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Stefanie Franke, Christine Kalweit, Annelene Frey, Hanna Heddergott, Astrid-Christine Mitschke, Matthias Wehrmeyer, Nina Heinrichs, Christoph Kröger
AIM OF THE STUDY: Coping with psychological trauma plays a central role in victims of acts of violence. The Victim Reparation Law (in German: Opferentschädigungsgesetz, OEG) provides services for the reparation of participation. To further improve the care of the affected persons, the characteristics of the victims were determined in relation to the acts and the perpetrators. METHOD: 312 OEG-files of adult victims were sighted. On the basis of a system of categories, demographic data, trauma specific and health-related characteristics of the victims, relevant characteristics of the perpetrators and the violence, as well as predictors for the time difference between the violent act and the application were determined...
June 22, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Elis Martins Ulbrich, Maria de Fátima Mantovani, Ângela Taís Mattei, Felismina Rosa Parreira Mendes
OBJECTIVE: To develop a predictive scale for determining complications in adults with hypertension and actions for care supported in primary care. METHOD: Methodological research developed in the municipality of Curitiba-PR in 2013 and 2014, carried out in two stages, the first through the collection of data from 387 adults with hypertension through a structured interview and anxiety scales, depression, quality of life, medication adherence and social support. The second step was the construction of the scale from the statistically significant variables in the multivariate analysis...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Bruce Barrett, Mary S Hayney, Daniel Muller, David Rakel, Roger Brown, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Shari Barlow, Supriya Hayer, Jodi H Barnet, Elisa R Torres, Christopher L Coe
BACKGROUND: Practice of meditation or exercise may enhance health to protect against acute infectious illness. OBJECTIVE: To assess preventive effects of meditation and exercise on acute respiratory infection (ARI) illness. DESIGN: Randomized controlled prevention trial with three parallel groups. SETTING: Madison, Wisconsin, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Community-recruited adults who did not regularly exercise or meditate...
2018: PloS One
Kathrin Heinitz, Timo Lorenz, Daniel Schulze, Julia Schorlemmer
Increasing individual subjective well-being has various positive outcomes, knowledge about its antecedents and the mediators of this relationship can therefore help to increase subjective well-being and the accompanying positive effects. The more future oriented facets of psychological capital, i.e. optimism, hope and self-efficacy have been shown in several studies to be positively related to subjective well-being and negatively to ill-being. Furthermore, recent studies suggest coping strategies as mediators for these relationships...
2018: PloS One
Alex D Bird, Magnus J E Richardson
Short-term synaptic depression, caused by depletion of releasable neurotransmitter, modulates the strength of neuronal connections in a history-dependent manner. Quantifying the statistics of synaptic transmission requires stochastic models that link probabilistic neurotransmitter release with presynaptic spike-train statistics. Common approaches are to model the presynaptic spike train as either regular or a memory-less Poisson process: few analytical results are available that describe depressing synapses when the afferent spike train has more complex, temporally correlated statistics such as bursts...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Hiroki Kano, Yohei Matsuo, Noriaki Kubo, Satoshi Fujimi, Takashi Nishiii
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective case series at a single institution. OBJECTIVE: The study was performed to investigate the characteristics of spinal injuries in survivors of suicidal jumping. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal fracture/dislocation is associated with high-energy trauma such as that induced by motor vehicle accidents. Survivors of suicidal jumping sometimes sustain spinal injuries. However, the characteristics of such spinal injuries are unclear...
