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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623021/improving-the-circular-economy-via-hydrothermal-processing-of-high-density-waste-plastics
#1
Thomas Helmer Pedersen, Federica Conti
Rising environmental concerns on climate changes are causing an increasing attention on circular economies. The plastic economy, in particular, is in focus due to the accelerating consumption of plastics, mainly derived from virgin feedstock, combined with the lack of plastic recycling strategies. This work presents a novel outlook on the potential of using supercritical hydrothermal processing of waste plastic fractions for tertiary recycling. The study investigates hydrothermal processing of nine different, high-density types of plastics into original resin monomers and other value-added chemical compounds...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579178/waste-biorefineries-enabling-circular-economies-in-developing-countries
#2
REVIEW
A S Nizami, M Rehan, M Waqas, M Naqvi, O K M Ouda, K Shahzad, R Miandad, M Z Khan, M Syamsiro, I M I Ismail, Deepak Pant
This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576329/incentivizing-secondary-raw-material-markets-for-sustainable-waste-management
#3
Maximilian Schreck, Jeffrey Wagner
Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets...
May 30, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574165/synergistic-chemo-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-poly-ethylene-terephthalate-from-textile-waste
#4
Felice Quartinello, Simona Vajnhandl, Julija Volmajer Valh, Thomas J Farmer, Bojana Vončina, Alexandra Lobnik, Enrique Herrero Acero, Alessandro Pellis, Georg M Guebitz
Due to the rising global environment protection awareness, recycling strategies that comply with the circular economy principles are needed. Polyesters are among the most used materials in the textile industry; therefore, achieving a complete poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) hydrolysis in an environmentally friendly way is a current challenge. In this work, a chemo-enzymatic treatment was developed to recover the PET building blocks, namely terephthalic acid (TA) and ethylene glycol. To monitor the monomer and oligomer content in solid samples, a Fourier-transformed Raman method was successfully developed...
June 2, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566005/solid-state-fermentation-and-composting-as-alternatives-to-treat-hair-waste-a-life-cycle-assessment-comparative-approach
#5
Eva Catalán, Dimitrios Komilis, Antoni Sánchez
One of the wastes associated with leather production in tannery industries is the hair residue generated during the dehairing process. Hair wastes are mainly dumped or managed through composting but recent studies propose the treatment of hair wastes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases and compost. These enzymes are suitable for its use in an enzymatic dehairing process, as an alternative to the current chemical dehairing process. In the present work, two different scenarios for the valorization of the hair waste are proposed and assessed by means of life-cycle assessment: composting and SSF for protease production...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552816/spanish-strategy-on-bioeconomy-towards-a-knowledge-based-sustainable-innovation
#6
REVIEW
Manuel Lainez, José Manuel González, Alfredo Aguilar, Carmen Vela
Spain launched its own strategy on bioeconomy in January 2016 aiming at boosting a bioeconomy based on the sustainable and efficient production and use of biological resources. It highlights global societal challenges related with agricultural and biotechnological sciences in Spain and the great dynamism of the private sectors involved, particularly the agri-food, biotech and biomass sectors. The targeted sectors are food, agriculture and forestry, conditioned by water availability. It also includes the production of those industrial bioproducts and bioenergy obtained from the use and valorisation of wastes and residues and other non-conventional sources of biomass, in a circular economy...
May 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529358/how-do-psychiatrists-in-india-construct-their-professional-identity-a-critical-literature-review
#7
Clement Bayetti, Sushrut Jadhav, Smita N Deshpande
Psychiatric practice in India is marked by an increasing gulf between largely urban-based mental health professionals and a majority rural population. Based on the premise that any engagement is a mutually constructed humane process, an understanding of the culture of psychiatry including social process of local knowledge acquisition by trainee psychiatrists is critical. This paper reviews existing literature on training of psychiatrists in India, the cultural construction of their professional identities and autobiographical reflections...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501264/challenges-around-automotive-shredder-residue-production-and-disposal
#8
Ala Khodier, Karl Williams, Neil Dallison
The challenge for the automotive industry is how to ensure they adopt the circular economy when it comes to the disposal of end-of-life vehicles (ELV). According to the European Commission the UK achieved a total reuse and recovery rate of 88%. This is short of the revised ELV directive target of 95% materials recovery, which requires a minimum of 85% of materials to be recycled or reused. A significant component of the recycling process is the production of automotive shredder residue (ASR). This is currently landfilled across Europe...
May 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498114/life-cycle-assessment-of-sludge-management-with-phosphorus-utilisation-and-improved-hygienisation-in-sweden
#9
M Svanström, S Heimersson, G Peters, R Harder, D I'Ons, A Finnson, J Olsson
To provide input to sewage sludge management strategies that address expected new regulations in terms of hygienisation and phosphorus recovery in Sweden, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) was made. The LCA identified environmental hot spots for methods that may permit sludge or phosphorus from sludge to be applied on agricultural land. In particular, thermophilic digestion, pasteurisation, thermal hydrolysis, urea treatment and mono-incineration with phosphorus recovery were compared. In addition, a sludge management system involving drying of sludge before use in forestry was investigated...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491137/boosting-lpmo-driven-lignocellulose-degradation-by-polyphenol-oxidase-activated-lignin-building-blocks
#10
Matthias Frommhagen, Sumanth Kumar Mutte, Adrie H Westphal, Martijn J Koetsier, Sandra W A Hinz, Jaap Visser, Jean-Paul Vincken, Dolf Weijers, Willem J H van Berkel, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
BACKGROUND: Many fungi boost the deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass via oxidation using lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The application of LPMOs is expected to contribute to ecologically friendly conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Moreover, applications of LPMO-modified cellulose-based products may be envisaged within the food or material industry. RESULTS: Here, we show an up to 75-fold improvement in LPMO-driven cellulose degradation using polyphenol oxidase-activated lignin building blocks...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470498/ashes-from-fluidized-bed-combustion-of-residual-forest-biomass-recycling-to-soil-as-a-viable-management-option
#11
Nuno C Cruz, Sónia M Rodrigues, Lina Carvalho, Armando C Duarte, Eduarda Pereira, Paul F A M Römkens, Luís A C Tarelho
Although bottom ash (BA) [or mixtures of bottom and fly ash (FA)] from clean biomass fuels is currently used as liming agent, additive for compost, and fertilizer on agricultural and forest soils in certain European countries, in several other countries most of the ashes are currently disposed in landfills. This is due to both a lack of a proper classification of the materials and of regulatory barriers.Chemical characterization including analysis of an array of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) proved that over 100,000 tons of BA currently landfilled every year in Portugal actually complied with legal limits for PTEs for soil fertilizers applied in other countries...
