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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709690/municipal-solid-waste-system-analysis-through-energy-consumption-and-return-approach
#1
Tihomir Tomić, Daniel Rolph Schneider
Inappropriate waste management and poor resource efficiency are two of the biggest problems which European Union is trying to solve through Landfill Directive, Waste Framework Directive and Circular Economy Package by increasing recycling and reuse and reducing waste disposal. In order to meet set goals, new European Union member states must quickly change national legislature and implement appropriate solutions. In the circumstances of strong EU resource and energy dependence, decision makers need to analyse which of the considered waste management systems leads to higher overall benefits ie...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698129/an-efficient-agro-industrial-complex-in-almer%C3%A3-a-spain-towards-an-integrated-and-sustainable-bioeconomy-model
#2
REVIEW
Francisco J Egea, Roberto G Torrente, Alfredo Aguilar
In the last ten years, bioeconomy strategies and policy-related bioeconomy initiatives have been developed all over the world. Some of them are currently in the process of translation into specific actions. In most cases, the approaches followed have been top-down policy-related initiatives, triggered by the public sector originating a dynamic which can bring together different bioeconomy stakeholders i.e. industry, academia, financial operators and farmers. This article describes a bottom-up situation with unique bioeconomy-related features that deserve specific attention...
July 8, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693674/the-imperative-for-regenerative-agriculture
#3
Christopher J Rhodes
A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded...
March 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689129/the-potential-implications-of-reclaimed-wastewater-reuse-for-irrigation-on-the-agricultural-environment-the-knowns-and-unknowns-of-the-fate-of-antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria%C3%A2-and-resistance-genes-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Anastasis Christou, Ana Agüera, Josep Maria Bayona, Eddie Cytryn, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Dimitra Lambropoulou, Célia M Manaia, Costas Michael, Mike Revitt, Peter Schröder, Despo Fatta-Kassinos
The use of reclaimed wastewater (RWW) for the irrigation of crops may result in the continuous exposure of the agricultural environment to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In recent years, certain evidence indicate that antibiotics and resistance genes may become disseminated in agricultural soils as a result of the amendment with manure and biosolids and irrigation with RWW. Antibiotic residues and other contaminants may undergo sorption/desorption and transformation processes (both biotic and abiotic), and have the potential to affect the soil microbiota...
July 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676418/waste-derived-bioeconomy-in-india-a-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Venkata Mohan S, Chiranjeevi P, Shikha Dahiya, Naresh Kumar A
Environmental and climatic change issues, population explosion, rapid urbanization, depletion of fossil reserves, need for energy security, huge waste generation, etc. are some of the inherent issues associated with the fossil based linear economy which need sustainable attention. In this realm, the world is gradually transforming from fossil-based economy to a sustainable circular economy. The biogenic waste which is generated in enormous quantity in India can be considered as potential feedstock for structuring the bio-based economy...
July 1, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676417/eu-ambition-to-build-the-world-s-leading-bioeconomy-uncertain-times-demand-innovative-and-sustainable-solutions
#6
REVIEW
John Bell, Lino Paula, Thomas Dodd, Szilvia Németh, Christina Nanou, Voula Mega, Paula Campos
This article outlines the current context and the development of the European Bioeconomy Strategy. It analyses the current situation, challenges and needs for EU action and concludes with the next steps that the European Commission will undertake to review and update the Bioeconomy Strategy. Bioeconomy offers great opportunities to realising a competitive, circular and sustainable economy with a sound industrial base that is less dependent on fossil carbon. A sustainable bioeconomy also contributes to climate change mitigation, with oceans, forests and soils being major carbon sinks and fostering negative CO2 emissions...
