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Oligodendrocyte precursor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725186/foxb1-regulates-negatively-the-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#1
Yuanfeng Zhang, Elti Hoxha, Tianyu Zhao, Xunlei Zhou, Gonzalo Alvarez-Bolado
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC), neurons and astrocytes share a neural progenitor cell (NPC) in the early ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic neuroepithelium. Both switch to produce either of the three cell types and the generation of the right number of them undergo complex genetic regulation. The components of these regulatory cascades vary between brain regions giving rise to the unique morphological and functional heterogeneity of this organ. Forkhead b1 (Foxb1) is a transcription factor gene expressed by NPCs in specific regions of the embryonic neuroepithelium...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720882/cell-type-specific-differences-in-promoter-activity-of-the-als-linked-c9orf72-mouse-ortholog
#2
Abraham J Langseth, Juhyun Kim, Janet E Ugolino, Yajas Shah, Ho-Yon Hwang, Jiou Wang, Dwight E Bergles, Solange P Brown
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of inherited forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this disease, but the pathogenic pathways are not fully understood. To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720571/the-integrated-stress-response-in-hypoxia-induced-diffuse-white-matter-injury
#3
Benjamin Ll Clayton, Aaron Huang, Rejani B Kunjamma, Ani Solanki, Brian Popko
Currently no treatments exist for preterm infants with diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia. Due to improved care of preterm neonates and increased recognition by advanced imaging techniques, the prevalence of DWMI is increasing. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of DWMI is therefore of critical importance. The integrated stress response (ISR), a conserved eukaryotic response to myriad stressors including hypoxia, may play a role in hypoxia-induced DWMI and may represent a novel target for much needed therapies...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718218/impact-of-prenatal-immune-challenge-on-the-demyelination-injury-during-adulthood
#4
Abdeslam Mouihate, Hessah Al-Hashash, Sarah Rakhshani-Moghadam, Samah Kalakh
AIM: Brain inflammation is associated with several brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease characterized by demyelination. Whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation in the white matter during adulthood is unclear. In the present study, we used a well-established experimental model of focal demyelination to assess whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation. METHODS: Pregnant rats were injected with either lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg, ip) or pyrogen-free saline...
July 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717866/mir-30a-positively-regulates-the-inflammatory-response-of-microglia-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
Xue Fang, Dingya Sun, Zhihong Wang, Zhongwang Yu, Weili Liu, Yingyan Pu, Dan Wang, Aijun Huang, Mingdong Liu, Zhenghua Xiang, Cheng He, Li Cao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a classical inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are the main resident immune cells in the CNS and are closely associated with the pathogenesis of MS. In the present study, we found that miR-30a was highly expressed in jellyfish-like microglia in chronic active lesions of MS patients, as well as in the microglia of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) at the chronic phase. In vitro, the conditioned supernatant of mouse microglia overexpressing miR-30a promoted the apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and inhibited OPC differentiation...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709021/architecting-the-myelin-landscape
#6
REVIEW
Lindsay A Osso, Jonah R Chan
Myelin increases the speed and efficiency of action potential propagation. Yet, not all axons are myelinated and some axons are discontinuously myelinated, prompting the question of how myelinating glia select axons for myelination. Whereas myelination by Schwann cells depends on axonal induction, oligodendrocytes can form myelin membrane in the absence of axons. However, oligodendrocytes alone cannot architect the complex myelination patterns of the central nervous system and recent advances have implicated axonal signaling in this process...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702713/the-role-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-in-acute-brain-trauma
#7
Anja Scheller, Xianshu Bai, Frank Kirchhoff
An acute brain injury is commonly characterized by an extended cellular damage. The post-injury process of scar formation is largely determined by responses of various local glial cells and blood-derived immune cells. The role of astrocytes and microglia have been frequently reviewed in the traumatic sequelae. Here, we summarize the diverse contributions of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and their precursor cells (OPCs) in acute injuries. OLs at the lesion site are highly sensitive to a damaging insult, provoked by Ca(2+) overload after hyperexcitation originating from increased levels of transmitters...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695279/epigenetic-regulation-of-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-towards-spinal-cord-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Tomonori Kameda, Takuya Imamura, Kinichi Nakashima
Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to almost complete neural cell loss at the injured site, causing the irreversible disruption of neuronal circuits. The transplantation of neural stem or precursor cells (NS/PCs) has been regarded as potentially effective for SCI treatment because NS/PCs can compensate for the injured sites by differentiating into neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the proliferation, fate specification and maturation of NS/PCs and their progeny would facilitate the establishment of better therapeutic strategies for regeneration after SCI...
