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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093710/role-of-oligodendrocyte-dysfunction-in-demyelination-remyelination-and-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Adriana Octaviana Dulamea
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS) during development and throughout adulthood. They result from a complex and well controlled process of activation, proliferation, migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) from the germinative niches of the CNS. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the complex pathological process produces dysfunction and apoptosis of OLs leading to demyelination and neurodegeneration. This review attempts to describe the patterns of demyelination in MS, the steps involved in oligodendrogenesis and myelination in healthy CNS, the different pathways leading to OLs and myelin loss in MS, as well as principles involved in restoration of myelin sheaths...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092084/iron-availability-compromises-not-only-oligodendrocytes-but-also-astrocytes-and-microglial-cells
#2
Maria Victoria Rosato-Siri, Leandro Marziali, María Eugenia Guitart, Maria Elvira Badaracco, Mariana Puntel, Fernando Pitossi, Jorge Correale, Juana Maria Pasquini
When disrupted, iron homeostasis negatively impacts oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and impairs myelination. To better understand myelin formation and OLG maturation, in vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency (ID) not only on OLG maturation but also on astrocytes (AST) and microglial cells (MG). In vivo experiments in an ID model were carried out to describe maturational events during OLG and AST development and the reactive profile of MG during myelination when iron availability is lower than normal...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077718/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#3
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage-specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein that is expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane and can mediate some of these signals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073086/human-neural-progenitors-derived-from-integration-free-ipscs-for-sci-therapy
#4
Ying Liu, Yiyan Zheng, Shenglan Li, Haipeng Xue, Karl Schmitt, Georgene W Hergenroeder, Jiaqian Wu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Dong H Kim, Qilin Cao
As a potentially unlimited autologous cell source, patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide great capability for tissue regeneration, particularly in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, despite significant progress made in translation of iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to clinical settings, a few hurdles remain. Among them, non-invasive approach to obtain source cells in a timely manner, safer integration-free delivery of reprogramming factors, and purification of NPCs before transplantation are top priorities to overcome...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069421/optogenetic-control-of-cell-differentiation-in-channelrhodopsin-2-expressing-os3-a-bipotential-glial-progenitor-cell-line
#5
Kenji Ono, Hiromi Suzuki, Ryusei Yamamoto, Hideki Sahashi, Yuhei Takido, Makoto Sawada
Alterations in the intracellular ion environment have been identified as one of the signals playing a critical role in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation; however, the mechanisms responsible for signal transduction remain unclear. Recent studies have reported that channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a rapidly gated blue light (BL)-sensitive cation channel suitable for the non-invasive control of ion influx. We herein examined the expression of differentiation-associated markers by photo-activation and its signal transduction in ChR2-expressing OS3 (OS3ChR2) cells, which are clonal bipotential glial progenitor cells...
January 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049845/rest-corepressors-rcor1-and-rcor2-and-the-repressor-insm1-regulate-the-proliferation-differentiation-balance-in-the-developing-brain
#6
Caitlin E Monaghan, Tamilla Nechiporuk, Sophia Jeng, Shannon K McWeeney, Jianxun Wang, Michael G Rosenfeld, Gail Mandel
The transcriptional events that lead to the cessation of neural proliferation, and therefore enable the production of proper numbers of differentiated neurons and glia, are still largely uncharacterized. Here, we report that the transcription factor Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1) forms complexes with RE1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST) corepressors RCOR1 and RCOR2 in progenitors in embryonic mouse brain. Mice lacking both RCOR1 and RCOR2 in developing brain die perinatally and generate an abnormally high number of neural progenitors at the expense of differentiated neurons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035478/metformin-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-in-hypoxia-ischemia-neonatal-rats-via-improving-remyelination
#7
Boxiang Qi, Libao Hu, Lei Zhu, Lei Shang, Liping Sheng, Xuecheng Wang, Na Liu, Nana Wen, Xiaohe Yu, Qihong Wang, Yujia Yang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) causes brain injury and myelination damage. Finding efficient methods to restore myelination is critical for the recovery of brain impairments. By applying an H/I rat model, we demonstrate that metformin (Met) treatment significantly ameliorates the loss of locomotor activity and cognition of H/I rat in the Morris water maze and open field task tests. After administration of Met to H/I rat, the proliferation of Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and the expression of myelin basic protein are obviously increased in the corpus callosum...
