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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816598/short-versus-long-double-stranded-rna-activation-of-a-post-transcriptional-gene-knockdown-pathway
#1
Nir Shpak, Rivka Manor, Lihie Katzir Abilevich, Ortal Mantal, Keshet Shavit, Eliahu D Aflalo, Debra Toiber, Amir Sagi
RNA interference (RNAi) utilizes a conserved cellular autoimmune defense mechanism involving the internalization of dsRNA into cells and the activation of a set of RNAi related genes. Using RNAi, complete sex reversal is achievable in males of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by knocking down the transcript level of an insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (Mr-IAG) through injections of dsRNA of the entire Mr-IAG ORF sequence (dsMr-IAG - 518 bp). Interestingly, in-vivo knockdown success and dsMr-IAG lengths seemed to correlate, with long dsRNA being the most effective and short dsRNA fragments showing no effect...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816596/expression-profiling-of-development-related-genes-in-rice-plants-ectopically-expressing-attor
#2
Achala Bakshi, Mazahar Moin, Raju Datla, P B Kirti
Expression analysis of genes associated with development at different growth stages such as shoot apical meristem (SAM), root apical meristem (RAM), shoot and root tissues 10 DAG, flowers and grains of two high expression transgenic lines of rice ectopically expressing AtTOR revealed the involvement of AtTOR in transcriptional regulation of these genes. We have observed that in the SAM of these two selected lines, TR-2.24 and TR-15.1, OsFON1 and OsFON4 (orthologs of AtCLV1 and AtCLV3, respectively), OsKNOX2, OsKNOX3 and OsWOX3 became up-regulated...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815858/loss-of-chloroplast-localized-protein-phosphatase-2cs-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-leads-to-enhancement-of-the-plant-immunity-and-resistance-to-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris-infection
#3
Chiharu Akimoto-Tomiyama, Shigeru Tanabe, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Eiichi Minami, Hirokazu Ochiai
Protein phosphatases (PPs) counteract kinases in reversible phosphorylation events during numerous signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. PP2Cs, one of the four major classes of serine/threonine specific PPs family is greatly expanded in plants. Thus PP2C is thought to have a specific role in a signal transduction pathway. Some rice PP2Cs classified to subgroup K were responsive to the infection by the compatible Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight. In A. thaliana, orthologous PP2C genes (AtPP2C62 and AtPP2C26) classified to subgroup K were also responsive to Xanthomonas campestris pv...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814510/a-heterologous-model-of-thrombospondin-type-1-domain-containing-7a-associated-membranous-nephropathy
#4
Nicola M Tomas, Catherine Meyer-Schwesinger, Hanning von Spiegel, Ahmed M Kotb, Gunther Zahner, Elion Hoxha, Udo Helmchen, Nicole Endlich, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Rolf A K Stahl
Thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) is a target for autoimmunity in patients with membranous nephropathy (MN). Circulating autoantibodies from patients with THSD7A-associated MN have been demonstrated to cause MN in mice. However, THSD7A-associated MN is a rare disease, preventing the use of patient antibodies for larger experimental procedures. Therefore, we generated antibodies against the human and mouse orthologs of THSD7A in rabbits by coimmunization with the respective cDNAs. Injection of these anti-THSD7A antibodies into mice induced a severe nephrotic syndrome with proteinuria, weight gain, and hyperlipidemia...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812259/evolutionary-dynamics-in-the-fungal-polarization-network-a-mechanistic-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Eveline T Diepeveen, Leila Iñigo de la Cruz, Liedewij Laan
Polarity establishment underlies proper cell cycle completion across virtually all organisms. Much progress has been made in generating an understanding of the structural and functional components of this process, especially in model species. Here we focus on the evolutionary dynamics of the fungal polarization protein network in order to determine general components and mechanistic principles, species- or lineage-specific adaptations and the evolvability of the network. The currently available genomic and proteomic screens in a variety of fungal species have shown three main characteristics: (1) certain proteins, processes and functions are conserved throughout the fungal clade; (2) orthologous functions can never be assumed, as various cases have been observed of homologous loci with dissimilar functions; (3) species have, typically, various species- or lineage-specific proteins incorporated in their polarization network...