July 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685618/minocycline-plus-n-acteylcysteine-induces-remyelination-synergistically-protects-oligodendrocytes-and-modifies-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Margalit Haber, Jessica James, Justine Kim, Michael Sangobawole, Rachel Irizarry, Johnson Ho, Elena Nikulina, Natalia M Grin'kina, Albana Ramadani, Isabella Hartman, Peter J Bergold
Mild traumatic brain injury afflicts over 2 million people annually and little can be done for the underlying injury. The Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs Minocycline plus N-acetylcysteine (MINO plus NAC) synergistically improved cognition and memory in a rat mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI) model of traumatic brain injury.(3) The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the drug combination are unknown. This study addressed the effect of the drug combination on white matter damage and neuroinflammation after mCCI...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684344/inhibition-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-reduces-reactive-glia-and-scar-formation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#10
Dan Pei, Nan Liu, Dan Li, Hongjing Yan, Qiu-Bo Wang, Yan Fang, Ling Xie, Hong-Peng Li
Brain injury leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions within the central nervous system. As the glial scar was a mechanical barrier to regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Here we investigated the roles of PDGFRβ signaling in regulating astrocyte reactivity and scar formation in mice following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The expression and distribution of phosphorylated PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), microglia (IBA1), oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) (NG2) and leukocytes (CD45)...
July 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676401/hv1-proton-channel-facilitates-production-of-ros-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-microglia-and-enhances-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-damage-from-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-vitro
#11
Ying Yu, Zhiyuan Yu, Minjie Xie, Wei Wang, Xiang Luo
The contribution of microglial activation to oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) damage in the brain is considered to be a principal pathophysiological feature of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in microglia has been shown to be significantly toxic to OPCs. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is selectively expressed in microglia and is essential for NOX-dependent ROS production in the central nervous system...
July 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670274/differentially-severe-cognitive-effects-of-compromised-cerebral-blood-flow-in-aged-mice-association-with-myelin-degradation-and-microglia-activation
#12
Gilly Wolf, Amit Lotan, Tzuri Lifschytz, Hagar Ben-Ari, Tirzah Kreisel Merzel, Pavel Tatarskyy, Michael Valitzky, Ben Mernick, Elad Avidan, Nickolay Koroukhov, Bernard Lerer
Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) models the effects of compromised cerebral blood flow on brain structure and function in mice. We compared the effects of BCAS in aged (21 month) and young adult (3 month) female mice, anticipating a differentially more severe effect in the older mice. Four weeks after surgery there was a significant age by time by treatment interaction on the radial-arm water maze (RAWM; p = 0.014): on the first day of the test, latencies of old mice were longer compared to the latencies of young adult mice, independent of BCAS...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668379/design-and-optimization-of-plga-microparticles-for-controlled-and-local-delivery-of-neuregulin-1-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Kallivalappil T Santhosh, Arsalan Alizadeh, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in significant tissue damage that underlies functional impairments. Pharmacological interventions to confer neuroprotection and promote cell replacement are essential for SCI repair. We previously reported that Neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) is acutely and permanently downregulated after SCI. Nrg-1 is a critical growth factor for differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. We showed that intrathecal delivery of Nrg-1 enhances oligodendrocyte replacement following SCI...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657129/acetyl-coa-production-from-pyruvate-is-not-necessary-for-preservation-of-myelin
#14
Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Lauren Mueller, Nicholas Silvestri, Mulchand S Patel, Lawrence Wrabetz, M Laura Feltri, Yannick Poitelon
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells not only form myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also provide metabolic and trophic support to the axons they ensheathe. Acetyl-CoA is potentially a key molecule in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes because it is at the crossroads of cellular lipid biosynthesis and energy generation. The main route for acetyl-CoA production is the oxidation of pyruvate by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC deficiency in humans results in neurodegeneration and developmental impairments in both white and gray matter structures...
