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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683222/ascl1-regulates-proliferation-of-ng2-glia-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-spinal-cord
#1
Demetra P Kelenis, Emma Hart, Morgan Edwards-Fligner, Jane E Johnson, Tou Yia Vue
NG2-glia are highly proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). During development, NG2-glia predominantly differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) to myelinate axon fibers, but they can also remain as OPCs persisting into the mature CNS. Interestingly, NG2-glia in the gray matter (GM) are intrinsically different from those in the white matter (WM) in terms of proliferation, differentiation, gene expression, and electrophysiological properties...
April 23, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664021/a-tlr-akt-foxo3-immune-tolerance-like-pathway-disrupts-the-repair-capacity-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#2
Taasin Srivastava, Parham Diba, Justin M Dean, Fatima Banine, Daniel Shaver, Matthew Hagen, Xi Gong, Weiping Su, Ben Emery, Daniel L Marks, Edward N Harris, Bruce Baggenstoss, Paul H Weigel, Larry S Sherman, Stephen A Back
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) persistently disrupts myelin regeneration by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We identified a specific bioactive hyaluronan fragment (bHAf) that downregulates myelin gene expression and chronically blocks OPC maturation and myelination via a tolerance-like mechanism that dysregulates pro-myelination signaling via AKT. Desensitization of AKT occurs via TLR4 but not TLR2 or CD44. OPC differentiation was selectively blocked by bHAf in a maturation-dependent fashion at the late OPC (preOL) stage by a noncanonical TLR4/TRIF pathway that induced persistent activation of the FoxO3 transcription factor downstream of AKT...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663175/gfap-positive-progenitor-cell-production-is-concentrated-in-specific-encephalic-regions-in-young-adult-mice
#3
Zhibao Guo, Yingying Su, Huifang Lou
Previous genetic fate-mapping studies have indicated that embryonic glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+ ) cells are multifunctional progenitor/neural stem cells that can produce astrocytes as well as neurons and oligodendrocytes throughout the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence from recent studies indicates that GFAP+ cells adopt different cell fates and generate different cell types in different regions. Moreover, the fate of GFAP+ cells in the young adult mouse CNS is not well understood...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627379/the-antipsychotic-drug-quetiapine-stimulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-by-modulating-the-cell-cycle
#4
Guiyun Mi, Yituo Wang, Enmao Ye, Yunyun Gao, Qiaowei Liu, Pinhong Chen, Yuyang Zhu, Hongju Yang, Zheng Yang
Recent studies have revealed that oligodendrocyte differentiation deficits and de-myelination occur in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Cell cycle proteins play a critical role in modulating oligodendrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In our previous studies, we found that cuprizone, a copper chelant, induces oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, and this effect can be alleviated by using the atypical antipsychotic drug quetiapine. To explore the mechanisms of quetiapine in oligodendrocyte development, we examined the effects of quetiapine on cell cycle progression...
April 5, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623612/the-stem-cell-factor-sox2-is-a-positive-timer-of-oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-postnatal-murine-spinal-cord
#5
Sheng Zhang, Abeer Rasai, Yan Wang, Jie Xu, Peter Bannerman, Daffcar Erol, Danayit Tsegaye, Aijun Wang, Athena Soulika, Xiangjiang Zhan, Fuzheng Guo
Myelination in the central nervous system takes place predominantly during the postnatal development of humans and rodents by myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs), which are differentiated from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We recently reported that Sox2 is essential for developmental myelination in the murine brain and spinal cord. It is still controversial regarding the role of Sox2 in oligodendroglial lineage progression in the postnatal murine spinal cord. Analyses of a series of cell- and stage-specific Sox2 mutants reveal that Sox2 plays a biphasic role in regulating oligodendroglial lineage progression in the postnatal murine spinal cord...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622601/dual-role-of-the-rna-helicase-ddx5-in-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-myelin-basic-protein-in-oligodendrocytes
#6
Peter Hoch-Kraft, Robin White, Stefan Tenzer, Eva-Maria Krämer-Albers, Jacqueline Trotter, Constantin Gonsior
In the central nervous system, oligodendroglial expression of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) is crucial for the assembly and structure of the myelin sheath. MBP synthesis is tightly regulated in space and time, particularly on the post-transcriptional level. We have identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 (alias p68) in a complex with Mbp mRNA in oligodendroglial cells. Expression of DDX5 is highest in progenitor cells and immature oligodendrocytes, where it localizes to heterogeneous populations of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes associated with Mbp mRNA in the cell body and processes...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618286/neuronal-activity-dependent-control-of-postnatal-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis
#7
Ragnihldur T Káradóttir, Chay T Kuo
The addition of new neurons and oligodendroglia in the postnatal and adult mammalian brain presents distinct forms of gray and white matter plasticity. Substantial effort has been devoted to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling postnatal neurogenesis and gliogenesis, revealing important parallels to principles governing the embryonic stages. While during central nervous system development, scripted temporal and spatial patterns of neural and glial progenitor proliferation and differentiation are necessary to create the nervous system architecture, it remains unclear what driving forces maintain and sustain postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) production of new neurons and glia...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614310/cxcl12-gene-engineered-endothelial-progenitor-cells-further-improve-the-functions-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#8
Fang Yuan, Shuang Chang, Longlong Luo, Yaning Li, Liping Wang, Yaying Song, Meijie Qu, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are needed for white matter repair after various brain injury. Means that promote OPC functions could benefit white matter recovery after injury. Chemokine CXCL12 and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) both have been shown to promote remyelination. We hypothesize that the beneficial effects of EPCs and CXCL12 can be harnessed by genetically modifying EPCs with cxcl12 to synergistically improve the functions of OPCs. In this work, CXCL12-EPC was generated using virus-mediated gene transfer...
