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Oligodendrocyte precursor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902499/neural-stem-cell-heterogeneity-in-the-mammalian-forebrain
#1
REVIEW
K V Adams, C M Morshead
The brain was long considered an organ that underwent very little change after development. It is now well established that the mammalian central nervous system contains neural stem cells that generate progeny that are capable of making new neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes throughout life. The field has advanced rapidly as it strives to understand the basic biology of these precursor cells, and explore their potential to promote brain repair. The purpose of this review is to present current knowledge about the diversity of neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo, and highlight distinctions between neural stem cell populations, throughout development, and within the niche...
June 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895784/molecular-mechanisms-of-oligodendrocyte-regeneration-in-white-matter-related-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Ryo Ohtomo, Atsushi Iwata, Ken Arai
Even in adult brains, restorative mechanisms are still retained to maintain the microenvironment. Under the pathological conditions of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, several immature cells in the brain would be activated as a compensative response. As the concept of the neurovascular unit emphasizes, cell-cell interactions play important roles in this restorative process. White matter damage and oligodendrocyte loss are representative characteristics for many neurodegenerative diseases. In response to oligodendrocyte damage, residual oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) initiate their proliferation and differentiation for the purpose of remyelination...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892495/the-relationship-of-wound-healing-with-psoriasis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Vera B Morhenn
Significance: Better understanding of wound healing could lead to improved treatment(s) of multiple sclerosis (MS) and psoriasis (Pso). Recent Advances: New concepts in the events of wound healing, such as the roles of the innate and adaptive immune systems, have generated targets for treating these debilitating diseases. Innovation: That in MS and Pso defective wound healing is responsible for the diseases' progression has not been hypothesized to date. Conclusion: Impaired initiation of wound repair by oligodendrocyte precursor cells or oligodendrocytes may play a role in MS, and a lack of inhibition of the proliferative phase in wound healing may explain the pathophysiology involved in Pso...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885526/microfiber-drug-gene-delivery-platform-for-study-of-myelination
#4
William Ong, Junquan Lin, Marie E Bechler, Kai Wang, Mingfeng Wang, Charles Ffrench-Constant, Sing Yian Chew
Our ability to rescue functional deficits after demyelinating diseases or spinal cord injuries is limited by our lack of understanding of the complex remyelination process, which is crucial to functional recovery. In this study, we developed an electrospun suspended poly(ε-caprolactone) microfiber platform to enable the screening of therapeutics for remyelination. As a proof of concept, this platform employed scaffold-mediated non-viral delivery of a microRNA (miR) cocktail to promote oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) differentiation and myelination...
June 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885452/minocycline-plus-n-acetylcysteine-protect-oligodendrocytes-when-first-dosed-12-hours-after-closed-head-injury-in-mice
#5
Michael Sangobowale, Elena Nikulina, Peter J Bergold
The mouse closed head injury (CHI) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces widespread demyelination. Myelin content is restored by minocycline (MINO) plus n-acetylcysteine (NAC) or MINO alone when first dosed at 12 hours after CHI. In a rat controlled cortical impact model of TBl, a first dose of MINO plus NAC one hour after injury protects resident oligodendrocytes that induce remyelination. In contrast, MINO less effectively protects oligodendrocytes and remyelination is mediated by oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation and differentiation...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885287/cellular-fate-decisions-in-the-developing-female-anteroventral-periventricular-nucleus-are-regulated-by-canonical-notch-signaling
#6
Matthew J Biehl, Kerim B Kaylan, Robert J Thompson, Rachel V Gonzalez, Karen E Weis, Gregory H Underhill, Lori T Raetzman
The hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) is the major regulator of reproductive function within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Despite an understanding of the function of neuronal subtypes within the AVPV, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating their development. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that Notch signaling is required in progenitor cell maintenance and formation of kisspeptin neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) while simultaneously restraining POMC neuron number...
June 6, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857968/whole-brain-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-therapy-markedly-improves-cognitive-dysfunctions-in-mouse-models-of-dementia-crucial-roles-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase
#7
Kumiko Eguchi, Tomohiko Shindo, Kenta Ito, Tsuyoshi Ogata, Ryo Kurosawa, Yuta Kagaya, Yuto Monma, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Sachie Kasukabe, Satoshi Miyata, Takeo Yoshikawa, Kazuhiko Yanai, Hirofumi Taki, Hiroshi Kanai, Noriko Osumi, Hiroaki Shimokawa
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic focused-ultrasound to the hippocampus has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on dementia. In the present study, we examined whether the whole-brain LIPUS (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound) therapy is effective and safe in 2 mouse models of dementia (vascular dementia, VaD and Alzheimer's disease, AD), and if so, to elucidate the common underlying mechanism(s) involved. METHODS: We used bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model with micro-coils in male C57BL/6 mice as a VaD model and 5XFAD transgenic mice as an AD model...
