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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529358/how-do-psychiatrists-in-india-construct-their-professional-identity-a-critical-literature-review
#1
Clement Bayetti, Sushrut Jadhav, Smita N Deshpande
Psychiatric practice in India is marked by an increasing gulf between largely urban-based mental health professionals and a majority rural population. Based on the premise that any engagement is a mutually constructed humane process, an understanding of the culture of psychiatry including social process of local knowledge acquisition by trainee psychiatrists is critical. This paper reviews existing literature on training of psychiatrists in India, the cultural construction of their professional identities and autobiographical reflections...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501264/challenges-around-automotive-shredder-residue-production-and-disposal
#2
Ala Khodier, Karl Williams, Neil Dallison
The challenge for the automotive industry is how to ensure they adopt the circular economy when it comes to the disposal of end-of-life vehicles (ELV). According to the European Commission the UK achieved a total reuse and recovery rate of 88%. This is short of the revised ELV directive target of 95% materials recovery, which requires a minimum of 85% of materials to be recycled or reused. A significant component of the recycling process is the production of automotive shredder residue (ASR). This is currently landfilled across Europe...
May 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498114/life-cycle-assessment-of-sludge-management-with-phosphorus-utilisation-and-improved-hygienisation-in-sweden
#3
M Svanström, S Heimersson, G Peters, R Harder, D I'Ons, A Finnson, J Olsson
To provide input to sewage sludge management strategies that address expected new regulations in terms of hygienisation and phosphorus recovery in Sweden, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) was made. The LCA identified environmental hot spots for methods that may permit sludge or phosphorus from sludge to be applied on agricultural land. In particular, thermophilic digestion, pasteurisation, thermal hydrolysis, urea treatment and mono-incineration with phosphorus recovery were compared. In addition, a sludge management system involving drying of sludge before use in forestry was investigated...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491137/boosting-lpmo-driven-lignocellulose-degradation-by-polyphenol-oxidase-activated-lignin-building-blocks
#4
Matthias Frommhagen, Sumanth Kumar Mutte, Adrie H Westphal, Martijn J Koetsier, Sandra W A Hinz, Jaap Visser, Jean-Paul Vincken, Dolf Weijers, Willem J H van Berkel, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
BACKGROUND: Many fungi boost the deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass via oxidation using lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The application of LPMOs is expected to contribute to ecologically friendly conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Moreover, applications of LPMO-modified cellulose-based products may be envisaged within the food or material industry. RESULTS: Here, we show an up to 75-fold improvement in LPMO-driven cellulose degradation using polyphenol oxidase-activated lignin building blocks...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470498/ashes-from-fluidized-bed-combustion-of-residual-forest-biomass-recycling-to-soil-as-a-viable-management-option
#5
Nuno C Cruz, Sónia M Rodrigues, Lina Carvalho, Armando C Duarte, Eduarda Pereira, Paul F A M Römkens, Luís A C Tarelho
Although bottom ash (BA) [or mixtures of bottom and fly ash (FA)] from clean biomass fuels is currently used as liming agent, additive for compost, and fertilizer on agricultural and forest soils in certain European countries, in several other countries most of the ashes are currently disposed in landfills. This is due to both a lack of a proper classification of the materials and of regulatory barriers.Chemical characterization including analysis of an array of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) proved that over 100,000 tons of BA currently landfilled every year in Portugal actually complied with legal limits for PTEs for soil fertilizers applied in other countries...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462678/using-life-cycle-assessment-to-address-stakeholders-potential-for-improving-municipal-solid-waste-management
#6
Milton Aurelio Uba de Andrade Junior, Guillherme Marcelo Zanghelini, Sebastião Roberto Soares
Because the consumption of materials is generally higher than their recovery rate, improving municipal solid waste (MSW) management is fundamental for increasing the efficiency of natural resource use and consumption in urban areas. More broadly, the characteristics of a MSW management system influence the end-of-life (EOL) impacts of goods consumed by households. We aim to indicate the extent to which greenhouse gas emissions from a MSW management system can be reduced by increasing waste paper recycling. We also address the stakeholders' contribution for driving transition towards an improved scenario...
May 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461431/political-economies-and-environmental-futures-for-the-sharing-economy
#7
Koen Frenken
The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models...
June 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415499/antibacterial-effect-of-peo-coating-with-silver-on-aa7075
#8
P Cerchier, L Pezzato, K Brunelli, P Dolcet, A Bartolozzi, R Bertani, M Dabalà
In this work, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings were produced on AA7075 using alkaline solution containing silicates compounds and silver micrometric particles in order to give to the coating an antimicrobial effect. In the optic of circular economy, silver chloride derived from the acid pre-treatment of electronic scraps was used as raw material and successively silver powders were synthesized from silver chloride solution using glucose syrup as reducing agent. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and antimicrobial tests...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412853/nitrogen-behaviour-during-thermal-drying-of-mechanically-dewatered-biosludge-from-pulp-and-paper-industry
#9
Kati Mustonen, Ivan Deviatkin, Jouni Havukainen, Mika Horttanainen
An ongoing call to implement a circular economy is underway in the European Union, and a specific attention has been placed on the forest industry, which seeks additional recycling routes for its side streams, including biosludge. Biosludge is often dried and incinerated, thus wasting the nitrogen contained therein. This paper describes a study in which the release of nitrogen during thermal drying; the impact of the drying temperatures of 130, 180, and 210°C on the mass of ammonia released; and the potential for recovery of nitrogen from biosludge were examined...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411529/free-ammonia-pre-treatment-of-secondary-sludge-significantly-increases-anaerobic-methane-production
#10
Wei Wei, Xu Zhou, Dongbo Wang, Jing Sun, Qilin Wang
Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH3) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH3-N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i...