June 28, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656232/transcription-factor-7-like-2-promotes-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-remyelination
#15
Chao Weng, Man Ding, Shanghua Fan, Qian Cao, Zuneng Lu
Transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2, also termed TCF4), is a Wnt effector induced transiently in the oligodendroglial lineage. The current well accepted hypothesis is that TCF7L2 inhibits oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination through canonical Wnt/β‑catenin signaling. However, recent studies indicated that TCF7L2 activity is required during oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination. In order to clarify this, in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis using in vivo TCF7L2 conditional knockout mice, were performed and it was found that TCF7L2 promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation during myelin formation and remyelination...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643952/asn194lys-mutation-in-rvg29-peptide-increases-gfp-transgene-delivery-by-endocytosis-to-neuroblastoma-and-astrocyte-cells
#16
Sheila Adela Villa-Cedillo, Humberto Rodríguez-Rocha, Laura Mireya Zavala-Flores, Roberto Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Aracely García-García, Maria de Jesus Loera-Arias, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas
OBJECTIVES: A cell-penetrating peptide-based delivery system could target specific types of cells for therapeutic genes delivery. To increase the gene delivery efficiency into neuronal phenotype cells, we introduced an Asn194Lys mutation to RVG29 peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein and added a nuclear localization signal to enhance its nuclear import. METHODS: Mutant RVG or wild-type RVG peptide, a karyophilic peptide (KP) and a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (pGL) were bound by electrostatic charges to form four different kinds of RVG complexes...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642167/mice-lacking-gpr37-exhibit-decreased-expression-of-the-myelin-associated-glycoprotein-mag-and-increased-susceptibility-to-demyelination
#17
Brilee M Smith, Michelle M Giddens, Jessica Neil, Sharon Owino, TrangKimberly T Nguyen, Duc Duong, Fengqiao Li, Randy A Hall
GPR37 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is predominantly expressed in the brain and found at particularly high levels in oligodendrocytes. GPR37 has been shown to exert effects on oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination during development, but the molecular basis of these actions is incompletely understood and moreover nothing is known about the potential role(s) of this receptor under demyelinating conditions. To shed light on the fundamental biology of GPR37, we performed proteomic studies comparing protein expression levels in the brains of mice lacking GPR37 and its close relative GPR37-like 1 (GPR37L1)...
June 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634469/alexander-disease-mutations-produce-cells-with-coexpression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-ng2-in-neurosphere-cultures-and-inhibit-differentiation-into-mature-oligodendrocytes
#18
Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Maria Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, María Durán-Moreno, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Jorge Matias-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by presence of GFAP aggregates in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and loss of myelin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of AxD-related mutations on adult neurogenesis. METHODS: We transfected different types of mutant GFAP into neurospheres using the nucleofection technique. RESULTS: We find that mutations may cause coexpression of GFAP and NG2 in neurosphere cultures, which would inhibit the differentiation of precursors into oligodendrocytes and thus explain the myelin loss occurring in the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631093/myelin-regulatory-factor-drives-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Greg J Duncan, Jason R Plemel, Peggy Assinck, Sohrab B Manesh, Fraser G W Muir, Ryan Hirata, Matan Berson, Jie Liu, Michael Wegner, Ben Emery, G R Wayne Moore, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Remyelination is limited in the majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions despite the presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in most lesions. This observation has led to the view that a failure of OPCs to fully differentiate underlies remyelination failure. OPC differentiation requires intricate transcriptional regulation, which may be disrupted in chronic MS lesions. The expression of few transcription factors has been differentially compared between remyelinating lesions and lesions refractory to remyelination...
June 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623606/marcks-is-necessary-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-maturation
#20
Zhao-Huan Zhang, Fan-Fei Ma, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Hui Xu
Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) development into myelinated oligodendrocytes demands vigorous membrane addition. Since myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) reportedly contributes to Ras-associated protein (Rab)-10-associated vesicle insertion into neuronal membranes, we investigated the role of MARCKS in OPC maturation. We found that either knockdown of MARCKS or interruption of its interaction with Rab10 would cause a decrease of the cell membrane area during OPC development. Enhanced MARCKS phosphorylation by Nogo66 or myelin debris treatment inhibited OPC maturation, while its dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2 A activator D-erythro-sphingosine promoted OPC development in the presence of myelin debris...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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