August 15, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811335/the-conserved-and-unique-genetic-architecture-of-kernel-size-and-weight-in-maize-and-rice
#6
Jie Liu, Juan Huang, Huan Guo, Liu Lan, Hongze Wang, Yuancheng Xu, Xiaohong Yang, Wenqiang Li, Hao Tong, Yingjie Xiao, Qingchun Pan, Feng Qiao, Mohammad Sharif Raihan, Haijun Liu, Xuehai Zhang, Ning Yang, Xiaqing Wang, Min Deng, Minliang Jin, Lijun Zhao, Xin Luo, Yang Zhou, Xiang Li, Wei Zhan, Nannan Liu, Hong Wang, Gengshen Chen, Qing Li, Jianbing Yan
Maize is a major staple crop. Maize kernel size and weight are important contributors to its yield. Here, we measured kernel length, kernel width, kernel thickness, hundred kernel weight and kernel test weight in 10 recombinant inbred line populations and dissected their genetic architecture using three statistical models. In total, 729 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified, many of which were identified in all three models, including 22 major QTLs that each can explain more than 10% of phenotypic variation...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811313/a-key-role-for-foxq2-in-anterior-head-and-central-brain-patterning-in-insects
#7
Peter Kitzmann, Matthias Weißkopf, Magdalena Ines Schacht, Gregor Bucher
Anterior patterning of animals is based on a set of highly conserved transcription factors but the interactions within the protostome anterior gene regulatory network (aGRN) remain enigmatic. Here, we identify the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum ortholog of foxQ2 (Tc-foxQ2) as a novel upstream component of the aGRN. It is required for the development of the labrum and higher order brain structures, namely the central complex and the mushroom bodies. We reveal Tc-foxQ2 interactions by RNAi and heat shock-mediated misexpression...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809437/the-conditional-stimulation-of-rat-organic-cation-transporter-2-but-not-its-human-ortholog-by-mesoridazine-the-possibility-of-the-involvement-of-the-high-affinity-binding-site-of-the-transporter-in-the-stimulation
#8
Sungwoo Hyung, Wonji Pyeon, Ji Eun Park, Yoo-Kyung Song, Suk-Jae Chung
OBJECTIVES: To study the functional consequences of the human and rat forms of OCT2 in the presence of phenothiazines. METHODS: MDCK cells expressing human or rat OCT2 were established, and MPP+ transport was determined by uptake assays. Concentration dependency was studied for the stimulatory/inhibitory effects of phenothiazines on MPP+ transport. KEY FINDINGS: Among the 11 phenothiazines examined, the majority were found to have comparable effects on transporter function between the orthologous forms, while three phenothiazines, particularly mesoridazine, had complex impacts on transporter function...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808060/the-human-rna-binding-protein-and-e3-ligase-mex-3c-binds-the-mex-3-recognition-element-mre-motif-with-high-affinity
#9
Lingna Yang, Chongyuan Wang, Fudong Li, Jiahai Zhang, Anam Nayab, Jihui Wu, Yunyu Shi, Qingguo Gong
MEX-3 is a KH domain-containing RNA-binding protein, first identified as a translational repressor in Caenorhabditis elegans, while its four orthologs (MEX-3A-D) in human and mouse were subsequently found to have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity mediated by a RING domain and critical for RNA degradation. Current evidence implicates human MEX-3C in many essential biological processes and suggests a strong connection with immune diseases and carcinogenesis. The highly conserved dual KH domains in MEX-3 proteins enable RNA binding and are essential for the recognition of the 3' UTR and posttranscriptional regulation of MEX-3 target transcripts...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806103/hsp83-loss-suppresses-proteasomal-activity-resulting-in-an-upregulation-of-caspase-dependent-compensatory-autophagy
#10
Courtney Choutka, Lindsay DeVorkin, Nancy Erro Go, Ying-Chen Claire Hou, Annie Moradian, Gregg B Morin, Sharon M Gorski
The 2 main degradative pathways that contribute to proteostasis are the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy but how they are molecularly coordinated is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for an effector caspase in the activation of compensatory autophagy when proteasomal activity is compromised. Functional loss of Hsp83, the Drosophila ortholog of human HSP90 (heat shock protein 90), resulted in reduced proteasomal activity and elevated levels of the effector caspase Dcp-1. Surprisingly, genetic analyses showed that the caspase was not required for cell death in this context, but instead was essential for the ensuing compensatory autophagy, female fertility, and organism viability...
