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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034508/ulk4-deficiency-leads-to-hypomyelination-in-mice
#1
Min Liu, Ping Xu, Zhenlong Guan, Xiaohong Qian, Peter Dockery, Una Fitzgerald, Timothy O'Brien, Sanbing Shen
Brain nerve fibers are insulated by myelin which is produced by oligodendrocytes. Defects in myelination are increasingly recognized as a common pathology underlying neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, which are associated with deletions of the Unc-51-like kinase 4 (ULK4) gene. Key transcription factors have been identified for oligodendrogenesis, but little is known about their associated regulators. Here we report that Ulk4 acts as a key regulator of myelination. Myelination is reduced by half in the Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) hypomorph brain, whereas expression of axonal marker genes Tubb3, Nefh, Nefl and Nefm remains unaltered...
October 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027701/cellular-and-molecular-characterization-of-idh1-mutated-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-reveals-tumor-heterogeneity-and-absence-of-egfr-pdgfr%C3%AE-activation
#2
S Azar, N Leventoux, C Ripoll, V Rigau, C Gozé, F Lorcy, L Bauchet, H Duffau, P O Guichet, B Rothhut, J P Hugnot
Diffuse low grade gliomas (DLGG, grade II gliomas) are slowly-growing brain tumors that often progress into high grade gliomas. Most tumors have a missense mutation for IDH1 combined with 1p19q codeletion in oligodendrogliomas or ATRX/TP53 mutations in astrocytomas. The phenotype of tumoral cells, their environment and the pathways activated in these tumors are still ill-defined and are mainly based on genomics and transcriptomics analysis. Here we used freshly-resected tumors to accurately characterize the tumoral cell population and their environment...
October 13, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988404/temporal-changes-in-transcription-factor-expression-associated-with-the-differentiation-state-of-cerebellar-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-during-development
#3
Masae Naruse, Koji Shibasaki, Yasuki Ishizaki
During central nervous development, multi-potent neural stem/progenitor cells located in the ventricular/subventricular zones are temporally regulated to mostly produce neurons during early developmental stages and to produce glia during later developmental stages. After birth, the rodent cerebellum undergoes further dramatic development. It is also known that neural stem/progenitor cells are present in the white matter (WM) of the postnatal cerebellum until around P10, although the fate of these cells has yet to be determined...
October 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981898/overexpression-of-truncated-human-disc1-induces-appearance-of-hindbrain-oligodendroglia-in-the-forebrain-during-development
#4
Pavel Katsel, Peter Fam, Weilun Tan, Sonia Khan, Chunxia Yang, Yan Jouroukhin, Sergei Rudchenko, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Vahram Haroutunian
Genetic, neuroimaging, and gene expression studies suggest a role for oligodendrocyte (OLG) dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ). Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk gene for major psychiatric disorders, including SZ. Overexpression of mutant truncated (hDISC1), but not full-length sequence of human DISC1 in forebrain influenced OLG differentiation and proliferation of glial progenitors in the developing cerebral cortex concurrently with reduction of OLG progenitor markers in the hindbrain. We examined gene and protein expression of the molecular determinants of hindbrain OLG development and their interactions with DISC1 in mutant hDISC1 mice...
August 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959189/primary-spinal-opc-culture-system-from-adult-zebrafish-to-study-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-vitro
#5
Volker Kroehne, Vasiliki Tsata, Lara Marrone, Claudia Froeb, Susanne Reinhardt, Anne Gompf, Andreas Dahl, Jared Sterneckert, Michell M Reimer
Endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a promising target to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) by remyelinating denuded, and therefore vulnerable, axons. Demyelination is the result of a primary insult and secondary injury, leading to conduction blocks and long-term degeneration of the axons, which subsequently can lead to the loss of their neurons. In response to SCI, dormant OPCs can be activated and subsequently start to proliferate and differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940645/lineage-tracing-reveals-dynamic-changes-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-following-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#6
Emily G Baxi, Joseph DeBruin, Jing Jin, Hayley J Strasburger, Matthew D Smith, Jennifer L Orthmann-Murphy, Jason T Schott, Amanda N Fairchild, Dwight E Bergles, Peter A Calabresi
The regeneration of oligodendrocytes is a crucial step in recovery from demyelination, as surviving oligodendrocytes exhibit limited structural plasticity and rarely form additional myelin sheaths. New oligodendrocytes arise through the differentiation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) expressing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the CNS. Although there has been detailed investigation of the behavior of these progenitors in white matter, recent studies suggest that disease burden in multiple sclerosis (MS) is more strongly correlated with gray matter atrophy...
September 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935237/prickle1-as-positive-regulator-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#7
Rina Zilkha-Falb, Michael Gurevich, Erez Hanael, Anat Achiron
Spontaneous neural repair from endogenous neural stem cells' (NSCs) niches occurs in response to central nervous system (CNS) injuries to only a limited extent. Uncovering the mechanisms that control neural repair and can be further manipulated to promote NSCs toward oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) and myelinating oligodendrocytes is a major objective. In the current study, we describe high-throughput transcriptional changes in adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ)-NSCs during differentiation in vitro...
