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Oligodendrocyte precursor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039438/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-inhibit-the-migration-and-differentiation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-and-its-counteractive-interaction-with-laminin
#1
Yi Sun, Yingping Deng, Mili Xiao, Lan Hu, Zhihua Li, Chao Chen
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) is a recognized problem in premature infants, particularly in those with very low birth weights. Although the survival rate of premature infants has notably increased due to the advancement of modern medical treatments, their likelihood of developmental disability is higher than infants with an average birth weight. It has been previously reported that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are selectively vulnerable to WMI in premature infants. Following brain injury, glial scars may develop within the white matter...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029896/clemastine-fumarate-as-a-remyelinating-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis-rebuild-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-crossover-trial
#2
Ari J Green, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Bruce A Cree, Carolyn Bevan, W John Boscardin, Feng Mei, Justin Inman, Sam Arnow, Michael Devereux, Aya Abounasr, Hiroko Nobuta, Alyssa Zhu, Matt Friessen, Roy Gerona, Hans Christian von Büdingen, Roland G Henry, Stephen L Hauser, Jonah R Chan
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS characterised by immune-mediated destruction of myelin and progressive neuroaxonal loss. Myelin in the CNS is a specialised extension of the oligodendrocyte plasma membrane and clemastine fumarate can stimulate differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in vitro, in animal models, and in human cells. We aimed to analyse the efficacy and safety of clemastine fumarate as a treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis...
October 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988404/temporal-changes-in-transcription-factor-expression-associated-with-the-differentiation-state-of-cerebellar-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-during-development
#3
Masae Naruse, Koji Shibasaki, Yasuki Ishizaki
During central nervous development, multi-potent neural stem/progenitor cells located in the ventricular/subventricular zones are temporally regulated to mostly produce neurons during early developmental stages and to produce glia during later developmental stages. After birth, the rodent cerebellum undergoes further dramatic development. It is also known that neural stem/progenitor cells are present in the white matter (WM) of the postnatal cerebellum until around P10, although the fate of these cells has yet to be determined...
October 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986960/bad-wrap-myelin-and-myelin-plasticity-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Erin M Gibson, Anna C Geraghty, Michelle Monje
Human central nervous system myelin development extends well into the fourth decade of life, and this protracted period underscores the potential for experience to modulate myelination. The concept of myelin plasticity implies adaptability in myelin structure and function in response to experiences during development and beyond. Mounting evidence supports this concept of neuronal activity-regulated changes in myelin-forming cells, including oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation, oligodendrogenesis and modulation of myelin microstructure...
October 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980095/origin-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-vertebrate-optic-nerve-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Katsuhiko Ono, Yukie Hirahara, Hitoshi Gotoh, Tadashi Nomura, Hirohide Takebayashi, Hisao Yamada, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
One of the unsolved problems in the research field of oligodendrocyte (OL) development has been the site(s) of origin of optic nerve OLs and its precursor cells (OPCs). It is generally accepted that OLs in the optic nerve are derived from the brain, and thus optic nerve OLs are immigrant cells. We previously demonstrated the brain origin of optic nerve OPCs in chick embryos. However, the site of optic nerve OPC origin has not been examined experimentally in developing rodents for the past two decades. We have recently reported that optic nerve OPCs in mice arise in the preoptic area by E12...
October 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966634/lingo-1-and-amigo3-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-neurological-and-dysmyelinating-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Simon Foale, Martin Berry, Ann Logan, Daniel Fulton, Zubair Ahmed
Leucine rich repeat proteins have gained considerable interest as therapeutic targets due to their expression and biological activity within the central nervous system. LINGO-1 has received particular attention since it inhibits axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury in a RhoA dependent manner while inhibiting leucine rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain-containing protein 1 (LINGO-1) disinhibits neuron outgrowth. Furthermore, LINGO-1 suppresses oligodendrocyte precursor cell maturation and myelin production...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959975/targeting-neuronal-activity-regulated-neuroligin-3-dependency-in-high-grade-glioma
#7
Humsa S Venkatesh, Lydia T Tam, Pamelyn J Woo, James Lennon, Surya Nagaraja, Shawn M Gillespie, Jing Ni, Damien Y Duveau, Patrick J Morris, Jean J Zhao, Craig J Thomas, Michelle Monje
High-grade gliomas (HGG) are a devastating group of cancers, and represent the leading cause of brain tumour-related death in both children and adults. Therapies aimed at mechanisms intrinsic to glioma cells have translated to only limited success; effective therapeutic strategies will need also to target elements of the tumour microenvironment that promote glioma progression. Neuronal activity promotes the growth of a range of molecularly and clinically distinct HGG types, including adult and paediatric glioblastoma (GBM), anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG)...