August 14, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801650/regulation-of-the-human-phosphatase-ptpn4-by-the-inter-domain-linker-connecting-the-pdz-and-the-phosphatase-domains
#11
Célia Caillet-Saguy, Angelo Toto, Raphael Guerois, Pierre Maisonneuve, Eva di Silvio, Kristi Sawyer, Stefano Gianni, Nicolas Wolff
Human protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) has been shown to prevent cell death. The active form of human PTPN4 consists of two globular domains, a PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain and a phosphatase domain, tethered by a flexible linker. Targeting its PDZ domain abrogates this protection and triggers apoptosis. We previously demonstrated that the PDZ domain inhibits the phosphatase activity of PTPN4 and that the mere binding of a PDZ ligand is sufficient to release the catalytic inhibition. We demonstrate here that the linker connecting the PDZ domain and the phosphatase domain is involved in the regulation of the phosphatase activity in both PDZ-related inhibition and PDZ ligand-related activation events...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801228/identification-of-the-first-cathelicidin-gene-from-skin-of-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus-with-its-potent-antimicrobial-activity
#12
Hui Yang, Baoyue Lu, Dandan Zhou, Lin Zhao, Weijia Song, Lixin Wang
Cathelicidins, as effector molecules, play important roles against infections and represent a crucial component of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They are widely studied in mammals, but little is known in amphibians. In the present study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel cathelicidin from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, which is the first study in Caudata amphibian. The cDNA sequence encodes a predicted 148-amino-acid polypeptide, which composed of a 20-residue signal peptide, a 94-residue conserved cathelin domain and a 34-residue mature peptide...
August 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799700/expression-of-hopai-interferes-with-map-kinase-signaling-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#13
Xue Zhang, Wende Liu, Yang Li, Guotian Li, Xu Jin-Rong
The Pmk1 and Mps1 MAP kinases are essential for appressorium formation and plant infection in Magnaporthe oryzae. However, their exact roles during invasive growth are not clear because pmk1 and mps1 mutants are defective in penetration. To further characterize their functions after penetration, in this study we expressed the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopAI known to inactivate plant MAP kinases in M. oryzae. Constitutive expression of HopAI with the RP27 or TrpC promoter resulted in defects in hyphal growth, conidiation, appressorium penetration, and pathogenicity, which is similar to the phenotype of the mps1 mutant...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798739/comprehensive-analysis-of-codon-usage-bias-in-seven-epichlo%C3%A3-species-and-their-peramine-coding-genes
#14
Hui Song, Jing Liu, Qiuyan Song, Qingping Zhang, Pei Tian, Zhibiao Nan
Codon usage bias plays an important role in shaping genomes and genes in unicellular species and multicellular species. Here, we first analyzed codon usage bias in seven Epichloë species and their peramine-coding genes. Our results showed that both natural selection and mutation pressure played a role in forming codon usage bias in seven Epichloë species. All seven Epichloë species contained a peramine-coding gene cluster. Interestingly, codon usage bias of peramine-coding genes were not affected by natural selection or mutation pressure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798494/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-the-sex-determining-gene-doublesex-in-the-sawfly-athalia-rosae%C3%A2-hymenoptera-tenthredinidae
#15
Shotaro Mine, Megumi Sumitani, Fugaku Aoki, Masatsugu Hatakeyama, Masataka G Suzuki
Sexual fate of the sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) is determined by the complementary sex determination (CSD) mechanism as is the case in honeybees. However, to date, genes involved in sex determination have not been identified in this species. In this study, we attempted to identify orthologs of complementary sex-determiner (csd), feminizer (fem), and doublesex (dsx) from the A. rosae genome, all of which are crucial components of the sex determination cascade in the honeybee. As a result, we identified a sawfly ortholog of dsx (designated as Ardsx)...
