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Oligodendrocyte precursor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216492/-improvement-in-isolation-and-culture-method-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-and-establishment-of-the-in-vitro-model-for-lineage-restricted-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#1
Xin Wang, Junmei Xu, Yaping Wang, Lin Yang
To establish the improved methods for oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) isolation, culture and subculture and to investigate the characteristics of OPCs differentiation and proliferation in vitro.
 Methods: OPCs isolated from neonatal SD rat spinal cords were cultured in vitro. Cell proliferation was induced by the culture solution with basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, and the proliferation of OPCs was determined by MTT assay. OPCs differentiation to mature oligodendrocytes was induced by triiodothyronine and ciliary neurotrophic factor...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202388/viral-vector-reprogramming-of-adult-resident-striatal-oligodendrocytes-into-functional-neurons
#2
Marc S Weinberg, Hugh E Criswell, Sara K Powell, Aadra P Bhatt, Thomas J McCown
Recent advances suggest that in vivo reprogramming of endogenous cell populations provides a viable alternative for neuron replacement. Astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells can be induced to transdifferentiate into neurons in the CNS, but, in these instances, reprogramming requires either transgenic mice or retroviral-mediated gene expression. We developed a microRNA (miRNA)-GFP construct that in vitro significantly reduced the expression of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, and, subsequently, we packaged this construct in a novel oligodendrocyte preferring adeno-associated virus vector...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188285/rna-binding-protein-quaking-stabilizes-sirt2-mrna-during-oligodendroglial-differentiation
#3
Merlin P Thangaraj, Kendra L Furber, Jotham K Gan, Shaoping Ji, Larhonda Sobchishin, J Ronald Doucette, Adil J Nazarali
Myelination is controlled by timely expression of genes involved in the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs). Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, plays a critical role in OL differentiation by promoting both arborization and downstream expression of myelin specific genes. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating SIRT2 expression during OL development are largely unknown. The RNA binding protein Quaking (QKI) plays an important role in myelination by post-transcriptionally regulating the expression of several myelin specific genes...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153532/fty720-fingolimod-reverses-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-downregulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-mrna-in-oln-93-oligodendroglial-cells
#4
Ismael Segura-Ulate, Barbara Yang, Javier Vargas-Medrano, Ruth G Perez
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a demyelinating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein (aSyn) inside oligodendrocyte precursors, mature oligodendroglia, and neurons. MSA dysfunction is associated with loss of trophic factor production by glial and neuronal cells. Here, we report that recombinant wild type human aSyn uptake by OLN-93, an oligodendroglia cell-line, reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Furthermore, OLN-93 cells stably transfected with human wild type or an MSA-associated mutant aSyn, A53E that produces neuronal and glial inclusions, reduced BDNF mRNA to nearly unmeasurable qPCR levels...
January 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147248/prolonged-stimulation-of-a-brainstem-raphe-region-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
Pernille M Madsen, Stephanie S Sloley, Alberto A Vitores, Melissa M Carballosa-Gautam, Roberta Brambilla, Ian D Hentall
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a neuroinflammatory disease, has few treatment options, none entirely adequate. We studied whether prolonged electrical microstimulation of a hindbrain region (the nucleus raphe magnus) can attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a murine model of MS induced by MOG35-55 injection. Eight days after symptoms emerged, a wireless electrical stimulator with an attached microelectrode was implanted cranially, and daily intermittent stimulation was begun in awake, unrestrained mice...
January 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145605/the-tam-receptor-tyro3-regulates-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Rainer Akkermann, Andrea Aprico, Ashwyn A Perera, Helena Bujalka, Alistair E Cole, Junhua Xiao, Judith Field, Trevor J Kilpatrick, Michele D Binder
Myelin is an essential component of the mammalian nervous system, facilitating rapid conduction of electrical impulses by axons, as well as providing trophic support to neurons. Within the central nervous system, the oligodendrocyte is the specialized neural cell responsible for producing myelin by a process that is thought to be regulated by both activity dependent and independent mechanisms but in incompletely understood ways. We have previously identified that the protein Gas6, a ligand for a family of tyrosine kinase receptors known as the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk) receptors, directly increases oligodendrocyte induced myelination in vitro...