June 21, 2018: Spine
Jinhong Guo, Jingzhen Yang, Honggang Yi, Bhavna Singichetti, Despina Stavrinos, Corinne Peek-Asa
OBJECTIVE: To describe the differences in postinjury psychological symptoms among Division I collegiate student athletes who sustained concussions versus orthopedic injures and to examine the effects of injury type on postinjury psychological symptoms during the course of recovery. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study with repeated measures. SETTING: Two Big 10 Conference universities. PARTICIPANTS: Student athletes who were at least 18 years old and participated in one of 9 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-sponsored sports during the 2007 to 2011 seasons...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Masahiro Suzuki, Ryuji Furihata, Chisato Konno, Yoshitaka Kaneita, Takashi Ohida, Makoto Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: The following question remains open: what has the strongest impact on symptoms of depression, experiencing multiple stressful events, being exposed to a specific stressful event, or having a maladaptive coping style? METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with face-to-face interviews. Data from 2559 randomly-sampled adults living in Japan were analyzed. The participants were asked about stressful events (12 items) experienced in the previous month and their stress-coping strategies (16 items)...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Shenshen Li, James A Blumenthal, Chuan Shi, Danielle Millican, Xian Li, Xin Du, Anushka Patel, Pei Gao, Elizabeth Delong, Pallab K Maulik, Runlin Gao, Xin Yu, Yangfeng Wu
Depression and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are both common public health challenges. Patients with ACS often develop depression, which in turn adversely affects prognosis. Low-cost, sustainable, and effective service models that integrate depression care into the management of ACS patients to reduce depression and improve ACS outcomes are critically needed. Integrating Depression Care in ACS patients in Low Resource Hospitals in China (I-CARE) is a multicenter, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of an 11-month integrated care (IC) intervention compared to usual care (UC) in management of ACS patients...
May 21, 2018: American Heart Journal
L R Tavares, M R Barbosa
BACKGROUND: Geriatric depression is a common and debilitating psychopathology, but evidence supports the efficacy of psychotherapy in its treatment. Group therapy provides advantages over individual interventions. However, only three systematic reviews have focused specifically on the efficacy of group therapy for geriatric depression. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the effects of group psychotherapy on geriatric depression in people aged 60 years and older, compared with alternative treatments or no treatment...
June 18, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Masamichi Sato, Akira Horiuchi, Michio Tamaki, Yasuyuki Ichise, Masashi Kajiyama, Yuta Yamamoto, Naoki Tanaka
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy are common outpatient gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures that frequently use sedation. We aimed to identify a protocol that combines safety with cost effectiveness. METHODS: We collected data from consecutive outpatients (20-98 years old) who underwent diagnostic EGD (n=117,661) or colonoscopy (n=32,550) with propofol sedation from January 2006 through December 2016. Propofol was administered by a nurse via bolus injection using an age-adjusted standard protocol, up to a total of 200 mg...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Haijiao Wang, Wenqian Liu, Feng Shi, Lei Huang, Jiazhang Lian, Liang Qu, Jin Cai, Zhinan Xu
Cellular metabolic networks should be carefully balanced using metabolic engineering to produce the desired products at the industrial scale. As the precursor for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is effective in treating a variety of diseases, such as depression, fibromyalgia, obesity, and cerebellar ataxia. Due to the lack of an efficient synthetic method, commercial production of 5-HTP is only achieved by extracting from the seeds of Griffonia Smplicifolia. This study reports efficient microbial production of 5-HTP via metabolically engineered Escherichia coli...
June 19, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Yanxia Lu, Cyrus S Ho, Roger S McIntyre, Wei Wang, Roger C Ho
Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant capable of improving depressive and cognitive symptoms associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study established whether treatment with vortioxetine, fluoxetine or vehicle alters the modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under the 21-day chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) condition in 54 Sprague-Dawley rats. Vortioxetine mitigated the reduction in rearing behavior by CUMS in the OFT on day 7 and 21, as well as sucrose preference on day 21...
June 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Igor Akushevich, Julia Kravchenko, Arseniy P Yashkin, Anatoliy I Yashin
Longer lifespan is accompanied by a larger number of chronic diseases among older adults. Because of a growing proportion of older adults in the U.S., this brings the problem of age-related morbidity to the forefront as a major contributor to rising medical expenditures. We evaluated 15-year time trends (from 1998 to 2013) in the prevalence of 48 acute and chronic non-cancer diseases and cancers in older U.S. adults aged 65+ and estimated the annual percentage changes of these prevalence trends using SEER-Medicare and HRS-Medicare data...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Laura A Grafe, Seema Bhatnagar
The neuropeptides orexins are important in regulating the neurobiological systems that respond to stressful stimuli. Furthermore, orexins are known to play a role many of the phenotypes associated with stress-related mental illness such as changes in cognition, sleep-wake states, and appetite. Interestingly, orexins are altered in stress-related psychiatric disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders. Thus, orexins may be a potential target for treatment of these disorders. In this review, we will focus on what is known about the role of orexins in acute and repeated stress, in stress-induced phenotypes relevant to psychiatric illness in preclinical models, and in stress-related psychiatric illness in humans...