2017: Applied Entomology and Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795449/zebrafish-models-of-orofacial-clefts
#16
REVIEW
Kaylia Duncan, Kusumika Mukherjee, Robert A Cornell, Eric C Liao
Zebrafish is a model organism that affords experimental advantages toward investigating the normal function of genes associated with congenital birth defects. Here we summarize zebrafish studies of genes implicated in orofacial cleft (OFC). The most common use of zebrafish in this context has been to explore the normal function an OFC-associated gene product in craniofacial morphogenesis by inhibiting expression of its zebrafish ortholog. The most frequently deployed method has been to inject embryos with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeting the desired transcript...
August 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793345/cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-bmyki-gene-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#17
Wenhui Zeng, Riyuan Wang, Tianyang Zhang, Chunying Gong, Weidong Zuo, Rongpeng Liu, Yao Ou, Hanfu Xu
The transcriptional coactivator Yorkie(Yki), is a critical downstream effector of the Hippo(Hpo) signaling pathway that controls organ size through the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. During the past ten years the biological function of Yki has been studied extensively in Drosophila and a few other insects, however, little is known about it in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a major research model of lepidopteran insect. Here, we describe the isolation, characterization and expression of the B. mori Yki ortholog, BmYki...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793261/the-conserved-disease-associated-rna-binding-protein-dnab2-interacts-with-the-fragile-x-protein-ortholog-in-drosophila-neurons
#18
Rick S Bienkowski, Ayan Banerjee, J Christopher Rounds, Jennifer Rha, Omotola F Omotade, Christina Gross, Kevin J Morris, Sara W Leung, ChangHui Pak, Stephanie K Jones, Michael R Santoro, Stephen T Warren, James Q Zheng, Gary J Bassell, Anita H Corbett, Kenneth H Moberg
The Drosophila dNab2 protein is an ortholog of human ZC3H14, a poly(A) RNA binding protein required for intellectual function. dNab2 supports memory and axon projection, but its molecular role in neurons is undefined. Here, we present a network of interactions that links dNab2 to cytoplasmic control of neuronal mRNAs in conjunction with the fragile X protein ortholog dFMRP. dNab2 and dfmr1 interact genetically in control of neurodevelopment and olfactory memory, and their encoded proteins co-localize in puncta within neuronal processes...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792889/uncoupling-evolutionary-changes-in-dna-sequence-transcription-factor-occupancy-and-enhancer-activity
#19
Pierre Khoueiry, Charles Girardot, Lucia Ciglar, Pei-Chen Peng, E Hilary Gustafson, Saurabh Sinha, Eileen Em Furlong
Sequence variation within enhancers plays a major role in both evolution and disease, yet its functional impact on transcription factor (TF) occupancy and enhancer activity remains poorly understood. Here, we assayed the binding of five essential TFs over multiple stages of embryogenesis in two distant Drosophila species (with 1.4 substitutions per neutral site), identifying thousands of orthologous enhancers with conserved or diverged combinatorial occupancy. We used these binding signatures to dissect two properties of developmental enhancers: (1) potential TF cooperativity, using signatures of co-associations and co-divergence in TF occupancy...
August 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792069/bloom-syndrome-helicase-in-meiosis-pro-crossover-functions-of-an-anti-crossover-protein
#20
REVIEW
Talia Hatkevich, Jeff Sekelsky
The functions of the Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) and its orthologs are well characterized in mitotic DNA damage repair, but their roles within the context of meiotic recombination are less clear. In meiotic recombination, multiple repair pathways are used to repair meiotic DSBs, and current studies suggest that BLM may regulate the use of these pathways. Based on literature from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans, we present a unified model for a critical meiotic role of BLM and its orthologs...
August 9, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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