February 1, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145507/transplanted-mir-219-overexpressing-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-promoted-remyelination-and-improved-functional-recovery-in-a-chronic-demyelinated-model
#7
Hong-Bin Fan, Li-Xia Chen, Xue-Bin Qu, Chuan-Lu Ren, Xiu-Xiang Wu, Fu-Xing Dong, Bao-Le Zhang, Dian-Shuai Gao, Rui-Qin Yao
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) have the ability to repair demyelinated lesions by maturing into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Recent evidence suggests that miR-219 helps regulate the differentiation of OPCs into oligodendrocytes. We performed oligodendrocyte differentiation studies using miR-219-overexpressing mouse embryonic stem cells (miR219-mESCs). The self-renewal and multiple differentiation properties of miR219-mESCs were analyzed by the expression of the stage-specific cell markers Nanog, Oct4, nestin, musashi1, GFAP, Tuj1 and O4...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132130/rab10-disruption-results-in-delayed-opc-maturation
#8
Zhao-Huan Zhang, Wei-Qian Zhao, Fan-Fei Ma, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Hui Xu
Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) maturation requires membrane addition for myelin sheath formation. Since the Rab system has been shown to contribute to membrane addition in other cell types, in this study, we explored the role of Rab in OPC maturation. SiRNA and shRNA techniques and conditional knockout mice provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that Rab10 is involved in OPC maturation and may affect myelination during OPC development.
January 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115362/mouse-models-of-pediatric-supratentorial-high-grade-glioma-reveal-how-cell-of-origin-influences-tumor-development-and-phenotype
#9
Smitha Sreedharan, Naga Prathyusha Maturi, Yuan Xie, Anders Sundström, Malin Jarvius, Sylwia Libard, Irina Alafuzoff, Holger Weishaupt, Mårten Fryknäs, Rolf Larsson, Fredrik J Swartling, Lene Uhrbom
High-grade glioma (HGG) is a group of primary malignant brain tumors with dismal prognosis. Whereas adult HGG has been studied extensively, childhood HGG, a relatively rare disease, is less well-characterized. Here, we present two novel platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-driven mouse models of pediatric supratentorial HGG. Tumors developed from two different cells of origin reminiscent of neural stem cells (NSC) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC). Cross-species transcriptomics showed that both models are closely related to human pediatric HGG as compared with adult HGG...
February 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112256/fsd-c10-a-fasudil-derivative-promotes-neuroregeneration-through-indirect-and-direct-mechanisms
#10
Yan-Hua Li, Chong Xie, Yuan Zhang, Xing Li, Hai-Fei Zhang, Qing Wang, Zhi Chai, Bao-Guo Xiao, Rodolfo Thome, Guang-Xian Zhang, Cun-Gen Ma
FSD-C10, a Fasudil derivative, was shown to reduce severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), through the modulation of the immune response and induction of neuroprotective molecules in the central nervous system (CNS). However, whether FSD-C10 can promote neuroregeneration remains unknown. In this study, we further analyzed the effect of FSD-C10 on neuroprotection and remyelination. FSD-C10-treated mice showed a longer, thicker and more intense MAP2 and synaptophysin positive signal in the CNS, with significantly fewer CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and microglia...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091609/leptin-sustains-spontaneous-remyelination-in-the-adult-central-nervous-system
#11
Ken Matoba, Rieko Muramatsu, Toshihide Yamashita
Demyelination is a common feature of many central nervous system (CNS) diseases and is associated with neurological impairment. Demyelinated axons are spontaneously remyelinated depending on oligodendrocyte development, which mainly involves molecules expressed in the CNS environment. In this study, we found that leptin, a peripheral hormone secreted from adipocytes, promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Leptin increased the OPC proliferation via in vitro phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK); whereas leptin neutralization inhibited OPC proliferation and remyelination in a mouse model of toxin-induced demyelination...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077718/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#12
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage-specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein that is expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane and can mediate some of these signals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069926/creatine-enhances-mitochondrial-mediated-oligodendrocyte-survival-after-demyelinating-injury
#13
Kelly A Chamberlain, Kristen S Chapey, Sonia E Nanescu, Jeffrey K Huang
Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering, in oligodendrocyte function...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063880/glur3b-ab-s-induced-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-excitotoxicity-via-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#14
Yi Liu, Yan Chen, Wan Tong Du, Xiu Xiang Wu, Fu Xing Dong, Xue Bin Qu, Hong Bin Fan, Rui Qin Yao
Studies have indicated that glutamate receptor subunit 3 peptide B antibodies (GluR3B Ab's) by directing against a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs) subunit 3 (GluR3B) was involved in the hippocampal neuron damage in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Glutamate accumulation is critical for oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) excitotoxic injury. However, remarkably little is known about whether GluR3B Ab's causes OPCs excitotoxicity, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
January 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049845/rest-corepressors-rcor1-and-rcor2-and-the-repressor-insm1-regulate-the-proliferation-differentiation-balance-in-the-developing-brain
#15
Caitlin E Monaghan, Tamilla Nechiporuk, Sophia Jeng, Shannon K McWeeney, Jianxun Wang, Michael G Rosenfeld, Gail Mandel
The transcriptional events that lead to the cessation of neural proliferation, and therefore enable the production of proper numbers of differentiated neurons and glia, are still largely uncharacterized. Here, we report that the transcription factor Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1) forms complexes with RE1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST) corepressors RCOR1 and RCOR2 in progenitors in embryonic mouse brain. Mice lacking both RCOR1 and RCOR2 in developing brain die perinatally and generate an abnormally high number of neural progenitors at the expense of differentiated neurons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034673/high-content-image-informatics-of-the-structural-nuclear-protein-numa-parses-trajectories-for-stem-progenitor-cell-lineages-and-oncogenic-transformation
#16
Sebastián L Vega, Er Liu, Varun Arvind, Jared Bushman, Hak-Joon Sung, Matthew L Becker, Sophie Lelièvre, Joachim Kohn, Pierre-Alexandre Vidi, Prabhas V Moghe
Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods...