July 1, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672044/life-cycle-energy-efficiency-and-environmental-impact-assessment-of-bioethanol-production-from-sweet-potato-based-on-different-production-modes
#7
Jun Zhang, Chunrong Jia, Yi Wu, Xunfeng Xia, Beidou Xi, Lijun Wang, Youlong Zhai
The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669496/using-choice-architecture-to-exploit-a-university-distinct-urban-mine
#8
REVIEW
Xavier Pierron, Ian D Williams, Peter J Shaw, Victoria Cleaver
There are widespread concerns regarding the potential future scarcity of ferrous and non-ferrous materials. However, there are already potentially rich reserves of secondary materials via high ownership of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) in economically-developed nations. Young people are particularly high consumers of EEE, thus university students and campuses may present an opportunity to harness this potential. University Distinct Urban Mines (DUM) may be used to exemplify how potential reserves of secondary metals may be exploited, and could contribute to the transition from a linear to a circular economy...
June 29, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666809/bio-based-industries-joint-undertaking-the-catalyst-for-sustainable-bio-based-economic-growth-in-europe
#9
REVIEW
Philippe Mengal, Marcel Wubbolts, Eleni Zika, Ana Ruiz, Dieter Brigitta, Agata Pieniadz, Sarah Black
This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe...
June 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623021/improving-the-circular-economy-via-hydrothermal-processing-of-high-density-waste-plastics
#10
Thomas Helmer Pedersen, Federica Conti
Rising environmental concerns on climate changes are causing an increasing attention on circular economies. The plastic economy, in particular, is in focus due to the accelerating consumption of plastics, mainly derived from virgin feedstock, combined with the lack of plastic recycling strategies. This work presents a novel outlook on the potential of using supercritical hydrothermal processing of waste plastic fractions for tertiary recycling. The study investigates hydrothermal processing of nine different, high-density types of plastics into original resin monomers and other value-added chemical compounds...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579178/waste-biorefineries-enabling-circular-economies-in-developing-countries
#11
REVIEW
A S Nizami, M Rehan, M Waqas, M Naqvi, O K M Ouda, K Shahzad, R Miandad, M Z Khan, M Syamsiro, I M I Ismail, Deepak Pant
This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576329/incentivizing-secondary-raw-material-markets-for-sustainable-waste-management
#12
Maximilian Schreck, Jeffrey Wagner
Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets...
May 30, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574165/synergistic-chemo-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-poly-ethylene-terephthalate-from-textile-waste
#13
Felice Quartinello, Simona Vajnhandl, Julija Volmajer Valh, Thomas J Farmer, Bojana Vončina, Alexandra Lobnik, Enrique Herrero Acero, Alessandro Pellis, Georg M Guebitz
Due to the rising global environment protection awareness, recycling strategies that comply with the circular economy principles are needed. Polyesters are among the most used materials in the textile industry; therefore, achieving a complete poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) hydrolysis in an environmentally friendly way is a current challenge. In this work, a chemo-enzymatic treatment was developed to recover the PET building blocks, namely terephthalic acid (TA) and ethylene glycol. To monitor the monomer and oligomer content in solid samples, a Fourier-transformed Raman method was successfully developed...
June 2, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566005/solid-state-fermentation-and-composting-as-alternatives-to-treat-hair-waste-a-life-cycle-assessment-comparative-approach
#14
Eva Catalán, Dimitrios Komilis, Antoni Sánchez
One of the wastes associated with leather production in tannery industries is the hair residue generated during the dehairing process. Hair wastes are mainly dumped or managed through composting but recent studies propose the treatment of hair wastes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases and compost. These enzymes are suitable for its use in an enzymatic dehairing process, as an alternative to the current chemical dehairing process. In the present work, two different scenarios for the valorization of the hair waste are proposed and assessed by means of life-cycle assessment: composting and SSF for protease production...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552816/spanish-strategy-on-bioeconomy-towards-a-knowledge-based-sustainable-innovation
#15
REVIEW
Manuel Lainez, José Manuel González, Alfredo Aguilar, Carmen Vela
Spain launched its own strategy on bioeconomy in January 2016 aiming at boosting a bioeconomy based on the sustainable and efficient production and use of biological resources. It highlights global societal challenges related with agricultural and biotechnological sciences in Spain and the great dynamism of the private sectors involved, particularly the agri-food, biotech and biomass sectors. The targeted sectors are food, agriculture and forestry, conditioned by water availability. It also includes the production of those industrial bioproducts and bioenergy obtained from the use and valorisation of wastes and residues and other non-conventional sources of biomass, in a circular economy...
