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circular economy

Lars Duester, Dierk-Steffen Wahrendorf, Corinna Brinkmann, Anne-Lena Fabricius, Björn Meermann, Juergen Pelzer, Dennis Ecker, Monika Renner, Harald Schmid, Thomas A Ternes, Peter Heininger
Today, basic requirements for construction works include the protection of human health and of the environment. In the tension area between economic demands, circular flow economy and environmental safety, a link between the results from standardized leaching tests and the respective environmental quality standards must be created. To derive maximum release limits of metals and metalloids for armourstones in hydraulic engineering, this link is accomplished via a simple model approach. By treating natural materials and industrial by-products the same way, the article delivers an overview on the recent regulative situation in Europe as well as describes and discusses an innovative approach to derive maximum release limits for monolithic construction products in hydraulic engineering on a conceptual level...
2017: PloS One
Luis F Diaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Waste Management & Research
C P Grey, J M Tarascon
The development of improved rechargeable batteries represents a major technological challenge for this new century, as batteries constitute the limiting components in the shift from petrol (gasoline) powered to electric vehicles, while also enabling the use of more renewable energy on the grid. To minimize the ecological implications associated with their wider use, we must integrate sustainability of battery materials into our research endeavours, choosing chemistries that have a minimum footprint in nature and that are more readily recycled or integrated into a full circular economy...
December 20, 2016: Nature Materials
Elena Antonetti, Gaetano Iaquaniello, Annarita Salladini, Luca Spadaccini, Siglinda Perathoner, Gabriele Centi
The economics and resource-environmental impact of a new technology of producing urea from municipal solid waste, particularly the RdF (Residue derived Fuel) fraction, is analyzed. Estimations indicates a cost of production around 135 € per ton of urea (Internal rate of return > 10%), and a saving of about 0,113 tons CH4 and about 0,78 tons CO2 per ton urea produced. Results thus show that this waste-to-urea (WtU) technology is both economically valuable and environmentally advantageous (in terms of saving resources and limit carbon footprint) to produce chemicals from municipal solid waste in comparison to both the production of urea with the conventional technology (starting from natural gas) and with respect to the use of RdF to produce electrical energy (waste-to-energy)...
December 13, 2016: ChemSusChem
Angie Silva, Michele Rosano, Laura Stocker, Leen Gorissen
Waste policy is increasingly moving on from the 'prevention of waste' to a 'sustainable materials policy' focused agenda recognising individual wastes as a resource. In order to comparatively analyse policy developments in enhanced waste management, three case studies were selected; San Francisco's Zero Waste Program, Flanders's Sustainable Materials Management Initiative and Japan's Sound Material-Cycle Society Plan. These case studies were chosen as an opportunity to investigate the variety of leading approaches, governance structures, and enhanced waste policy outcomes, emerging globally...
December 9, 2016: Waste Management
Qiang Sun
With the concerns of ecological and circular economy along with sustainable development, reverse logistics has attracted the attention of enterprise. How to achieve sustainable development of reverse logistics has important practical significance of enhancing low carbon competitiveness. In this paper, the system boundary of reverse logistics carbon footprint is presented. Following the measurement of reverse logistics carbon footprint and reverse logistics carbon capacity is provided. The influencing factors of reverse logistics carbon footprint are classified into five parts such as intensity of reverse logistics, energy structure, energy efficiency, reverse logistics output, and product remanufacturing rate...
December 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mikail Rubinov
Interareal connectomes are whole-brain wiring diagrams of white-matter pathways. Recent studies have identified modules, hubs, module hierarchies and rich clubs as structural hallmarks of these wiring diagrams. An influential current theory postulates that connectome modules are adequately explained by evolutionary pressures for wiring economy, but that the other hallmarks are not explained by such pressures and are therefore less trivial. Here, we use constraint network models to test these postulates in current gold-standard vertebrate and invertebrate interareal-connectome reconstructions...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Kim H Esbensen, Costas Velis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Waste Management & Research
Qun Kang, Rui Li, Qi Du, Bowen Cheng, Zhiqi Liao, Chengcheng Sun, Zhaohua Li
This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6...
2016: BioMed Research International
Rafael Laurenti, Åsa Moberg, Åsa Stenmarck
Knowledge about the total waste generated by the production of consumer goods can help raise awareness among policy-makers, producers and consumers of the benefits of closing loops in a future circular economy, avoiding unnecessary production and production steps and associated generation of large amounts of waste. In strict life cycle assessment practice, information on waste outputs from intermediate industrial processes of material and energy transformation is translated into and declared as potential environmental impacts, which are often not reported in the final results...