March 31, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575648/spontaneous-development-of-intratumoral-heterogeneity-in-a-transposon-induced-mouse-model-of-glioma
#9
Keisuke Sumiyoshi, Hideto Koso, Sumiko Watanabe
Glioma is the most common form of malignant brain cancer in adults. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based glioma mouse model allows for effective in vivo analysis of candidate genes. In this study, we developed a transposon vector that encodes the triple combination of platelet-derived growth factor subunit A (PDGFA), and shRNAs against Nf1 and Trp53 (shNf1/shp53). Initiation and progression of glioma in the brain were monitored by expression of a fluorescent protein. Transduction of the vector into neural progenitor and stem cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the neonatal brain induced proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and promoted formation of highly penetrant malignant gliomas within 2 to 4 months...
March 25, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569030/author-correction-stem-cells-from-human-apical-papilla-decrease-neuro%C3%A2-inflammation-and-stimulate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-differentiation-via-activin%C3%A2-a-secretion
#10
Pauline De Berdt, Pauline Bottemanne, John Bianco, Mireille Alhouayek, Anibal Diogenes, Amy Lloyd, Jose Gerardo-Nava, Gary A Brook, Véronique Miron, Giulio G Muccioli, Anne des Rieux
In the original publication, sixth author's surname was incorrectly published as "Llyod" instead of "Lloyd". The correct name should read as "Amy Lloyd".
March 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566973/immunology-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#11
Jack P Antel, Yun Hsuan Lin, Qiao-Ling Cui, Florian Pernin, Timothy E Kennedy, Samuel K Ludwin, Luke M Healy
Remyelination following myelin/oligodendrocyte injury in the central nervous system (CNS) is dependent on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) migrating into lesion sites, differentiating into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs), and ensheathing axons. Experimental models indicate that robust OPC-dependent remyelination can occur in the CNS; in contrast, histologic and imaging studies of lesions in the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS) indicate the variable extent of this response, which is particularly limited in more chronic MS lesions...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559894/mechanical-strain-alters-cellular-and-nuclear-dynamics-at-early-stages-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#12
Ekta Makhija, Anna Jagielska, Lena Zhu, Alexander C Bost, William Ong, Sing Y Chew, G V Shivashankar, Krystyn J Van Vliet
Mechanical and physical stimuli including material stiffness and topography or applied mechanical strain have been demonstrated to modulate differentiation of glial progenitor and neural stem cells. Recent studies probing such mechanotransduction in oligodendrocytes have focused chiefly on the biomolecular components. However, the cell-level biophysical changes associated with such responses remain largely unknown. Here, we explored mechanotransduction in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) during the first 48 h of differentiation induction by quantifying the biophysical state in terms of nuclear dynamics, cytoskeleton organization, and cell migration...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559295/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-and-macrophages-microglia-produce-glioma-stem-cell-niches-at-the-tumor-border
#13
Takuichiro Hide, Yoshihiro Komohara, Yuko Miyasato, Hideo Nakamura, Keishi Makino, Motohiro Takeya, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Akitake Mukasa, Shigetoshi Yano
Glioblastoma (GBM) usually develops in adult brain white matter. Even after complete resection, GBM recurs around the tumor removal cavity, where GBM cells acquire chemo-radioresistance. Characterization of the tumor border microenvironment is critical for improving prognosis in patients with GBM. Here, we compared microRNA (miRNA) expression in samples from the tumor, tumor border, and periphery by miRNA microarray. The top three of miRNAs showing higher expression in the tumor border were related to oligodendrocyte differentiation, and pathologically oligodendrocyte lineage cells were increased in the border, where macrophages and microglia also colocalized...