May 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529358/how-do-psychiatrists-in-india-construct-their-professional-identity-a-critical-literature-review
#16
Clement Bayetti, Sushrut Jadhav, Smita N Deshpande
Psychiatric practice in India is marked by an increasing gulf between largely urban-based mental health professionals and a majority rural population. Based on the premise that any engagement is a mutually constructed humane process, an understanding of the culture of psychiatry including social process of local knowledge acquisition by trainee psychiatrists is critical. This paper reviews existing literature on training of psychiatrists in India, the cultural construction of their professional identities and autobiographical reflections...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501264/challenges-around-automotive-shredder-residue-production-and-disposal
#17
Ala Khodier, Karl Williams, Neil Dallison
The challenge for the automotive industry is how to ensure they adopt the circular economy when it comes to the disposal of end-of-life vehicles (ELV). According to the European Commission the UK achieved a total reuse and recovery rate of 88%. This is short of the revised ELV directive target of 95% materials recovery, which requires a minimum of 85% of materials to be recycled or reused. A significant component of the recycling process is the production of automotive shredder residue (ASR). This is currently landfilled across Europe...
May 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498114/life-cycle-assessment-of-sludge-management-with-phosphorus-utilisation-and-improved-hygienisation-in-sweden
#18
M Svanström, S Heimersson, G Peters, R Harder, D I'Ons, A Finnson, J Olsson
To provide input to sewage sludge management strategies that address expected new regulations in terms of hygienisation and phosphorus recovery in Sweden, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) was made. The LCA identified environmental hot spots for methods that may permit sludge or phosphorus from sludge to be applied on agricultural land. In particular, thermophilic digestion, pasteurisation, thermal hydrolysis, urea treatment and mono-incineration with phosphorus recovery were compared. In addition, a sludge management system involving drying of sludge before use in forestry was investigated...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491137/boosting-lpmo-driven-lignocellulose-degradation-by-polyphenol-oxidase-activated-lignin-building-blocks
#19
Matthias Frommhagen, Sumanth Kumar Mutte, Adrie H Westphal, Martijn J Koetsier, Sandra W A Hinz, Jaap Visser, Jean-Paul Vincken, Dolf Weijers, Willem J H van Berkel, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
BACKGROUND: Many fungi boost the deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass via oxidation using lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The application of LPMOs is expected to contribute to ecologically friendly conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Moreover, applications of LPMO-modified cellulose-based products may be envisaged within the food or material industry. RESULTS: Here, we show an up to 75-fold improvement in LPMO-driven cellulose degradation using polyphenol oxidase-activated lignin building blocks...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470498/ashes-from-fluidized-bed-combustion-of-residual-forest-biomass-recycling-to-soil-as-a-viable-management-option
#20
Nuno C Cruz, Sónia M Rodrigues, Lina Carvalho, Armando C Duarte, Eduarda Pereira, Paul F A M Römkens, Luís A C Tarelho
Although bottom ash (BA) [or mixtures of bottom and fly ash (FA)] from clean biomass fuels is currently used as liming agent, additive for compost, and fertilizer on agricultural and forest soils in certain European countries, in several other countries most of the ashes are currently disposed in landfills. This is due to both a lack of a proper classification of the materials and of regulatory barriers.Chemical characterization including analysis of an array of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) proved that over 100,000 tons of BA currently landfilled every year in Portugal actually complied with legal limits for PTEs for soil fertilizers applied in other countries...
June 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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