September 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930691/dna-methylome-analysis-identifies-transcription-factor-based-epigenomic-signatures-of-multilineage-competence-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#8
Tsukasa Sanosaka, Takuya Imamura, Nobuhiko Hamazaki, MuhChyi Chai, Katsuhide Igarashi, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Fumihito Miura, Takashi Ito, Nobuyuki Fujii, Kazuho Ikeo, Kinichi Nakashima
Regulation of the epigenome during in vivo specification of brain stem cells is still poorly understood. Here, we report DNA methylome analyses of directly sampled cortical neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) at different development stages, as well as those of terminally differentiated cortical neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We found that sequential specification of cortical NS/PCs is regulated by two successive waves of demethylation at early and late development stages, which are responsible for the establishment of neuron- and glia-specific low-methylated regions (LMRs), respectively...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899916/gd1a-overcomes-inhibition-of-myelination-by-fibronectin-via-activation-of-protein-kinase-a-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Jing Qin, Arend H Sikkema, Kristine van der Bij, Jenny C de Jonge, Karin Klappe, Vera Nies, Johan W Jonker, Jan Willem Kok, Dick Hoekstra, Wia Baron
Remyelination failure by oligodendrocytes contributes to the functional impairment that characterizes the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Since incomplete remyelination will irreversibly damage axonal connections, treatments effectively promoting remyelination are pivotal in halting disease progression. Our previous findings suggest that fibronectin aggregates, as an environmental factor, contribute to remyelination failure by perturbing oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation. Here, we aim at elucidating whether exogenously added gangliosides, i...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899915/conditional-deletion-of-the-l-type-calcium-channel-cav1-2-in-ng2-positive-cells-impairs-remyelination-in-mice
#10
Diara A Santiago González, Veronica T Cheli, Norma N Zamora, Tenzing N Lama, Vilma Spreuer, Geoffrey G Murphy, Pablo M Paez
Exploring the molecular mechanisms that drive the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) during the remyelination process is essential to develop new therapeutic tools to intervene in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis. To determine whether L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) are required for OPC development during remyelination, we have generated an inducible conditional knockout mouse in which the L-VGCC isoform Cav1.2 was deleted in NG2 positive OPCs (Cav1.2(KO))...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887084/tethered-growth-factors-on-biocompatible-scaffolds-improve-stemness-of-cultured-rat-and-human-neural-stem-cells-and-growth-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#11
Lisamarie Moore, Nolan B Skop, Deborah E Rothbard, Lucas R Corrubia, Steven W Levison
Currently, there is no widely accepted technique to efficiently and reproducibly grow stem and progenitor cells in vitro. Stem cells require contact with extracellular matrices as well as signals from growth factors to proliferate and to retain their stemness. We have developed a novel tissue culture platform (StemTrix cultureware) that transforms standard tissue culture plasticware into a multi-functional chitosan-based scaffold that supports the expansion of neural stem cells. The StemTrix scaffold is comprised of chitosan with immobilized heparin which in turn tethers heparin-binding growth factors...
September 5, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884727/-disturbance-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-schizophrenia-in-relation-to-main-hypothesis-of-the-disease
#12
N S Kolomeets
Increasing evidence coming from neuroimaging, molecular genetic and post-mortem studies have implicated oligodendrocyte abnormalities and compromised myelin integrity in schizophrenia. Activity-dependent myelination in adult brain is considered to be an important mechanism of neural circuit's plasticity due to the presence of a large population of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) in the adult CNS. Growing evidence for impairment of oligodendrocyte differentiation has been reported in the brain of schizophrenia subjects...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877447/limiting-oxidative-stress-following-neurotrauma-with-a-combination-of-ion-channel-inhibitors
#13
Hannah R Milbourn, Lillian M Toomey, Nikolas Gavriel, Chloe G G Gray, Alexander H Gough, Marcus K Giacci, Melinda Fitzgerald
Following injury to the central nervous system, secondary degeneration is mediated by Ca2+ imbalances and overproduction of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, and is associated with myelin deficits and loss of function. Preventing intracellular Ca2+ influx at the acute phase of injury is a potential strategy for limiting these deficits and preserving function. The use of single ion channel inhibitors has had little success in attenuating morphological and functional deficits, potentially due to the many pathways by which calcium can traverse the cell membrane...