December 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034673/high-content-image-informatics-of-the-structural-nuclear-protein-numa-parses-trajectories-for-stem-progenitor-cell-lineages-and-oncogenic-transformation
#8
Sebastián L Vega, Er Liu, Varun Arvind, Jared Bushman, Hak-Joon Sung, Matthew L Becker, Sophie Lelièvre, Joachim Kohn, Pierre-Alexandre Vidi, Prabhas V Moghe
Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028143/abca1-apoe-hdl-pathway-mediates-gw3965-induced-neurorestoration-after-stroke
#9
Xu Cui, Michael Chopp, Zhenggang Zhang, Rongwen Li, Alex Zacharek, Julie Landschoot-Ward, Poornima Venkat, Jieli Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major reverse cholesterol transporter and plays critical role in the formation of brain high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the most abundant apolipoprotein and transports cholesterol into cells in brain. ABCA1 and ApoE are upregulated by liver-X receptors. Activation of liver-X receptors has neurorestorative benefit for stroke. The current study investigates whether ABCA1/ApoE/HDL pathway mediates GW3965, a synthetic dual liver-X receptor agonist, induced neurorestoration after stroke...
December 27, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991597/sirt1-regulates-glial-progenitor-proliferation-and-regeneration-in-white-matter-after-neonatal-brain-injury
#10
Beata Jablonska, Marcin Gierdalski, Li-Jin Chew, Teresa Hawley, Mackenzie Catron, Arturo Lichauco, Juan Cabrera-Luque, Tracy Yuen, David Rowitch, Vittorio Gallo
Regenerative processes in brain pathologies require the production of distinct neural cell populations from endogenous progenitor cells. We have previously demonstrated that oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation is crucial for oligodendrocyte (OL) regeneration in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxia (HX) that reproduces diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) of premature infants. Here we identify the histone deacetylase Sirt1 as a Cdk2 regulator in OPC proliferation and response to HX. HX enhances Sirt1 and Sirt1/Cdk2 complex formation through HIF1α activation...
December 19, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979877/neural-progenitor-cells-in-cerebral-cortex-of-epilepsy-patients-do-not-originate-from-astrocytes-expressing-glast
#11
Meng Chen, Till B Puschmann, Ulrika Wilhelmsson, Charlotte Örndal, Marcela Pekna, Kristina Malmgren, Bertil Rydenhag, Milos Pekny
Adult neurogenesis in human brain is known to occur in the hippocampus, the subventricular zone, and the striatum. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were reported in the cortex of epilepsy patients; however, their identity is not known. Since astrocytes were proposed as the source of neural progenitors in both healthy and diseased brain, we tested the hypothesis that NPCs in the epileptic cortex originate from reactive, alternatively, de-differentiated astrocytes that express glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)...