June 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462678/using-life-cycle-assessment-to-address-stakeholders-potential-for-improving-municipal-solid-waste-management
#12
Milton Aurelio Uba de Andrade Junior, Guillherme Marcelo Zanghelini, Sebastião Roberto Soares
Because the consumption of materials is generally higher than their recovery rate, improving municipal solid waste (MSW) management is fundamental for increasing the efficiency of natural resource use and consumption in urban areas. More broadly, the characteristics of a MSW management system influence the end-of-life (EOL) impacts of goods consumed by households. We aim to indicate the extent to which greenhouse gas emissions from a MSW management system can be reduced by increasing waste paper recycling. We also address the stakeholders' contribution for driving transition towards an improved scenario...
May 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461431/political-economies-and-environmental-futures-for-the-sharing-economy
#13
Koen Frenken
The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models...
June 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415499/antibacterial-effect-of-peo-coating-with-silver-on-aa7075
#14
P Cerchier, L Pezzato, K Brunelli, P Dolcet, A Bartolozzi, R Bertani, M Dabalà
In this work, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings were produced on AA7075 using alkaline solution containing silicates compounds and silver micrometric particles in order to give to the coating an antimicrobial effect. In the optic of circular economy, silver chloride derived from the acid pre-treatment of electronic scraps was used as raw material and successively silver powders were synthesized from silver chloride solution using glucose syrup as reducing agent. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and antimicrobial tests...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412853/nitrogen-behaviour-during-thermal-drying-of-mechanically-dewatered-biosludge-from-pulp-and-paper-industry
#15
Kati Mustonen, Ivan Deviatkin, Jouni Havukainen, Mika Horttanainen
An ongoing call to implement a circular economy is underway in the European Union, and a specific attention has been placed on the forest industry, which seeks additional recycling routes for its side streams, including biosludge. Biosludge is often dried and incinerated, thus wasting the nitrogen contained therein. This paper describes a study in which the release of nitrogen during thermal drying, the impact of the drying temperatures of 130°C, 180°C, and 210°C on the mass of ammonia released, and the potential for recovery of nitrogen from biosludge were examined...
April 29, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411529/free-ammonia-pre-treatment-of-secondary-sludge-significantly-increases-anaerobic-methane-production
#16
Wei Wei, Xu Zhou, Dongbo Wang, Jing Sun, Qilin Wang
Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH3) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH3-N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i...
July 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404509/recycled-tetrahedron-like-cucl-from-waste-cu-scraps-for-lithium-ion-battery-anode
#17
Hongying Hou, Yuan Yao, Song Liu, Jixiang Duan, Qishu Liao, Chengyi Yu, Dongdong Li, Zhipeng Dai
The wide applications of metal Cu inevitably resulted in a large quantity of waste Cu materials. In order to recover the useful Cu under the mild conditions and reduce the environmental emission, waste Cu scraps were recycled in the form of CuCl powders with high economic value added (EVA) via the facile hydrothermal route. The recycled CuCl powders were characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results suggested that the recycled CuCl powders consisted of many regular tetrahedron-like micro-particles...
April 9, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401315/improving-the-tool-box-for-robust-industrial-enzymes
#18
REVIEW
J A Littlechild
The speed of sequencing of microbial genomes and metagenomes is providing an ever increasing resource for the identification of new robust biocatalysts with industrial applications for many different aspects of industrial biotechnology. Using 'natures catalysts' provides a sustainable approach to chemical synthesis of fine chemicals, general chemicals such as surfactants and new consumer-based materials such as biodegradable plastics. This provides a sustainable and 'green chemistry' route to chemical synthesis which generates no toxic waste and is environmentally friendly...
May 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393682/new-feed-ingredients-the-insect-opportunity
#19
L W D van Raamsdonk, H J van der Fels-Klerx, J de Jong
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc...
April 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386158/valorisation-to-biogas-of-macroalgal-waste-streams-a-circular-approach-to-bioproducts-and-bioenergy-in-ireland
#20
Silvia Tedesco, Joseph Stokes
Seaweeds (macroalgae) have been recently attracting more and more interest as a third generation feedstock for bioenergy and biofuels. However, several barriers impede the deployment of competitive seaweed-based energy. The high cost associated to seaweed farming and harvesting, as well as their seasonal availability and biochemical composition currently make macroalgae exploitation too expensive for energy production only. Recent studies have indicated a possible solution to aforementioned challenges may lay in seaweed integrated biorefinery, in which a bioenergy and/or biofuel production step ends an extractions cascade of high-value bioproducts...
2017: Chemické Zvesti
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