January 2017: Waste Management & Research
Bojan Ribic, Neven Voca, Branka Ilakovac
Improvement of the current waste management is one of the main challenges for most municipalities in Croatia, mainly due to legal obligations set in different European Union directives regarding waste management, such as reduction of waste generation and landfilling, or increase of separately collected waste and recycling rates. This article highlights the current waste management in the City of Zagreb by analysing the waste generation, collection, and disposal scenario along with the regulatory and institutional framework...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Ellen Brand, Ton C M de Nijs, Joris J Dijkstra, Rob N J Comans
As part of a more circular economy, current attention on waste is shifting from landfilling towards the prevention, re-use and recycling of waste materials. Although the need for landfills is decreasing, there are many landfills around the world that are still operational or at the point of starting the aftercare period. With traditional aftercare management, these landfills require perpetual aftercare at considerable cost due to monitoring and regular maintenance of liners. In an attempt to lower these aftercare costs, and to prevent that future generations become responsible for finding a sustainable solution of present day waste, the Dutch government takes action to explore the possibilities of sustainable landfill management...
October 2016: Waste Management
Auxiliadora Prieto
Global warming, market and production capacity are being the key drivers for selecting the main players for the next decades in the market of bio-based plastics. The drop-in bio-based polymers such as the bio-based polyethylene terephtalate (PET) or polyethylene (PE), chemically identical to their petrochemical counterparts but having a component of biological origin, are in the top of the list. They are followed by new polymers such as PHA and PLA with a significant market growth rate since 2014 with projections to 2020...
September 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Anne Scheinberg, Jelena Nesić, Rachel Savain, Pietro Luppi, Portia Sinnott, Flaviu Petean, Flaviu Pop
The European Union hosts some of the world's most developed waste management systems and an ambitious policy commitment to the circular economy. The existence of informal recycling and re-use activities in Europe has been vigorously denied until quite recently, and remains a very challenging subject for the European solid waste management sector, as well as for European government and private institutions. In countries ranging from Malta to Macedonia and from France to Turkey, informal recyclers excluded from legal recycling niches increasingly collide with formalised and controlled European Union approaches to urban waste management, packaging recovery schemes, formal re-use enterprises, and extended producer responsibility systems...
September 2016: Waste Management & Research
Ramy Salemdeeb, Abir Al-Tabbaa, Christian Reynolds
In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i...
October 2016: Waste Management & Research
E D Bluemink, A F van Nieuwenhuijzen, E Wypkema, C A Uijterlinde
Valorisation of components from municipal 'waste' water and sewage sludge gets more and more attention in order to come to a circular economy by developing an efficient 'waste' to value concept. On behalf of the transition team 'Grondstoffenfabriek' ('Resource factory') a preliminary research was performed for all the Dutch water boards to assess the technical and economical feasibility of poly-hydroxy-alkanoate (PHA)-production from sewage sludge, a valuable product to produce bio-plastics. This study reveals that the production of bio-plastics from sewage sludge is feasible based on technical aspects, but not yet economically interesting, even though the selling price is relatively close to the actual PHA market price...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yuanyao Ye, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Yiwen Liu, Xinbo Zhang, Jianbo Guo, Bing-Jie Ni, Soon Woong Chang, Dinh Duc Nguyen
The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases...
October 2016: Bioresource Technology
K Stoknes, F Scholwin, W Krzesiński, E Wojciechowska, A Jasińska
At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation...
October 2016: Waste Management
Alberto Bezama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Waste Management & Research
J Laso, M Margallo, J Celaya, P Fullana, A Bala, C Gazulla, A Irabien, R Aldaco
The anchovy canning industry has high importance in the Cantabria Region (North Spain) from economic, social and touristic points of view. The Cantabrian canned anchovy is world-renowned owing to its handmade and traditional manufacture. The canning process generates huge amounts of several food wastes, whose suitable management can contribute to benefits for both the environment and the economy, closing the loop of the product life cycle. Life cycle assessment methodology was used in this work to assess the environmental performance of two waste management alternatives: Head and spine valorisation to produce fishmeal and fish oil; and anchovy meat valorisation to produce anchovy paste...
August 2016: Waste Management & Research
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