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Oligodendrocyte precursor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424466/differential-local-tissue-permissiveness-influences-the-final-fate-of-gpr17-expressing-oligodendrocyte-precursors-in-two-distinct-models-of-demyelination
#1
Giusy T Coppolino, Davide Marangon, Camilla Negri, Gianluca Menichetti, Marta Fumagalli, Paolo Gelosa, Leda Dimou, Roberto Furlan, Davide Lecca, Maria P Abbracchio
Promoting remyelination is recognized as a novel strategy to foster repair in neurodegenerative demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In this respect, the receptor GPR17, recently emerged as a new target for remyelination, is expressed by early oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) and after a certain differentiation stage it has to be downregulated to allow progression to mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Here, we took advantage of the first inducible GPR17 reporter mouse line (GPR17-iCreERT2 xCAG-eGFP mice) allowing to follow the final fate of GPR17+ cells by tamoxifen-induced GFP-labeling to unveil the destiny of these cells in two demyelination models: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by marked immune cell activation and inflammation, and cuprizone induced demyelination, where myelin dysfunction is achieved by a toxic insult...
February 9, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423921/vitamin-c-promotes-oligodendrocytes-generation-and-remyelination
#2
Yu-E Guo, Na Suo, Xue Cui, Qianting Yuan, Xin Xie
Oligodendrocyte-formed myelin sheaths play important roles in the neuronal functions in the central nervous system. In demyelinating diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis, the myelin sheaths are damaged and the remyelinating process is somehow hindered. Restoration of the myelin sheaths requires the differentiation of the oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into mature oligodendrocytes (OLs). To discover small molecule compounds that might promote the OPC to OL differentiation, a high-throughput screening system is established and L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (As-2P), a stable form of Vitamin C (Vc), is found to greatly enhance the OPC to OL differentiation...
February 9, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416501/function-of-b-cell-cll-lymphoma-11b-in-glial-progenitor-proliferation-and-oligodendrocyte-maturation
#3
Chih-Yen Wang, Yuan-Ting Sun, Kuan-Min Fang, Chia-Hsin Ho, Chung-Shi Yang, Shun-Fen Tzeng
B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11B (Bcl11b) - a C2H2 zinc finger transcriptional factor - is known to regulate neuronal differentiation and function in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Although its expression is reduced during oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation, its biological role in OLGs remains unknown. In this study, we found that the downregulation of Bcl11b gene expression in glial progenitor cells (GPCs) by lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown (KD) causes a reduction in cell proliferation with inhibited expression of stemness-related genes, while increasing the expression of cell cyclin regulator p21...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415995/plasma-hemopexin-ameliorates-murine-spinal-cord-injury-by-switching-microglia-from-the-m1-state-to-the-m2-state
#4
Dunxin Han, Zhongwang Yu, Weili Liu, Dou Yin, Yingyan Pu, Jifeng Feng, Yimin Yuan, Aijun Huang, Li Cao, Cheng He
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating type of central nervous system (CNS) trauma with limited therapeutic treatments. The polarization of microglia into the M1 or M2 state has been documented to play important roles in the pathogenesis of SCI, although the complete repertoire of underlying factors has not been identified. Interestingly, the time point at which hematomyelia (intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage) is alleviated coincides with a decrease in the number of M2 microglia. Here the function of Hemopexin (Hpx), a hematogenous glycoprotein, was examined in the crush model of SCI...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407438/thyroid-hormone-and-the-white-matter-of-the-central-nervous-system-from-development-to-repair
#5
Laura Calzà, Vito A Baldassarro, Mercedes Fernandez, Alessandro Giuliani, Luca Lorenzini, Luciana Giardino
The role of thyroid hormone (TH) on brain development, and particularly in myelination, is well known since many decades, as testified by the severe structural and functional consequences of congenital hypothyroidism. This role during development, the consideration that the early TH supplementation restores myelination capability, and the fact the cell responsible for developmental myelination and remyelination is the same, i.e., the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC), claimed the attempt to improve myelin repair in the adulthood via TH supplementation...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407366/low-but-not-high-dose-triptolide-controls-neuroinflammation-and-improves-behavioral-deficits-in-toxic-model-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-dampening-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-acceleration-of-intrinsic-myelin-repair
#6
Nima Sanadgol, Fereshteh Golab, Ali Mostafaie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Roghayeh Khalseh, Morteza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Gelareh Vakilzadeh, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
Cuprizone (Cup) is a copper chelating agent frequently used to study factors that affect oligodendrocytes (OLGs) death and acute demyelination. Triptolide (TP), a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) blocker, is a major bioactive component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (TWHf) with various therapeutic activities. In this study, we examined the effects of TP on neuroglia activation, inflammation, apoptosis, demyelination, and behavioral deficits in the Cup-induced toxic model of multiple sclerosis (MS). C57BL/6 J mice were fed with chow containing 0...