May 22, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849982/the-evaluation-of-astaxanthin-effects-on-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-into-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#8
Nazem Ghasemi
Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has been explained as an autoimmune mediated disorder in central nerve system. Since conventional therapies for MS are not able to stop or reverse the destruction of nerve tissue, stem cell-based therapy has been proposed for the treatment of MS. Astaxanthin (AST) is a red fat-soluble xanthophyll with neuroprotection activity. The aim of this study was evaluation of pre-inducer function of AST on differentiation of human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hADSCs) into oligodendrocyte precursor cells...
April 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809138/microglial-transglutaminase-2-drives-myelination-and-myelin-repair-via-gpr56-adgrg1-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#9
Stefanie Giera, Rong Luo, Yanqin Ying, Sarah D Ackerman, Sung-Jin Jeong, Hannah M Stoveken, Christopher J Folts, Christina A Welsh, Gregory G Tall, Beth Stevens, Kelly R Monk, Xianhua Piao
In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin formation and repair are regulated by oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells, which sense and integrate signals from their environment, including from other glial cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The signaling pathways that coordinate this complex communication, however, remain poorly understood. The adhesion G protein-coupled receptor ADGRG1 (also known as GPR56) is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of OL development in humans, mice, and zebrafish, although its activating ligand for OL lineage cells is unknown...
May 29, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782926/decoding-cell-signalling-and-regulation-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#10
REVIEW
A K Santos, M S Vieira, R Vasconcellos, V A M Goulart, A H Kihara, R R Resende
Oligodendrocytes are fundamental for the functioning of the nervous system; they participate in several cellular processes, including axonal myelination and metabolic maintenance for astrocytes and neurons. In the mammalian nervous system, they are produced through waves of proliferation and differentiation, which occur during embryogenesis. However, oligodendrocytes and their precursors continue to be generated during adulthood from specific niches of stem cells that were not recruited during development. Deficiencies in the formation and maturation of these cells can generate pathologies mainly related to myelination...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782918/bdnf-haploinsufficiency-exerts-a-transient-and-regionally-different-influence-upon-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells-during-postnatal-development
#11
Madeline Nicholson, Rhiannon J Wood, Jessica L Fletcher, Maarten van den Buuse, Simon S Murray, Junhua Xiao
The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) plays important roles in promoting myelination in the developing central nervous system (CNS), however the influence it exerts on oligodendrocyte development in vivo remain unclear. As BDNF knockout mice die in the perinatal period, we undertook a systematic developmental analysis of oligodendroglial lineage cells within multiple CNS regions of BDNF heterozygous (HET) mice. Our data identify that BDNF heterozygosity results in transient reductions in oligodendroglial lineage cell density and progression that are largely restricted to the optic nerve, whereas the corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, basal forebrain and spinal cord white matter tracts are unaffected...
May 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769557/nde1-positively-regulates-oligodendrocyte-morphological-differentiation
#12
Shoko Shimizu, Yugo Ishino, Masaya Tohyama, Shingo Miyata
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS), undergo morphological differentiation characterized by elaborated branched processes to enwrap neuronal axons. However, the basic molecular mechanisms underlying oligodendrocyte morphogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we describe the essential roles of Nuclear Distribution E Homolog 1 (NDE1), a dynein cofactor, in oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. In the mouse corpus callosum, Nde1 mRNA expression was detected in oligodendrocyte lineage cells at the postnatal stage...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741724/myelin-modifications-after-chronic-sleep-loss-in-adolescent-mice
#13
Michele Bellesi, John Douglas Haswell, Luisa de Vivo, William Marshall, Patrick H Roseboom, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
Study Objectives: Previous studies found that sleep loss can suppress the expression of genes implicated in myelination and can have adverse effects on oligodendrocyte precursor cells. On the other hand, sleep may favor myelination by promoting the expression of genes involved in its formation and maintenance. Albeit limited, these results suggest that sleep loss can have detrimental effects on the formation and maintenance of myelin. Methods: Here, we tested this hypothesis by evaluating ultrastructural modifications of myelin in two brain regions (corpus callosum and lateral olfactory tract) of mice exposed to different periods of sleep loss, from a few hours of sleep deprivation to ~5 days of chronic sleep restriction...
May 1, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728852/glial-cells-shape-pathology-and-repair-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken
Glial cell types were classified less than 100 years ago by del Rio-Hortega. For instance, he correctly surmised that microglia in pathologic central nervous system (CNS) were "voracious monsters" that helped clean the tissue. Although these historical predictions were remarkably accurate, innovative technologies have revealed novel molecular, cellular, and dynamic physiologic aspects of CNS glia. In this review, we integrate recent findings regarding the roles of glia and glial interactions in healthy and injured spinal cord...
May 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704264/nf-y-dependent-regulation-of-glutamate-receptor-4-expression-and-cell-survival-in-cells-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage
#15
Ghazala Begum, Masahiro Otsu, Usman Ahmed, Zubair Ahmed, Adam Stevens, Daniel Fulton
Glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4) is highly expressed by neural cells sensitive to excitotoxicity, and is the predominant subunit expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) during a key period of vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore, transcriptional networks downstream of excitotoxic GluA4 activation represent a promising area for therapeutic intervention. In this work, we identify the CCAAT binding transcription factor NF-Yb as a novel transcriptional regulator of Gria4 (GluA4 gene), and a controller of excitotoxic death in the oligodendroglial lineage...
