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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428242/bu-shen-yi-sui-capsule-promotes-remyelination-correlating-with-sema3a-nrp-1-lif-lifr-and-nkx6-2-in-mice-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#1
Pei-Yuan Zhao, Yong-Qiang Wang, Xi-Hong Liu, Ying-Jun Zhu, Hui Zhao, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Fang Qi, Jun-Ling Li, Nan Zhang, Yong-Ping Fan, Kang-Ning Li, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Jian-Feng Lei, Lei Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bu Shen Yi Sui capsule (BSYSC), based on traditional Chinese formula Liu Wei Di Huang pill, is effective for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinical experience and trials. Our previous studies confirmed that BSYSC had the neuroprotective effect in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, its mechanism of action was not clear. Thus, the effect of BSYSC on remyelination and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in the EAE mice...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417177/stem-cells-from-human-apical-papilla-decrease-neuro-inflammation-and-stimulate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-differentiation-via-activin-a-secretion
#2
Pauline De Berdt, Pauline Bottemanne, John Bianco, Mireille Alhouayek, Anibal Diogenes, Amy Llyod, Jose Gerardo-Nava, Gary A Brook, Véronique Miron, Giulio G Muccioli, Anne des Rieux
Secondary damage following spinal cord injury leads to non-reversible lesions and hampering of the reparative process. The local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α can exacerbate these events. Oligodendrocyte death also occurs, followed by progressive demyelination leading to significant tissue degeneration. Dental stem cells from human apical papilla (SCAP) can be easily obtained at the removal of an adult immature tooth. This offers a minimally invasive approach to re-use this tissue as a source of stem cells, as compared to biopsying neural tissue from a patient with a spinal cord injury...
February 7, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416501/function-of-b-cell-cll-lymphoma-11b-in-glial-progenitor-proliferation-and-oligodendrocyte-maturation
#3
Chih-Yen Wang, Yuan-Ting Sun, Kuan-Min Fang, Chia-Hsin Ho, Chung-Shi Yang, Shun-Fen Tzeng
B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11B (Bcl11b) - a C2H2 zinc finger transcriptional factor - is known to regulate neuronal differentiation and function in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Although its expression is reduced during oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation, its biological role in OLGs remains unknown. In this study, we found that the downregulation of Bcl11b gene expression in glial progenitor cells (GPCs) by lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown (KD) causes a reduction in cell proliferation with inhibited expression of stemness-related genes, while increasing the expression of cell cyclin regulator p21...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413892/mechanisms-of-cortical-differentiation
#4
Lata Adnani, Sisu Han, Saiqun Li, Pierre Mattar, Carol Schuurmans
During fetal and postnatal development, the human brain generates 160 billion neuronal and glial cells, each with precise cellular phenotypes. To effectively manage such a complicated task, intrinsic (e.g., transcription factors) and extrinsic (environmental signals) cues cooperate to regulate the decision by neural progenitors to continue to proliferate or to differentiate. Loss- and gain-of-function studies in the mouse brain have been instrumental in identifying these cues, leading to a fairly well-developed and well-integrated model of neocortical development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409855/pdgf-pdgfr-axis-in-the-neural-systems
#5
REVIEW
Susmita Sil, Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ernest T Chivero, Shilpa Buch
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are expressed in several cells types including the brain cells such as neuronal progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Emerging evidence shows that PDGF-mediated signaling regulates diverse functions in the central nervous system (CNS) such as neurogenesis, cell survival, synaptogenesis, modulation of ligand-gated ion channels, and development of specific types of neurons. Interestingly, PDGF/PDFGR signaling can elicit paradoxical roles in the CNS, depending on the cell type and the activation stimuli and is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397421/activin-receptors-regulate-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-in-health-and-disease
#6
Alessandra Dillenburg, Graeme Ireland, Rebecca K Holloway, Claire L Davies, Frances L Evans, Matthew Swire, Marie E Bechler, Daniel Soong, Tracy J Yuen, Gloria H Su, Julie-Clare Becher, Colin Smith, Anna Williams, Veronique E Miron
The most prevalent neurological disorders of myelin include perinatal brain injury leading to cerebral palsy in infants and multiple sclerosis in adults. Although these disorders have distinct etiologies, they share a common neuropathological feature of failed progenitor differentiation into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and lack of myelin, for which there is an unmet clinical need. Here, we reveal that a molecular pathology common to both disorders is dysregulation of activin receptors and that activin receptor signaling is required for the majority of myelin generation in development and following injury...
