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circular economy

Alessandra Procentese, Francesca Raganati, Giuseppe Olivieri, Maria Elena Russo, Lars Rehmann, Antonio Marzocchella
Background: Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. Results: The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
John N Hahladakis, Phil Purnell, Eleni Iacovidou, Costas A Velis, Maryann Atseyinku
The European Commission (EC) recently introduced a 'Circular Economy Package', setting ambitious recycling targets and identifying waste plastics as a priority sector where major improvements are necessary. Here, the authors explain how different collection modalities affect the quantity and quality of recycling, using recent empirical data on household (HH) post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PCPP) collected for recycling in the devolved administration of England over the quarterly period July-September 2014...
February 10, 2018: Waste Management
Charles Bodar, Job Spijker, Johannes Lijzen, Susanne Waaijers-van der Loop, Richard Luit, Evelyn Heugens, Martien Janssen, Pim Wassenaar, Theo Traas
The ambitions for a circular economy are high and unambiguous, but day-to-day experience shows that the transition still has many difficulties to overcome. One of the current hurdles is the presence of hazardous substances in waste streams that enter or re-enter into the environment or the technosphere. The key question is: do we have the appropriate risk management tools to control any risks that might arise from the re-using and recycling of materials? We present some recent cases that illustrate current practice and complexity in the risk management of newly-formed circular economy chains...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Tsz Him Kwan, Khai Lun Ong, Md Ariful Haque, Wing Hei Kwan, Sandeep Kulkarni, Carol Sze Ki Lin
Valorisation of mixed food and beverage (F&B) waste was studied for the recovery of sugars via saccharification. Glucoamylase and sucrase were employed to hydrolyse the starch and sucrose present in the mixed F&B waste because of the high cost-effectiveness for such recovery. The Michaelis-Menten kinetics model suggests that preservatives and additives in beverages did not inhibit glucoamylase and sucrase during saccharification. High levels of glucose (228.1 g L-1) and fructose (55.7 g L-1) were efficiently produced within 12 h at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 37...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Siri Caspersen, Zsofia Ganrot
Recycling mineral nutrients from household wastewater is a central step in the development of a circular economy based society. The objective of this study was to evaluate plant availability of mineral elements and plant performance in a peat substrate containing nutrient-enriched zeolite (NEZ) obtained by nutrient recovery from human urine in a source separated wastewater system. Substrate content of potentially available mineral nutrients was determined by CaCl2/DTPA-extraction during a 12 weeks incubation experiment for 20:80 (R20) and 30:70 (R30) volume % of NEZ:sphagnum peat, limed R20 (R20L), and 20:80 vol% of unloaded zeolite:sphagnum peat (Z20)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Kees van Leeuwen, Eli de Vries, Stef Koop, Kees Roest
Water is an abundant resource worldwide, but fresh and clean water is scarce in many areas of the world. Increases in water consumption and climate change will affect global water security even further in the near future. With increasing numbers of people living in metropolitan areas, water, energy, and materials need to be used carefully, reused and renewed. Resource scarcity is the driver behind the circular economy. The recovery of materials and energy can add significant new value streams and improve cost recovery and water quality...
January 30, 2018: Environmental Management
Wei Han, Guanghai Gao, Jinyao Geng, Yao Li, Yingying Wang
Ziya Circular Economy Park is the biggest e-waste recycle park in North China before 2011, its function was then transformed in response to regulations and rules. In this paper, investigation was conducted to research the residual concentrations of 14 analytes (12 heavy metals and 2 non-metals) in the surface soil of Ziya Circular Economy Park and surrounding area. Both ecological and health assessments were evaluated using GI (geo-accumulation index) and NPI (Nemerow pollution index), and associated health risk was assessed by using USEPA model...
January 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Vânia G Zuin, Luize Z Ramin
New generations of biorefinery combine innovative biomass waste resources from different origins, chemical extraction and/or synthesis of biomaterials, biofuels, and bioenergy via green and sustainable processes. From the very beginning, identifying and evaluating all potentially high value-added chemicals that could be removed from available renewable feedstocks requires robust, efficient, selective, reproducible, and benign analytical approaches. With this in mind, green and sustainable separation of natural products from agro-industrial waste is clearly attractive considering both socio-environmental and economic aspects...
January 17, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Aneeta Mary Joseph, Ruben Snellings, Philip Van den Heede, Stijn Matthys, Nele De Belie
Huge amounts of waste are being generated, and even though the incineration process reduces the mass and volume of waste to a large extent, massive amounts of residues still remain. On average, out of 1.3 billion tons of municipal solid wastes generated per year, around 130 and 2.1 million tons are incinerated in the world and in Belgium, respectively. Around 400 kT of bottom ash residues are generated in Flanders, out of which only 102 kT are utilized here, and the rest is exported or landfilled due to non-conformity to environmental regulations...