December 14, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940353/white-matter-damage-and-glymphatic-dysfunction-in-a-model-of-vascular-dementia-in-rats-with-no-prior-vascular-pathologies
#12
Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Chengcheng Cui, Li Zhang, Qingjiang Li, Mei Lu, Talan Zhang, Amy Liu, Jieli Chen
We investigated cognitive function, axonal/white matter (WM) changes and glymphatic function of vascular dementia using a multiple microinfarction (MMI) model in retired breeder (RB) rats. The MMI model induces significant (p < 0.05) cognitive decline that worsens with age starting at 2 weeks, which persists until at least 6 weeks after MMI. RB rats subjected to MMI exhibit significant axonal/WM damage identified by decreased myelin thickness, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell numbers, axon density, synaptic protein expression in the cortex and striatum, cortical neuronal branching, and dendritic spine density in the cortex and hippocampus compared with age-matched controls...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940274/direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-into-neural-progenitors-using-transcription-factors-enriched-in-human-esc-derived-neural-progenitors
#13
Pei-Shan Hou, Ching-Yu Chuang, Chan-Hsien Yeh, Wei Chiang, Hsiao-Jung Liu, Teng-Nan Lin, Hung-Chih Kuo
Early human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural populations consist of various embryonic neural progenitors (ENPs) with broad neural developmental propensity. Here, we sought to directly convert human somatic cells into ENP-like phenotypes using hESC-ENP-enriched neural transcription factors (TFs). We demonstrated that induced ENP could be efficiently converted from human fibroblasts using two TF combinations. The iENPs exhibit cellular and molecular characteristics resembling hESC-ENPs and can give rise to astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and functional neuronal subtypes of the central and peripheral nervous system...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930320/unexpected-central-role-of-the-androgen-receptor-in-the-spontaneous-regeneration-of-myelin
#14
Bartosz Bielecki, Claudia Mattern, Abdel M Ghoumari, Sumaira Javaid, Kaja Smietanka, Charly Abi Ghanem, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja, M Said Ghandour, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Robin J M Franklin, Michael Schumacher, Elisabeth Traiffort
Lost myelin can be replaced after injury or during demyelinating diseases in a regenerative process called remyelination. In the central nervous system (CNS), the myelin sheaths, which protect axons and allow the fast propagation of electrical impulses, are produced by oligodendrocytes. The abundance and widespread distribution of oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPs) within the adult CNS account for this remarkable regenerative potential. Here, we report a key role for the male gonad, testosterone, and androgen receptor (AR) in CNS remyelination...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922816/the-progeroid-gene-bubr1-regulates-axon-myelination-and-motor-function
#15
Chan-Il Choi, Ki Hyun Yoo, Syed Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Byeong Tak Jeon, John Welby, Haiyun Gan, Isobel A Scarisbrick, Zhiguo Zhang, Darren J Baker, Jan M van Deursen, Moses Rodriguez, Mi-Hyeon Jang
Myelination, the process by which oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheath around axons, is key to axonal signal transduction and related motor function in the central nervous system (CNS). Aging is characterized by degenerative changes in the myelin sheath, although the molecular underpinnings of normal and aberrant myelination remain incompletely understood. Here we report that axon myelination and related motor function are dependent on BubR1, a mitotic checkpoint protein that has been linked to progeroid phenotypes when expressed at low levels and healthy lifespan when overabundant...
September 12, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913589/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#16
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane, which can mediate some of these signals...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909687/morphogenesis-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neurons-under-in-vitro-culture-conditions
#17
Geeta Shroff
AIM: To describe the morphogenesis of different neuronal cells from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, SCT-N, under in vitro culture conditions. METHODS: The directed neuronal cell line was produced from a single, spare, pre-implantation stage fertilized ovum that was obtained during a natural in vitro fertilization process. The hESCs were cultured and maintained as per our proprietary in-house technology in a Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Laboratory Practice and Good Tissue Practice compliant laboratory...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905992/variable-sensitivity-to-complement-dependent-cytotoxicity-in-murine-models-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#18
Yiting Liu, Danielle E Harlow, Katherine S Given, Gregory P Owens, Wendy B Macklin, Jeffrey L Bennett
BACKGROUND: Studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), have demonstrated that autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) induce astrocyte damage through complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In developing experimental models of NMO using cells, tissues or animals from mice, co-administration of AQP4-IgG and normal human serum, which serves as the source of human complement (HC), is required. The sensitivity of mouse CNS cells to HC and CDC in these models is not known...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895617/understanding-the-ng2-glial-scar-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
REVIEW
Amber R Hackett, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890389/heparanase-confers-a-growth-advantage-to-differentiating-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-and-enhances-oligodendrocyte-formation
#20
Anqi Xiong, Soumi Kundu, Maud Forsberg, Yuyuan Xiong, Tobias Bergström, Tanja Paavilainen, Lena Kjellén, Jin-Ping Li, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), ubiquitous components of mammalian cells, play important roles in development and homeostasis. These molecules are located primarily on the cell surface and in the pericellular matrix, where they interact with a multitude of macromolecules, including many growth factors. Manipulation of the enzymes involved in biosynthesis and modification of HSPG structures alters the properties of stem cells. Here, we focus on the involvement of heparanase (HPSE), the sole endo-glucuronidase capable of cleaving of HS, in differentiation of embryonic stem cells into the cells of the neural lineage...
November 23, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
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