) and STERILE NODES (SN) have recently been shown to correspond to orthologs of Arabidopsis circadian clock genes EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), ELF4, and LUX ARRHYTHMO, respectively. A fourth pea locus, PHOTOPERIOD (PPD), also contributes to the photoperiod response in a similar manner to SN and DNE, and recessive ppd mutants on a spring-flowering hr mutant background show early, photoperiod-insensitive flowering. However, the molecular identity of PPD has so far remained elusive...
February 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199320/the-use-of-urinary-proteomics-in-the-assessment-of-suitability-of-mouse-models-for-ageing
#20
Esther Nkuipou-Kenfack, Joost P Schanstra, Seerat Bajwa, Martin Pejchinovski, Claire Vinel, Cédric Dray, Philippe Valet, Jean-Loup Bascands, Antonia Vlahou, Thomas Koeck, Melanie Borries, Hauke Busch, Wibke Bechtel-Walz, Tobias B Huber, Karl L Rudolph, Andreas Pich, Harald Mischak, Petra Zürbig
Ageing is a complex process characterised by a systemic and progressive deterioration of biological functions. As ageing is associated with an increased prevalence of age-related chronic disorders, understanding its underlying molecular mechanisms can pave the way for therapeutic interventions and managing complications. Animal models such as mice are commonly used in ageing research as they have a shorter lifespan in comparison to humans and are also genetically close to humans. To assess the translatability of mouse ageing to human ageing, the urinary proteome in 89 wild-type (C57BL/6) mice aged between 8-96 weeks was investigated using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS)...
2017: PloS One
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