January 31, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397565/myt1l-promotes-differentiation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-and-is-necessary-for-remyelination-after-lysolecithin-induced-demyelination
#7
Yanqing Shi, Qi Shao, Zhenghao Li, Ginez A Gonzalez, Fengfeng Lu, Dan Wang, Yingyan Pu, Aijun Huang, Chao Zhao, Cheng He, Li Cao
The differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) is essential for myelination and remyelination in the CNS. The failure of OPCs to achieve terminal differentiation in demyelinating lesions often results in unsuccessful remyelination in a variety of human demyelinating diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling OPC differentiation under pathological conditions remain largely unknown. Myt1L (myelin transcription factor 1-like), mainly expressed in neurons, has been associated with intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and depression...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393544/a-single-cell-analysis-reveals-multiple-roles-of-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells-during-post-ischemic-regeneration
#8
Valny Martin, Honsa Pavel, Waloschkova Eliska, Matuskova Hana, Kriska Jan, Kirdajova Denisa, Androvic Peter, Valihrach Lukas, Kubista Mikael, Anderova Miroslava
NG2 cells represent precursors of oligodendrocytes under physiological conditions; however, following cerebral ischemia they play an important role in glial scar formation. Here, we compared the expression profiles of oligodendroglial lineage cells, after focal cerebral ischemia (FCI) and in Alzheimer's-like pathology using transgenic mice, which enables genetic fate-mapping of Cspg4-positive NG2 cells and their progeny, based on the expression of red fluorescent protein tdTomato. tdTomato-positive cells possessed the expression profile of NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes; however, based on the expression of cell type-specific genes, we were able to distinguish between them...
February 2, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392777/p53-and-nf-1-loss-plays-distinct-but-complementary-roles-in-glioma-initiation-and-progression
#9
Phillippe P Gonzalez, Jungeun Kim, Rui Pedro Galvao, Nichola Cruickshanks, Roger Abounader, Hui Zong
Malignant glioma is one of the deadliest types of cancer. Understanding how the cell of origin progressively evolves toward malignancy in greater detail could provide mechanistic insights and lead to novel concepts for tumor prevention and therapy. Previously we have identified oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) as the cell of origin for glioma following the concurrent deletion of p53 and NF1 using a mouse genetic mosaic system that can reveal mutant cells prior to malignancy. In the current study, we set out to deconstruct the gliomagenic process in two aspects...
February 2, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382710/age-dependent-decline-in-fate-switch-from-ng2-cells-to-astrocytes-after-olig2-deletion
#10
Hao Zuo, William M Wood, Amin Sherafat, Robert A Hill, Q Richard Lu, Akiko Nishiyama
NG2 cells are a resident glial progenitor cell population that is uniformly distributed throughout the developing and mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Those in the postnatal CNS generate exclusively myelinating and non-myelinating oligodendrocytes and are hence equated with oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Prenatally, NG2 cells in the ventral gray matter of the forebrain generate protoplasmic astrocytes as well as oligodendrocytes. The fate conversion from NG2 cells into protoplasmic astrocytes is dependent on downregulation of the key oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig2...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346320/c-phycocyanin-and-phycocyanobilin-as-remyelination-therapies-for-enhancing-recovery-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-ischemic-stroke-a-preclinical-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Javier Marín-Prida, Viviana Falcón-Cama
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344669/clc-2-is-a-positive-modulator-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-differentiation-and-myelination
#12
Xiaolin Hou, Rui Zhang, Junyan Wang, Yunhong Li, Fan Li, Yan Zhang, Xiaomin Zheng, Ying Shen, Yin Wang, Liang Zhou
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are myelin-forming cells that are present within the central nervous system. Impaired oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation into mature OLs is a major cause of demyelination diseases. Therefore, identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms of OPC differentiation is crucial to understand the processes of myelination and demyelination. It has been acknowledged that various extrinsic and intrinsic factors are involved in the control of OPC differentiation; however, the function of ion channels, particularly the voltage‑gated chloride channel (CLC), in OPC differentiation and myelination are not fully understood...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337114/pathological-endogenous-%C3%AE-synuclein-accumulation-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-potentially-induces-inclusions-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#13
Seiji Kaji, Takakuni Maki, Hisanori Kinoshita, Norihito Uemura, Takashi Ayaki, Yasuhiro Kawamoto, Takahiro Furuta, Makoto Urushitani, Masato Hasegawa, Yusuke Kinoshita, Yuichi Ono, Xiaobo Mao, Tran H Quach, Kazuhiro Iwai, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Ryosuke Takahashi
Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), commonly observed as α-synuclein (α-syn)-positive aggregates within oligodendrocytes, are the pathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy. The origin of α-syn in GCIs is uncertain; there is little evidence of endogenous α-syn expression in oligodendrocyte lineage cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and mature oligodendrocytes (OLGs). Here, based on in vitro analysis using primary rat cell cultures, we elucidated that preformed fibrils (PFFs) generated from recombinant human α-syn trigger multimerization and an upsurge of endogenous α-syn in OPCs, which is attributable to insufficient autophagic proteolysis...