June 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875931/transient-hypothyroidism-favors-oligodendrocyte-generation-providing-functional-remyelination-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#14
Sylvie Remaud, Fernando C Ortiz, Marine Perret-Jeanneret, Marie-Stéphane Aigrot, Jean-David Gothié, Csaba Fekete, Zsuzsanna Kvárta-Papp, Balázs Gereben, Dominique Langui, Catherine Lubetzki, Maria Cecilia Angulo, Bernard Zalc, Barbara Demeneix
In the adult brain, both neurons and oligodendrocytes can be generated from neural stem cells located within the Sub-Ventricular Zone (SVZ). Physiological signals regulating neuronal versus glial fate are largely unknown. Here we report that a thyroid hormone (T3)-free window, with or without a demyelinating insult, provides a favorable environment for SVZ-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor generation. After demyelination, oligodendrocytes derived from these newly-formed progenitors provide functional remyelination, restoring normal conduction...
September 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872660/fabricating-plga-microparticles-with-high-loads-of-the-small-molecule-antioxidant-n-acetylcysteine-that-rescue-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-oxidative-stress
#15
Nicholas P Murphy, Kyle J Lampe
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), encompassing all oxygen radical or non-radical oxidizing agents, play key roles in disease progression. Controlled delivery of antioxidants is therapeutically relevant in such oxidant-stressed environments. Encapsulating small hydrophilic molecules into hydrophobic polymer microparticles via traditional emulsion methods has long been a challenge due to rapid mass transport of small molecules out of particle pores. We have developed a simple alteration to the existing water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) drug encapsulation method that dramatically improves loading efficiency: doping external water phases with drug to mitigate drug diffusion out of the particle during fabrication...
September 5, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864570/isolation-propagation-and-differentiation-of-radial-glia-like-neural-progenitor-cells-in-adherent-cultures
#16
Balazs Varga, Andras Nagy
This protocol describes the isolation of radial glia-like neural progenitors (RGLs) from embryonic and adult mouse brain. Their propagation as an adherent monolayer is greatly supported by use of the AK-cyclo(RGDfC) adhesive peptide-conjugate that allows the application of fully defined culture conditions in which epidermal growth factor (EGF) represents the only growth factor supplement. RGL cells maintained that way can be efficiently differentiated into the three major CNS cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862639/oligodendroglia-metabolic-supporters-of-neurons
#17
Thomas Philips, Jeffrey D Rothstein
Oligodendrocytes are glial cells that populate the entire CNS after they have differentiated from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. From birth onward, oligodendrocytes initiate wrapping of neuronal axons with a multilamellar lipid structure called myelin. Apart from their well-established function in action potential propagation, more recent data indicate that oligodendrocytes are essential for providing metabolic support to neurons. Oligodendrocytes transfer energy metabolites to neurons through cytoplasmic "myelinic" channels and monocarboxylate transporters, which allow for the fast delivery of short-carbon-chain energy metabolites like pyruvate and lactate to neurons...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856805/reactive-astrocyte-cox2-pge2-production-inhibits-oligodendrocyte-maturation-in-neonatal-white-matter-injury
#18
Lawrence R Shiow, Geraldine Favrais, Lucas Schirmer, Anne-Laure Schang, Sara Cipriani, Christian Andres, Jaclyn N Wright, Hiroko Nobuta, Bobbi Fleiss, Pierre Gressens, David H Rowitch
Inflammation is a major risk factor for neonatal white matter injury (NWMI), which is associated with later development of cerebral palsy. Although recent studies have demonstrated maturation arrest of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in NWMI, the identity of inflammatory mediators with direct effects on OPCs has been unclear. Here, we investigated downstream effects of pro-inflammatory IL-1β to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in white matter. First, we assessed COX2 expression in human fetal brain and term neonatal brain affected by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
August 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851597/intraspinal-tlr4-activation-promotes-iron-storage-but-does-not-protect-neurons-or-oligodendrocytes-from-progressive-iron-mediated-damage
#19
Evan Z Goldstein, Jamie S Church, Nicole Pukos, Manoj K Gottipati, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Iron is essential for basic cellular functions but in excess is highly toxic. For this reason, free iron and iron storage are controlled in the periphery by elaborate regulatory mechanisms. In contrast, iron regulation in the central nervous system (CNS) is not well defined. Given that excess iron is present after trauma, hemorrhagic stroke and neurodegeneration, understanding normal iron regulation and promoting iron uptake in CNS pathology is crucial. Peripherally, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation promotes iron sequestration by macrophages...
August 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844283/all-wrapped-up-environmental-effects-on-myelination
#20
REVIEW
Thomas A Forbes, Vittorio Gallo
To date, studies have demonstrated the dynamic influence of exogenous environmental stimuli on multiple regions of the brain. This environmental influence positively and negatively impacts programs governing myelination, and acts on myelinating oligodendrocyte (OL) cells across the human lifespan. Developmentally, environmental manipulation of OL progenitor cells (OPCs) has profound effects on the establishment of functional cognitive, sensory, and motor programs. Furthermore, central nervous system (CNS) myelin remains an adaptive entity in adulthood, sensitive to environmentally induced structural changes...
September 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
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