April 27, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690885/blockade-of-sustained-tumor-necrosis-factor-in-a-transgenic-model-of-progressive-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-limits-oligodendrocyte-apoptosis-and-promotes-oligodendrocyte-maturation
#16
Alice Valentin-Torres, Carine Savarin, Joslyn Barnett, Cornelia C Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Although TNF-targeted therapies have been largely unsuccessful in MS, recent preclinical data suggests selective soluble TNF inhibition can promote remyelination. This has renewed interest in regulation of TNF signaling in demyelinating disease, especially given the limited treatment options for progressive MS. Using a mouse model of progressive MS, this study evaluates the effects of sustained TNF on oligodendrocyte (OLG) apoptosis and OLG precursor cell (OPC) differentiation...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683222/ascl1-regulates-proliferation-of-ng2-glia-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-spinal-cord
#17
Demetra P Kelenis, Emma Hart, Morgan Edwards-Fligner, Jane E Johnson, Tou Yia Vue
NG2-glia are highly proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). During development, NG2-glia predominantly differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) to myelinate axon fibers, but they can also remain as OPCs persisting into the mature CNS. Interestingly, NG2-glia in the gray matter (GM) are intrinsically different from those in the white matter (WM) in terms of proliferation, differentiation, gene expression, and electrophysiological properties...
April 23, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681511/a-glial-signature-and-wnt7-signaling-regulate-glioma-vascular-interactions-and-tumor-microenvironment
#18
Amelie Griveau, Giorgio Seano, Samuel J Shelton, Robert Kupp, Arman Jahangiri, Kirsten Obernier, Shanmugarajan Krishnan, Olle R Lindberg, Tracy J Yuen, An-Chi Tien, Jennifer K Sabo, Nancy Wang, Ivy Chen, Jonas Kloepper, Louis Larrouquere, Mitrajit Ghosh, Itay Tirosh, Emmanuelle Huillard, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Michael C Oldham, Anders I Persson, William A Weiss, Tracy T Batchelor, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Mario L Suvà, Joanna J Phillips, Manish K Aghi, Shwetal Mehta, Rakesh K Jain, David H Rowitch
Gliomas comprise heterogeneous malignant glial and stromal cells. While blood vessel co-option is a potential mechanism to escape anti-angiogenic therapy, the relevance of glial phenotype in this process is unclear. We show that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor-like glioma cells invade by single-cell vessel co-option and preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Conversely, Olig2-negative glioma cells form dense perivascular collections and promote angiogenesis and BBB breakdown, leading to innate immune cell activation...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679562/myotube-derived-factor-promotes-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-proliferation
#19
Akino Nakasone, Rieko Muramatsu, Yuki Kato, Yukio Kawahara, Toshihide Yamashita
Muscle cells secrete numerous molecules that function as endocrine hormones and regulate the functions of distant organs. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by peripheral hormones. However, the effects of muscle-derived molecules on myelination have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we show that muscle-releasing factors promote proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which is an element of myelination process. Supernatants of mouse myotube cultures stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into mouse OPCs...
June 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674595/developmental-and-oncogenic-programs-in-h3k27m-gliomas-dissected-by-single-cell-rna-seq
#20
Mariella G Filbin, Itay Tirosh, Volker Hovestadt, McKenzie L Shaw, Leah E Escalante, Nathan D Mathewson, Cyril Neftel, Nelli Frank, Kristine Pelton, Christine M Hebert, Christine Haberler, Keren Yizhak, Johannes Gojo, Kristof Egervari, Christopher Mount, Peter van Galen, Dennis M Bonal, Quang-De Nguyen, Alexander Beck, Claire Sinai, Thomas Czech, Christian Dorfer, Liliana Goumnerova, Cinzia Lavarino, Angel M Carcaboso, Jaume Mora, Ravindra Mylvaganam, Christina C Luo, Andreas Peyrl, Mara Popović, Amedeo Azizi, Tracy T Batchelor, Matthew P Frosch, Maria Martinez-Lage, Mark W Kieran, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Rameen Beroukhim, Gerhard Fritsch, Gad Getz, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Kai W Wucherpfennig, David N Louis, Michelle Monje, Irene Slavc, Keith L Ligon, Todd R Golub, Aviv Regev, Bradley E Bernstein, Mario L Suvà
Gliomas with histone H3 lysine27-to-methionine mutations (H3K27M-glioma) arise primarily in the midline of the central nervous system of young children, suggesting a cooperation between genetics and cellular context in tumorigenesis. Although the genetics of H3K27M-glioma are well characterized, their cellular architecture remains uncharted. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing in 3321 cells from six primary H3K27M-glioma and matched models. We found that H3K27M-glioma primarily contain cells that resemble oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC-like), whereas more differentiated malignant cells are a minority...
April 20, 2018: Science
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