January 16, 2018: Materials
Tim T Werner, Luca Ciacci, Gavin Mark Mudd, Barbara K Reck, Stephen Alan Northey
Indium is a specialty metal crucial for modern technology, yet potentially critical due to its by-product status in mining. Measures to reduce its criticality typically focus on improving its recycling efficiency at end-of-life. This study quantifies primary and secondary indium resources ("stocks") for Australia through a dynamic material flow analysis. It is based on detailed assessments of indium mineral resources hosted in lead-zinc and copper deposits, respective mining activities from 1844-2013, and the trade of indium-containing products from 1988-2015...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
F Masi, A Rizzo, M Regelsberger
Wastewater management is included in one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): SDG 6 is dedicated to water and sanitation and sets out to "ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all". SDG 6 expands the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focus on drinking water and basic sanitation to now cover the entire water cycle, including the management of water, wastewater and ecosystem resources. A UN report in 2017 states that likely over 80% of the wastewater worldwide is still discharged without adequate treatment...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Shu-Yuan Pan, Tai-Chun Chung, Chang-Ching Ho, Chin-Jen Hou, Yi-Hung Chen, Pen-Chi Chiang
Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Paolo Tecchio, Catriona McAlister, Fabrice Mathieux, Fulvio Ardente
The aspiration of a circular economy is to shift material flows toward a zero waste and pollution production system. The process of shifting to a circular economy has been initiated by the European Commission in their action plan for the circular economy. The EU Ecodesign Directive is a key policy in this transition. However, to date the focus of access to market requirements on products has primarily been upon energy efficiency. The absence of adequate metrics and standards has been a key barrier to the inclusion of resource efficiency requirements...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cleaner Production
Maurizio Fieschi, Ugo Pretato
It is estimated that in Europe 88-100 million tonnes of food waste are generated every year, with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of around 227 MT of CO2 equivalents generated for their collection and disposal. A 12% of this waste is estimated to arise from food service within the hospitality sector, which includes quick service restaurants, casual and fine dining, contract catering (canteens, prisons, hospitals, schools etc.) as well as indoor and outdoor events and exhibitions. Given this considerable amount and that the mixed unsorted collection is often the only practicable way to handle such waste flows, the choice of tableware and cutlery can make a big difference in facilitating waste collection as well as in reducing the overall environmental impact of food waste management...
November 30, 2017: Waste Management
Emile Van Eygen, David Laner, Johann Fellner
Plastics, especially from packaging, have gained increasing attention in waste management, driving many policy initiatives to improve the circularity of these materials in the economy to increase resource efficiency. In this context, the EU has proposed increasing targets to encourage the recycling of (plastic) packaging. To accurately calculate the recycling rates, detailed information on the flows of plastic packaging is needed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the waste management system for plastic packaging in Austria in 2013 using material flow analysis, taking into account the used product types and the polymer composition...
November 28, 2017: Waste Management
Julia Catalán, Hannu Norppa
Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements...
December 1, 2017: Bioengineering
Regina Palkovits, Irina Delidovich
Renewable carbon feedstocks such as biomass and CO2 present an important element of future circular economy. Especially biomass as highly functionalized feedstock provides manifold opportunities for the transformation into attractive platform chemicals. However, this change of the resources requires a paradigm shift in refinery design. Fossil feedstocks are processed in gas phase at elevated temperature. In contrast, biorefineries are based on processes in polar solvents at moderate conditions to selectively deoxygenate the polar, often thermally instable and high-boiling molecules...
January 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jara Laso, María Margallo, María Serrano, Ian Vázquez-Rowe, Angel Avadí, Pere Fullana, Alba Bala, Cristina Gazulla, Ángel Irabien, Rubén Aldaco
In a global framework of growing concern for food security and environmental protection, the selection of food products with higher protein content and lower environmental impact is a challenge. To assess the reliability of different strategies along the food supply chain, a measure of food cost through the environmental impact-protein content binomial is necessary. This study proposes a standardized method to calculate the Green Protein Footprint (GPF) index, a method that assesses both the environmental impact of a food product and its protein content provided to consumers...
November 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Gian Claudio Faussone
Synthesis of liquid fuels from waste is a promising pathway for reducing the carbon footprint of transportation industry and optimizing waste management towards zero landfilling. The study of commercial plants that conduct pyrolysis of plastics from post-consumer recycled materials and directly mine from old landfills without any pre-treatment has revealed two cases that show the feasibility of manufacturing transportation fuels via these methods. Pyrolysis oil, consisting of almost 26% hydrocarbons within the gasoline range and almost 70% within the diesel range, is upgraded to transportation fuel in the existing refinery...
November 17, 2017: Waste Management
Jorge Cristóbal, Valentina Castellani, Simone Manfredi, Serenella Sala
Food waste has gained prominence in the European political debate thanks to the recent Circular Economy package. Currently the waste hierarchy, introduced by the Waste Framework Directive, has been the rule followed to prioritize food waste prevention and management measures according to the environmental criteria. But when considering other criteria along with the environmental one, such as the economic, other tools are needed for the prioritization and optimization. This paper addresses the situation in which a decision-maker has to design a food waste prevention programme considering the limited economic resources in order to achieve the highest environmental impact prevention along the whole food life cycle...
November 14, 2017: Waste Management
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