February 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996307/clock-genes-associate-with-white-matter-integrity-in-depressed-bipolar-patients
#17
Irene Bollettini, Elisa Maria Teresa Melloni, Veronica Aggio, Sara Poletti, Cristina Lorenzi, Adele Pirovano, Benedetta Vai, Sara Dallaspezia, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Human genetic studies have implicated specific genes that constitute the molecular clock in the manifestation of bipolar disorder (BD). Among the clock genes involved in the control system of circadian rhythms, CLOCK 3111 T/C and Period3 (PER3) influence core psychopathological features of mood disorders, such as patterns of sleep, rest, and activity, diurnal preference, cognitive performances after sleep loss, age at the onset of the illness, and response to antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, several studies pointed out that bipolar symptomatology is associated with dysfunctions in white matter (WM) integrity, suggesting these structural alterations as a possible biomarker of the disorder...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994506/distributed-features-of-vimentin-containing-neural-precursor-cells-in-olfactory-bulb-of-sod1g93a-transgenic-mice-a-study-about-resource-of-endogenous-neural-stem-cells
#18
Chunyan Tang, Lei Zhu, Weiming Gan, Huiting Liang, Jiao Li, Jie Zhang, Xiong Zhang, Yi Lu, Renshi Xu
No any effective treatments can prevent from the motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at present. In order to modulating the endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs) to repairing the degenerative motor neurons in ALS, we studied the alteration of endogenous vimentin-containing NPCs in olfactory bulb (OB) at the different stages of SOD1 wlid-type and G93A transgenic mice. The results showed that the vimentin-containing cells (VCCs) were mainly distributed in the glomerular layer (Gl), the accessory OB (AOB), the OB core, the granular cell layer (GRO) and the mitral cell layer (MI)+the internal plexiform layer (IPL) of the OB of adult mice...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983986/ectoderm-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-differentiation-and-maturation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#19
Zhijian Zhang, Zhengnan Li, Wenwen Deng, Qinghua He, Qiang Wang, Wentao Shi, Qian Chen, Wenjing Yang, Myron Spector, Aihua Gong, Jiangnan Yu, Ximing Xu
Many neurological diseases are closely associated with demyelination caused by pathological changes of oligodendrocytes. Although intrinsic remyelination occurs after injury, the regeneration efficiency of myelinating oligodendrocytes remains to be improved. Herein, we reported an initiative finding of employing a valuable cell source, namely neural crest-derived ectoderm mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), for promoting oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation by co-culturing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) with the EMSCs...
October 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940202/the-intellectual-disability-protein-pak3-regulates-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-differentiation
#20
Majistor Raj Luxman Maglorius Renkilaraj, Lucas Baudouin, Claire M Wells, Mohamed Doulazmi, Rosine Wehrlé, Vidjeacoumary Cannaya, Corinne Bachelin, Jean-Vianney Barnier, Zhengping Jia, Brahim Nait Oumesmar, Isabelle Dusart, Lamia Bouslama-Oueghlani
Oligodendrocyte and myelin deficits have been reported in mental/psychiatric diseases. The p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3), a serine/threonine kinase, whose activity is stimulated by the binding of active Rac and Cdc42 GTPases is affected in these pathologies. Indeed, many mutations of Pak3 gene have been described in non-syndromic intellectual disability diseases. Pak3 is expressed mainly in the brain where its role has been investigated in neurons but not in glial cells. Here, we showed that PAK3 is highly expressed in oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) and its expression decreases in mature oligodendrocytes...
2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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