September 28, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948533/remyelinating-pharmacotherapies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Riley M Bove, Ari J Green
We have witnessed major successes in the development of effective immunomodulatory therapies capable of reducing adaptive immune-mediated myelin damage in MS over the last 30 years. However, until it is possible to prevent MS or initiate treatment before it has already caused lesions there is a need to repair myelin damage to prevent further axonal loss. The past decade has brought remarkable advances in our understanding of oligodendrocyte biology and the related search for remyelinating therapies in humans...
September 25, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940767/human-mesenchymal-factors-induce-rat-hippocampal-and-human-neural-stem-cell-dependent-oligodendrogenesis
#9
Janusz J Jadasz, Lena Tepe, Felix Beyer, Iria Samper Agrelo, Rainer Akkermann, Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn, Maria Elena Silva, Richard O C Oreffo, Hans-Peter Hartung, Alessandro Prigione, Francisco J Rivera, James Adjaye, Patrick Küry
The generation of new oligodendrocytes is essential for adult brain repair in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We previously identified the multifunctional p57kip2 protein as a negative regulator of myelinating glial cell differentiation and as an intrinsic switch of glial fate decision in adult neural stem cells (aNSCs). In oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs), p57kip2 protein nuclear exclusion was recently found to be rate limiting for differentiation to proceed. Furthermore, stimulation with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived factors enhanced oligodendrogenesis by yet unknown mechanisms...
September 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940651/mechanical-plasticity-during-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-myelination
#10
REVIEW
Helena S Domingues, Andrea Cruz, Jonah R Chan, João B Relvas, Boris Rubinstein, Inês Mendes Pinto
In the central nervous system, oligodendrocyte precursor cells are exclusive in their potential to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells migrate within the parenchyma and extend cell membrane protrusions that ultimately evolve into myelinating sheaths able to wrap neuronal axons and significantly increase their electrical conductivity. The subcellular force generating mechanisms driving morphological and functional transformations during oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination remain elusive...
September 21, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940645/lineage-tracing-reveals-dynamic-changes-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-following-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#11
Emily G Baxi, Joseph DeBruin, Jing Jin, Hayley J Strasburger, Matthew D Smith, Jennifer L Orthmann-Murphy, Jason T Schott, Amanda N Fairchild, Dwight E Bergles, Peter A Calabresi
The regeneration of oligodendrocytes is a crucial step in recovery from demyelination, as surviving oligodendrocytes exhibit limited structural plasticity and rarely form additional myelin sheaths. New oligodendrocytes arise through the differentiation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) expressing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the CNS. Although there has been detailed investigation of the behavior of these progenitors in white matter, recent studies suggest that disease burden in multiple sclerosis (MS) is more strongly correlated with gray matter atrophy...
September 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939905/expression-and-differential-responsiveness-of-central-nervous-system-glial-cell-populations-to-the-acute-phase-protein-serum-amyloid-a
#12
Massimo Barbierato, Mila Borri, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Stephen D Skaper, Pietro Giusti
Acute-phase response is a systemic reaction to environmental/inflammatory insults and involves hepatic production of acute-phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA). Extrahepatically, SAA immunoreactivity is found in axonal myelin sheaths of cortex in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS), although its cellular origin is unclear. We examined the responses of cultured rat cortical astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to master pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and lipopolysaccaride (LPS)...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934193/oxidative-stress-prefrontal-cortex-hypomyelination-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
D A Maas, A Vallès, G J M Martens
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and myelin abnormalities in SZ patients. Myelin is produced by mature OLs, and OL precursor cells (OPCs) are exceptionally susceptible to oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931573/chd7-collaborates-with-sox2-to-regulate-activation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Toru Doi, Toru Ogata, Junji Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Sawada, Sakae Tanaka, Motoshi Nagao
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) act as a reservoir of new oligodendrocytes (OLs) in homeostatic and pathological conditions. OPCs are activated in response to injury, to generate myelinating OLs; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Chd7 regulates OPC activation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Chd7 is expressed in OPCs in the adult spinal cord and its expression is upregulated with a concomitant increase in Sox2 expression following SCI. OPC-specific ablation of Chd7 in the injured mice leads to reduced OPC proliferation, the loss of OPC identity, and impaired OPC differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925069/myelin-plasticity-neural-activity-and-traumatic-neural-injury
#15
REVIEW
Bethany R Kondiles, Philip J Horner
The possibility that adult organisms exhibit myelin plasticity has recently become a topic of great interest. Many researchers are exploring the role of myelin growth and adaptation in daily functions such as memory and motor learning. Here we consider evidence for three different potential categories of myelin plasticity: the myelination of previously bare axons, remodeling of existing sheaths, and the removal of a sheath with replacement by a new internode. We also review evidence that points to the importance of neural activity as a mechanism by which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are cued to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes, which may potentially be an important component of myelin plasticity...