February 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393205/microglial-activation-induces-generation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-the-subventricular-zone-after-focal-demyelination-in-the-corpus-callosum
#7
Masae Naruse, Koji Shibasaki, Hiroya Shimauchi-Ohtaki, Yasuki Ishizaki
Neuroblasts derived from neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate along the rostral migratory stream into the olfactory bulb to generate interneurons under normal physiological conditions. When demyelination occurs, NSCs or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the SVZ provide newly formed oligodendrocytes to demyelinated lesions. The plasticity of NSC/NPC lineages may tend to oligodendrogenesis under the influence of demyelinated lesions. The mechanisms, however, still remain unknown. This study revealed that focal demyelination in the corpus callosum caused activation of the microglia, not only at the site of demyelination but also in the SVZ, and dramatically increased the generation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the SVZ...
January 25, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392682/trpc3-is-required-for-the-survival-pluripotency-and-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-mescs
#8
Helen Baixia Hao, Sarah E Webb, Jianbo Yue, Marc Moreau, Catherine Leclerc, Andrew L Miller
Transient receptor potential canonical subfamily member 3 (TRPC3) is known to be important for neural development and the formation of neuronal networks. Here, we investigated the role of TRPC3 in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and during the differentiation of mESCs into neurons. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout (KO) of TRPC3 induced apoptosis and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential both in undifferentiated mESCs and in those undergoing neural differentiation. In addition, TRPC3 KO impaired the pluripotency of mESCs...
January 31, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391408/grey-matter-opcs-are-less-mature-and-less-sensitive-to-ifn%C3%AE-than-white-matter-opcs-consequences-for-remyelination
#9
Dennis H Lentferink, Jacomien M Jongsma, Inge Werkman, Wia Baron
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of demyelinated lesions in the central nervous system. At later stages of the disease repair in the form of remyelination often fails, which leads to axonal degeneration and neurological disability. For the regeneration of myelin, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) have to migrate, proliferate and differentiate into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. Remyelination occurs faster and is more extensive in grey matter (GM) lesions than in white matter (WM) lesions...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383653/alterations-of-hippocampal-myelin-sheath-and-axon-sprouting-by-status-convulsion-and-regulating-lingo-1-expression-with-rna-interference-in-immature-and-adult-rats
#10
Xiao-Jie Song, Wei Han, Rong He, Tian-Yi Li, Ling-Ling Xie, Li Cheng, Heng-Sheng Chen, Li Jiang
Seizure-induced brain damage is age-dependent, as evidenced by the different alterations of neural physiopathology in developing and mature brains. However, little is known about the age-dependent characteristics of myelinated fiber injury induced by seizures. Considering the critical functions of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in myelination and Lingo-1 signaling in regulating OPCs' differentiation, the present study aimed to explore the effects of Lingo-1 on myelin and axon in immature and adult rats after status convulsion (SC) induced by lithium-pilocarpine, and the differences between immature and adult brains...
January 27, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382710/age-dependent-decline-in-fate-switch-from-ng2-cells-to-astrocytes-after-olig2-deletion
#11
Hao Zuo, William M Wood, Amin Sherafat, Robert A Hill, Q Richard Lu, Akiko Nishiyama
NG2 cells are a resident glial progenitor cell population that is uniformly distributed throughout the developing and mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Those in the postnatal CNS generate exclusively myelinating and non-myelinating oligodendrocytes and are hence equated with oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Prenatally, NG2 cells in the ventral gray matter of the forebrain generate protoplasmic astrocytes as well as oligodendrocytes. The fate conversion from NG2 cells into protoplasmic astrocytes is dependent on downregulation of the key oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig2...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377124/purinergic-signaling-in-oligodendrocyte-development-and-function
#12
REVIEW
Taylor G Welsh, Sarah Kucenas
Myelin, an insulating membrane that enables rapid action potential propagation, is an essential component of an efficient, functional vertebrate nervous system. Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glia of the central nervous system (CNS), produce myelin throughout the CNS, which requires continuous proliferation, migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC). Because myelination is essential for efficient neurotransmission, researchers hypothesize that neuronal signals may regulate the cascade of events necessary for this process...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364139/the-differentiation-of-rat-oligodendroglial-cells-is-highly-influenced-by-the-oxygen-tension-in-vitro-model-mimicking-physiologically-normoxic-conditions
#13
Justyna Janowska, Malgorzata Ziemka-Nalecz, Joanna Sypecka