March 1, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531538/influence-of-genetically-modified-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mononuclear-cells-on-the-expression-of-schwann-cell-molecular-determinants-in-spinal-cord-injury
#14
L R Galieva, Y O Mukhamedshina, E R Akhmetzyanova, Z E Gilazieva, S S Arkhipova, E E Garanina, A A Rizvanov
Spinal cord injury (SCI) unavoidably results in death of not only neurons but also glial cells. In particular, the death of oligodendrocytes leads to impaired nerve impulse conduction in intact axons. However, after SCI, the Schwann cells (SCs) are capable of migrating towards an area of injury and participating in the formation of functional myelin. In addition to SCI, cell-based therapy can influence the migration of SCs and the expression of their molecular determinants. In a number of cases, it can be explained by the ability of implanted cells to secrete neurotrophic factors (NTFs)...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519242/fgf-signaling-controls-shh-dependent-oligodendroglial-fate-specification-in-the-ventral-spinal-cord
#15
Marie-Amélie Farreny, Eric Agius, Sophie Bel-Vialar, Nathalie Escalas, Nagham Khouri-Farah, Chadi Soukkarieh, Cathy Danesin, Fabienne Pituello, Philippe Cochard, Cathy Soula
BACKGROUND: Most oligodendrocytes of the spinal cord originate from ventral progenitor cells of the pMN domain, characterized by expression of the transcription factor Olig2. A minority of oligodendrocytes is also recognized to emerge from dorsal progenitors during fetal development. The prevailing view is that generation of ventral oligodendrocytes depends on Sonic hedgehog (Shh) while dorsal oligodendrocytes develop under the influence of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). RESULTS: Using the well-established model of the chicken embryo, we show that ventral spinal progenitor cells activate FGF signaling at the onset of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) generation...
March 8, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511131/endothelial-progenitor-cell-secretome-and-oligovascular-repair-in-a-mouse-model-of-prolonged-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#16
Takakuni Maki, Anna Morancho, Pablo Martinez-San Segundo, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Hajime Takase, Anna C Liang, Marina Gabriel-Salazar, Esperanza Medina-Gutiérrez, Kazuo Washida, Joan Montaner, Josephine Lok, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai, Anna Rosell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been extensively investigated as a therapeutic approach for repairing the vascular system in cerebrovascular diseases. Beyond vascular regeneration per se, EPCs may also release factors that affect the entire neurovascular unit. Here, we aim to study the effects of the EPC secretome on oligovascular remodeling in a mouse model of white matter injury after prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion. METHODS: The secretome of mouse EPCs was analyzed with a proteome array...
March 6, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506015/ng2-glia-a-new-player-in-energy-balance
#17
Sarah Robins, Maia Kokoeva
<br>There is increasing evidence that glia act not only as neuronal support cells, but that they can also influence physiological outcomes via effects on neural signalling. The role of NG2-glia in this regard is especially enigmatic, as they are known to interact with neural circuits but their precise functions other than as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells remain elusive. Here we summarise recent evidence suggesting that NG2-glia play a role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, most notably via the support of leptin sensing neural circuits...
March 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502349/in-vitro-models-of-multiple-system-atrophy-from-primary-cells-to-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Elena Abati, Alessio Di Fonzo, Stefania Corti
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a fatal outcome. Nowadays, only symptomatic treatment is available for MSA patients. The hallmarks of the disease are glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), proteinaceous aggregates mainly composed of alpha-synuclein, which accumulate in oligodendrocytes. However, despite the extensive research efforts, little is known about the pathogenesis of MSA. Early myelin dysfunction and alpha-synuclein deposition are thought to play a major role, but the origin of the aggregates and the causes of misfolding are obscure...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502291/nkcc1-inhibition-attenuates-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-induced-white-matter-lesions-by-enhancing-progenitor-cells-of-oligodendrocyte-proliferation
#19
Ying Yu, Peicai Fu, Zhiyuan Yu, Minjie Xie, Wei Wang, Xiang Luo
Cerebral white matter is vulnerable to ischemic condition. However, no effective treatment to alleviate or restore the myelin damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been found. Na+ -K+ -Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1), a Na+ -K+ -Cl- cotransporter widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), involves in regulation of cell swelling, EAA release, cell apoptosis, and proliferation. Nevertheless, the role of NKCC1 in chronic hypoperfusion-induced white matter lesions (WMLs) has not been explored...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492996/oligodendrocyte-morphology-in-the-developing-brain-of-the-african-giant-rat-cricetomys-gambianus-waterhouse-histology-immunohistochemistry-and-electron-microscopy
#20
M A Olude, S T Bello, O A Mustapha, F E Olopade, J Plendl, A O Ihunwo, J O Olopade
Oligodendrocyte and myelin-related studies have been pivotal in understanding disruption of central nervous system (CNS) myelin through injury, toxicological, pathological degeneration or genetic intervention. The African giant rat (AGR) has been postulated as an indigenous wild-type model within the African context. This work thus describes oligodendrocyte morphologies and myelin components of the developing African giant rat brain using histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Five types, precursor-progenitor oligodendrocytes, pre-oligodendrocytes, immature oligodendrocytes, mature non-myelinating oligodendrocytes and mature myelinating oligodendrocytes, were identified...
March 1, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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