September 19, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905149/interactions-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-gamma-on-neuroinflammation-demyelination-and-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Noël Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Yves Lecarpentier
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is marked by neuroinflammation and demyelination with loss of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. The immune response is regulated by WNT/beta-catenin pathway in MS. Activated NF-kappaB, a major effector of neuroinflammation, and upregulated canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway positively regulate each other. Demyelinating events present an upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, whereas proper myelinating phases show a downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway essential for the promotion of oligodendrocytes precursors cells proliferation and differentiation...
September 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899472/-long-term-effect-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-transplantation-on-a-rat-model-of-white-matter-injury-in-the-preterm-infant
#17
Cheng-Jun Wu, Zhao-Yan Wang, Yin-Xiang Yang, Zuo Luan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effect of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) transplantation on a rat model of white matter injury (WMI) in the preterm infant. METHODS: A total of 80 Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3 days were randomly divided into sham-operation group, model control group, 5-day ventricular/white matter transplantation group, 9-day ventricular/white matter transplantation group, 14-day ventricular/white matter transplantation group (n=10 each)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829781/different-patterns-of-neuronal-activity-trigger-distinct-responses-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-the-corpus-callosum
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Balint Nagy, Anahit Hovhannisyan, Ruxandra Barzan, Ting-Jiun Chen, Maria Kukley
In the developing and adult brain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are influenced by neuronal activity: they are involved in synaptic signaling with neurons, and their proliferation and differentiation into myelinating glia can be altered by transient changes in neuronal firing. An important question that has been unanswered is whether OPCs can discriminate different patterns of neuronal activity and respond to them in a distinct way. Here, we demonstrate in brain slices that the pattern of neuronal activity determines the functional changes triggered at synapses between axons and OPCs...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828731/pharmacological-properties-and-biological-functions-of-the-gpr17-receptor-a-potential-target-for-neuro-regenerative-medicine
#19
Marta Fumagalli, Davide Lecca, Giusy T Coppolino, Chiara Parravicini, Maria P Abbracchio
In 2006, cells heterologously expressing the "orphan" receptor GPR17 were shown to acquire responses to both uracil nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, two families of signaling molecules accumulating in brain or heart as a result of hypoxic/traumatic injuries. In subsequent years, evidence of GPR17 key role in oligodendrogenesis and myelination has highlighted it as a "model receptor" for new therapies in demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. The apparently contrasting evidence in the literature about the role of GPR17 in promoting or inhibiting myelination can be due to its transient expression in the intermediate stages of differentiation, exerting a pro-differentiating function in early oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and an inhibitory role in late stage maturing cells...
August 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825598/peripherally-derived-fgf21-promotes-remyelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Mariko Kuroda, Rieko Muramatsu, Noriko Maedera, Yoshihisa Koyama, Machika Hamaguchi, Harutoshi Fujimura, Mari Yoshida, Morichika Konishi, Nobuyuki Itoh, Hideki Mochizuki, Toshihide Yamashita
Demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) leads to severe neurological deficits that can be partially reversed by spontaneous remyelination. Because the CNS is isolated from the peripheral milieu by the blood-brain barrier, remyelination is thought to be controlled by the CNS microenvironment. However, in this work we found that factors derived from peripheral tissue leak into the CNS after injury and promote remyelination in a murine model of toxin-induced demyelination. Mechanistically, leakage of circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which is predominantly expressed by the pancreas, drives proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) through interactions with β-klotho, an essential coreceptor of FGF21...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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