December 27, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337010/protective-effects-of-a-radical-scavenger-edaravone-on-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-against-oxidative-stress
#14
Hajime Takase, Anna C Liang, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Gen Hamanaka, Ryo Ohtomo, Takakuni Maki, Loc-Duyen D Pham, Josephine Lok, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) play critical roles in maintaining the number of oligodendrocytes in white matter. Previously, we have shown that oxidative stress dampens oligodendrocyte regeneration after white matter damage, while a clinically proven radical scavenger, edaravone, supports oligodendrocyte repopulation. However, it is not known how edaravone exerts this beneficial effect against oxidative stress. Using in vivo and in vitro experiments, we have examined whether edaravone exhibits direct OPC-protective effects...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#15
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315225/fm19g11-and-ependymal-progenitor-stem-cell-combinatory-treatment-enhances-neuronal-preservation-and-oligodendrogenesis-after-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Ana Alastrue-Agudo, Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez, Eric López Mocholi, Francesca De Giorgio, Slaven Erceg, Victoria Moreno-Manzano
Spinal cord injury (SCI) suffers from a lack of effective therapeutic strategies. We have previously shown that individual therapeutic strategies, transplantation of ependymal stem/progenitor cells of the spinal cord after injury (epSPCi) or FM19G11 pharmacological treatment, induce moderate functional recovery after SCI. Here, the combination of treatments has been assayed for functional and histological analysis. Immediately after severe SCI, one million epSPCi were intramedullary injected, and the FM19G11 compound or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (as the vehicle control) was administrated via intrathecal catheterization...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314444/a-kinase-anchor-protein-12-is-required-for-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-adult-white-matter
#17
Takakuni Maki, Yoon Kyung Choi, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Akihiro Shindo, Anna C Liang, Bum Ju Ahn, Emiri T Mandeville, Seiji Kaji, Kanako Itoh, Ji Hae Seo, Irwin H Gelman, Josephine Lok, Ryosuke Takahashi, Kyu-Won Kim, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to oligodendrocytes in cerebral white matter. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain to be fully defined, especially in adult brains. Recently, it has been suggested that signaling via A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12), a scaffolding protein that associates with intracellular molecules such as protein kinase A, may be involved in Schwann cell homeostasis and peripheral myelination. Here, we asked whether AKAP12 also regulates the mechanisms of myelination in the CNS...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283028/cxcl12-cxcr4-cxcr7-chemokine-axis-in-the-central-nervous-system-therapeutic-targets-for-remyelination-in-demyelinating-diseases
#18
Tianci Chu, Lisa B E Shields, Yi Ping Zhang, Shi-Qing Feng, Christopher B Shields, Jun Cai
The chemokine CXCL12 plays a vital role in regulating the development of the central nervous system (CNS) by binding to its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7. Recent studies reported that the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis regulates both embryonic and adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The changes in the expression and distribution of CXCL12 and its receptors are tightly associated with the pathological process of demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that modulating the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis may benefit myelin repair by enhancing OPC recruitment and differentiation...
December 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282769/glial-m6b-stabilizes-the-axonal-membrane-at-peripheral-nodes-of-ranvier
#19
Marie L Bang, Anya Vainshtein, Hyun-Jeong Yang, Yael Eshed-Eisenbach, Jerome Devaux, Hauke B Werner, Elior Peles
Glycoprotein M6B and the closely related proteolipid protein regulate oligodendrocyte myelination in the central nervous system, but their role in the peripheral nervous system is less clear. Here we report that M6B is located at nodes of Ranvier in peripheral nerves where it stabilizes the nodal axolemma. We show that M6B is co-localized and associates with gliomedin at Schwann cell microvilli that are attached to the nodes. Developmental analysis of sciatic nerves, as well as of myelinating Schwann cells/dorsal root ganglion neurons cultures, revealed that M6B is already present at heminodes, which are considered the precursors of mature nodes of Ranvier...
December 28, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280192/igfbp-7-inhibits-the-differentiation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-via-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#20
Nan Li, Jinfeng Han, Jing Tang, Yanqin Ying
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells that form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. Myelin sheath plays important role in nervous system and loss of it in neurodegenerative diseases can lead to impairment of movement. Understanding the signals and factors that regulate OL differentiation can help to address novel strategies for improving myelin repair in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 7 (IGFBP-7) in differentiating OL precursor cells (OPCs)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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