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) constitute one of the main populations of dividing cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Physiologically, OPCs give rise to mature, myelinating oligodendrocytes and confer trophic support to their neighboring cells within the nervous tissue. OPCs are known to be extremely sensitive to the influence of exogenous clues which might affect their crucial biological processes, like survival, proliferation, differentiation, and the ability to generate a myelin membrane...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361548/maturation-of-neural-stem-cells-and-integration-into-hippocampal-circuits-functional-study-in-post-ischemia-in-situ
#14
Olga Kopach, Oksana Rybachuk, Volodymyr Krotov, Vitalii Kyryk, Nana Voitenko, Tatyana Pivneva
The hippocampus is the most susceptible region of the brain to ischemic lesion, with highly vulnerable pyramidal interneurons to ischemic cell death. A restricted brain neurogenesis limits a withdrawal of massive cell death after stroke that endorses cell-based therapies for neuronal replacement strategies following cerebral ischemia. Neurons differentiated from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) matured and integrated into host circuitry, improving recovery after stroke. However, how host environment regulates the NSPC behaviour in post-ischemic tissue remains unknown...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358753/pharmacogenetic-stimulation-of-neuronal-activity-increases-myelination-in-an-axon-specific-manner
#15
Stanislaw Mitew, Ilan Gobius, Laura R Fenlon, Stuart J McDougall, David Hawkes, Yao Lulu Xing, Helena Bujalka, Andrew L Gundlach, Linda J Richards, Trevor J Kilpatrick, Tobias D Merson, Ben Emery
Mounting evidence suggests that neuronal activity influences myelination, potentially allowing for experience-driven modulation of neural circuitry. The degree to which neuronal activity is capable of regulating myelination at the individual axon level is unclear. Here we demonstrate that stimulation of somatosensory axons in the mouse brain increases proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) within the underlying white matter. Stimulated axons display an increased probability of being myelinated compared to neighboring non-stimulated axons, in addition to being ensheathed with thicker myelin...
January 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346405/oxytocin-alters-cell-fate-selection-of-rat-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vitro
#16
Arvind Palanisamy, Ramaswamy Kannappan, Zhiqiang Xu, Audrey Martino, Matthew B Friese, Justin D Boyd, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
Synthetic oxytocin (sOT) is widely used during labor, yet little is known about its effects on fetal brain development despite evidence that it reaches the fetal circulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sOT would affect early neurodevelopment by investigating its effects on neural progenitor cells (NPC) from embryonic day 14 rat pups. NPCs expressed the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), which was downregulated by 45% upon prolonged treatment with sOT. Next, we examined the effects of sOT on NPC death, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation using antibodies to NeuN (neurons), Olig2 (oligodendrocytes), and GFAP (astrocytes)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335358/sox2-is-essential-for-oligodendroglial-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-postnatal-brain-myelination-and-cns-remyelination
#17
Sheng Zhang, Xiaoqing Zhu, Xuehong Gui, Christopher Croteau, Lanying Song, Jie Xu, Aijun Wang, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo
In the central nervous system (CNS), myelination and remyelination depend on the successful progression and maturation of oligodendroglial lineage cells including proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have reported that Sox2 transiently regulates oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in the embryonic and perinatal spinal cord and appears dispensable for myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. However, the role of Sox2 in OL development in the brain has yet to be defined...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#18
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324456/targeted-knockdown-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-within-neural-progenitors-protects-the-brain-and-improves-motor-function-following-postnatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#19
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323026/the-contribution-of-oligodendrocytes-and-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-to-central-nervous-system-repair-in-multiple-sclerosis-perspectives-for-remyelination-therapeutic-strategies
#20
REVIEW
Adriana Octaviana Dulamea
Oligodencrocytes (OLs) are the main glial cells of the central nervous system involved in myelination of axons. In multiple sclerosis (MS), there is an imbalance between demyelination and remyelination processes, the last one performed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and OLs, resulting into a permanent demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal loss. In MS lesions, astrocytes and microglias play an important part in permeabilization of blood-brain barrier and initiation of OPCs proliferation. Migration and differentiation of OPCs are influenced by various factors and the process is finalized by insufficient acummulation of OLs into the MS lesion...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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