June 19, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
G I Elmer, H Palacorolla, C L Mayo, P L Brown, T C Jhou, D Brady, P D Shepard
A growing body of clinical and preclinical research suggests that structural and functional changes in the habenula, a component of the epithalamus, are associated with major depressive disorder. A major excitatory, efferent projection from the habenula targets the rostromedial tegmentum (RMTg), a mesopontine region that provides significant input to the ventral tegmentum and raphe nuclei. While the RMTg contributes to monoaminergic response to aversive events, its role in stress-based animal models of depression has yet to be determined...
June 19, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Noelle E Carlozzi, Robin Hanks, Rael T Lange, Tracey A Brickell D Psych, Phillip A Ianni, Jennifer A Miner, Louis M French Psy D, Michael A Kallen, Angelle M Sander
OBJECTIVE: To provide important reliability and validity data to support the use of the PROMIS Mental Health measures in caregivers of civilians or service members/veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Patient-reported outcomes surveys administered through an electronic data collection platform. SETTING: Three TBI Model Systems rehabilitation hospitals, an academic medical center, and a military medical treatment facility. PARTICIPANTS: 560 caregivers of individuals with a documented TBI (344 civilians and 216 military) INTERVENTION: Not Applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PROMIS Anxiety, Depression, and Anger Item Banks RESULTS: Internal consistency for all of the PROMIS Mental Health item banks was very good (all α > ...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
S Raeder, D Ackermann, H Backe, R Beerwerth, J C Berengut, M Block, A Borschevsky, B Cheal, P Chhetri, Ch E Düllmann, V A Dzuba, E Eliav, J Even, R Ferrer, V V Flambaum, S Fritzsche, F Giacoppo, S Götz, F P Heßberger, M Huyse, U Kaldor, O Kaleja, J Khuyagbaatar, P Kunz, M Laatiaoui, F Lautenschläger, W Lauth, A K Mistry, E Minaya Ramirez, W Nazarewicz, S G Porsev, M S Safronova, U I Safronova, B Schuetrumpf, P Van Duppen, T Walther, C Wraith, A Yakushev
Until recently, ground-state nuclear moments of the heaviest nuclei could only be inferred from nuclear spectroscopy, where model assumptions are required. Laser spectroscopy in combination with modern atomic structure calculations is now able to probe these moments directly, in a comprehensive and nuclear-model-independent way. Here we report on unique access to the differential mean-square charge radii of ^{252,253,254}No, and therefore to changes in nuclear size and shape. State-of-the-art nuclear density functional calculations describe well the changes in nuclear charge radii in the region of the heavy actinides, indicating an appreciable central depression in the deformed proton density distribution in ^{252,254}No isotopes...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Wen-Ning Zhao, Balaram Ghosh, Marshall Tyler, Jasmin Lalonde, Nadine F Joseph, Nina Kosaric, Daniel M Fass, Li-Huei Tsai, Ralph Mazitschek, Stephen J Haggarty
Through epigenetic and other regulatory functions, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of enzymes has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for central nervous system and other disorders. Here we report on the synthesis and functional characterization of new HDAC inhibitors based structurally on tianeptine, a drug used primarily to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) that has a poorly understood mechanism of action. Since the chemical structure of tianeptine resembles certain HDAC inhibitors, we profiled the in vitro HDAC inhibitory activity of tianeptine and demonstrated its ability to inhibit the lysine deacetylase activity of a subset of class I HDACs...
June 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Barbara A Fowler, Joyce Newman Giger
Numerous researchers have examined the serious consequences of food insecurity and food deserts affecting the nutritional health of poor or low-income African-American women and their families. Food insecurity is defined as having limited or uncertain capacityfor acquiring sufficient, safe, and nutritious food at all times to meet one's dietary needs, while food deserts refer to economically and socially-deprived inner city areas with inadequate food supply that are often inhabited by low-income groups. Researchers have found that despite the capacity of community-level resources such as SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) and WIC (Women, Infants, and Children) supporting healthy nutrition, food insecurity persists among some recipients of both nutritional resources...
July 2017: Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA
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