July 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404509/recycled-tetrahedron-like-cucl-from-waste-cu-scraps-for-lithium-ion-battery-anode
#11
Hongying Hou, Yuan Yao, Song Liu, Jixiang Duan, Qishu Liao, Chengyi Yu, Dongdong Li, Zhipeng Dai
The wide applications of metal Cu inevitably resulted in a large quantity of waste Cu materials. In order to recover the useful Cu under the mild conditions and reduce the environmental emission, waste Cu scraps were recycled in the form of CuCl powders with high economic value added (EVA) via the facile hydrothermal route. The recycled CuCl powders were characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results suggested that the recycled CuCl powders consisted of many regular tetrahedron-like micro-particles...
April 9, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401315/improving-the-tool-box-for-robust-industrial-enzymes
#12
REVIEW
J A Littlechild
The speed of sequencing of microbial genomes and metagenomes is providing an ever increasing resource for the identification of new robust biocatalysts with industrial applications for many different aspects of industrial biotechnology. Using 'natures catalysts' provides a sustainable approach to chemical synthesis of fine chemicals, general chemicals such as surfactants and new consumer-based materials such as biodegradable plastics. This provides a sustainable and 'green chemistry' route to chemical synthesis which generates no toxic waste and is environmentally friendly...
May 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393682/new-feed-ingredients-the-insect-opportunity
#13
L W D van Raamsdonk, H J van der Fels-Klerx, J de Jong
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc...
April 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386158/valorisation-to-biogas-of-macroalgal-waste-streams-a-circular-approach-to-bioproducts-and-bioenergy-in-ireland
#14
Silvia Tedesco, Joseph Stokes
Seaweeds (macroalgae) have been recently attracting more and more interest as a third generation feedstock for bioenergy and biofuels. However, several barriers impede the deployment of competitive seaweed-based energy. The high cost associated to seaweed farming and harvesting, as well as their seasonal availability and biochemical composition currently make macroalgae exploitation too expensive for energy production only. Recent studies have indicated a possible solution to aforementioned challenges may lay in seaweed integrated biorefinery, in which a bioenergy and/or biofuel production step ends an extractions cascade of high-value bioproducts...
2017: Chemické Zvesti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367754/waste-pickers-in-global-south-informal-recycling-sector-in-a-circular-economy-era
#15
Costas Velis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335689/trends-of-occupational-hygiene-in-finland
#16
Rauno Pääkkönen, Milja Koponen
The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society, and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods, and advances of construction methods were recognised as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities, and product safety issues...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314153/sewage-sludge-disposal-strategies-for-sustainable-development
#17
Małgorzata Kacprzak, Ewa Neczaj, Krzysztof Fijałkowski, Anna Grobelak, Anna Grosser, Małgorzata Worwag, Agnieszka Rorat, Helge Brattebo, Åsgeir Almås, Bal Ram Singh
The main objective of the present review is to compare the existing sewage sludge management solutions in terms of their environmental sustainability. The most commonly used strategies, that include treatment and disposal has been favored within the present state-of-art, considering existing legislation (at European and national level), characterization, ecotoxicology, waste management and actual routs used currently in particular European countries. Selected decision making tools, namely End-of-waste criteria and Life Cycle Assessment has been proposed in order to appropriately assess the possible environmental, economic and technical evaluation of different systems...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273595/environmental-assessment-of-the-entire-pork-value-chain-in-catalonia-a-strategy-to-work-towards-circular-economy
#18
Isabel Noya, Xavier Aldea, Sara González-García, Carles M Gasol, María Teresa Moreira, Maria José Amores, Desirée Marín, Jesús Boschmonart-Rives
Pork industry in Catalonia plays a foremost and representative role in the Spanish pork sector. Beyond the economic benefits, conventional practices in the pork industry also imply a number of environmental impacts that need to be dealt with. In this context, the environmental performance of traditional linear pork chain in Catalonia was evaluated through a LCA approach. The outcomes of the analysis showed that both fodder production and transport activities were identified as the critical stages of the system...
March 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257181/novel-indicators-for-the-quantification-of-resilience-in-critical-material-supply-chains-with-a-2010-rare-earth-crisis-case-study
#19
Benjamin Sprecher, Ichiro Daigo, Wouter Spekkink, Matthijs Vos, René Kleijn, Shinsuke Murakami, Gert Jan Kramer
We introduce several new resilience metrics for quantifying the resilience of critical material supply chains to disruptions and validate these metrics using the 2010 rare earth element (REE) crisis as a case study. Our method is a novel application of Event Sequence Analysis, supplemented with interviews of actors across the entire supply chain. We discuss resilience mechanisms in quantitative terms-time lags, response speeds, and maximum magnitudes-and in light of cultural differences between Japanese and European corporate practice...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161336/dynamic-visualisation-of-municipal-waste-management-performance-in-the-eu-using-ternary-diagram-method
#20
R Pomberger, R Sarc, K E Lorber
This contribution describes the dynamic visualisation of European (EU 28) municipal waste management performance, using the Ternary Diagram Method. Municipal waste management performance depends primarily on three treatment categories: recycling & composting, incineration and landfilling. The framework of current municipal waste management including recycling targets, etc. is given by the Waste Framework Directive - 2008/98/EC. The proposed Circular Economy Package should stimulate Europe's transition towards more sustainable resources and energy oriented waste management...
February 1, 2017: Waste Management
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