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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638124/expression-of-the-human-herpesvirus-6a-latency-associated-transcript-u94a-disrupts-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-migration
#1
Andrew Campbell, Jessica M Hogestyn, Christopher J Folts, Brittany Lopez, Christoph Pröschel, David Mock, Margot Mayer-Pröschel
Progression of demyelinating diseases is caused by an imbalance of two opposing processes: persistent destruction of myelin and myelin repair by differentiating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Repair that cannot keep pace with destruction results in progressive loss of myelin. Viral infections have long been suspected to be involved in these processes but their specific role remains elusive. Here we describe a novel mechanism by which HHV-6A, a member of the human herpesvirus family, may contribute to inadequate myelin repair after injury...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634078/astrocytes-regulate-the-expression-of-sp1r3-on-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-through-cx47-and-promote-their-proliferation
#2
Dan Xu, Zhaoyu Liu, Shang Wang, Yan Peng, Xiaochuan Sun
Many degenerative diseases of the central nervous system are associated with demyelination. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are potential stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types, including oligodendrocytes (OLs). Promoting the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs into mature OLs that can myelinate axons is the key to stimulate remyelination. Here, we report that astrocytes (ASTs) increase the number of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 3 (S1pR3) on OPCs and promote OPCs proliferation through a direct contact via connexin 47 (Cx47)...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618115/iron-sulfur-glutaredoxin-2-protects-oligodendrocytes-against-damage-induced-by-nitric-oxide-release-from-activated-microglia
#3
Klaudia Lepka, Katrin Volbracht, Eckhard Bill, Reiner Schneider, Natalia Rios, Thomas Hildebrandt, Jens Ingwersen, Timur Prozorovski, Christopher Horst Lillig, Jack van Horssen, Lawrence Steinman, Hans-Peter Hartung, Rafael Radi, Arne Holmgren, Orhan Aktas, Carsten Berndt
Demyelinated brain lesions, a hallmark of autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, result from oligodendroglial cell damage. Activated microglia are considered a major source of nitric oxide and subsequent peroxynitrite-mediated damage of myelin. Here, we provide biochemical and biophysical evidence that the oxidoreductase glutaredoxin 2 inhibits peroxynitrite formation by transforming nitric oxide into dinitrosyl-diglutathionyl-iron-complexes. Glutaredoxin 2 levels influence both survival rates of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and preservation of myelin structure in cerebellar organotypic slice cultures challenged with activated microglia or nitric oxide donors...
June 15, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605832/comparison-of-reprogramming-methods-for-generation-of-induced-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#4
Eun-Hye Lee, Chang-Hwan Park
Direct conversion by trans-differentiation is of growing interest in cell therapy for incurable diseases. The efficiency of cell reprogramming and functionality of converted cells are important considerations in cell transplantation therapy. Here, we compared two representative protocols for the generation of induced-oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (iOPCs) from mouse and rat fibroblasts. Then, we showed that induction of Nkx6.2, Olig2, and Sox10 (NOS) was more effective in mouse fibroblasts and that induction of Olig2, Sox10, and Zfp536 (OSZ) was more effective at reprogramming iOPCs from rat fibroblasts...
June 14, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596976/endogenous-brain-repair-overriding-intrinsic-lineage-determinates-through-injury-induced-micro-environmental-signals
#5
Kathryn S Jones, Bronwen Connor
Adult human neurogenesis has generated excitement over the last 2 decades with the idea that endogenous adult stem cells could act as a potential cell source for brain repair after injury. Indeed, many forms of experimentally induced brain injury including stroke and excitotoxic lesioning can promote proliferation from the subventricular zone and mobilise neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to migrate through brain parenchyma to damaged regions. However the failure of neuroblasts to mature into appropriate neuronal subtypes for cell replacement has been an issue...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589165/effects-of-fumarates-on-inflammatory-human-astrocyte-responses-and-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#6
Dylan A Galloway, John B Williams, Craig S Moore
OBJECTIVE: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a fumaric acid ester approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In both the brain and periphery, DMF and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our aim was to compare the effects of DMF and MMF on inflammatory and antioxidant pathways within astrocytes, a critical supporting glial cell in the central nervous system (CNS). Direct effects of fumarates on neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation toward the oligodendrocyte lineage were also assessed...
June 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578005/isolation-characterization-and-differentiation-of-multipotent-neural-progenitor-cells-from-human-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-fetal-cystic-myelomeningocele
#7
Mario Marotta, Alejandra Fernández-Martín, Marc Oria, Cesar G Fontecha, Carles Giné, Vicente Martínez-Ibáñez, Elena Carreras, Michael A Belfort, Gloria Pelizzo, Jose L Peiró
Despite benefits of prenatal in utero repair of myelomeningocele, a severe type of spina bifida aperta, many of these patients will still suffer mild to severe impairment. One potential source of stem cells for new regenerative medicine-based therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury repair is neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To this aim, we extracted CSF from the cyst surrounding the exposed neural placode during the surgical repair of myelomeningocele in 6 fetuses (20 to 26weeks of gestation)...
May 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561022/il-17-induced-notch1-activation-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-enhances-proliferation-and-inflammatory-gene-expression
#8
Chenhui Wang, Cun-Jin Zhang, Bradley N Martin, Katarzyna Bulek, Zizhen Kang, Junjie Zhao, Guanglin Bian, Julie A Carman, Ji Gao, Ashok Dongre, Haibo Xue, Stephen D Miller, Youcun Qian, Dolores Hambardzumyan, Tom Hamilton, Richard M Ransohoff, Xiaoxia Li
NOTCH1 signalling contributes to defective remyelination by impairing differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Here we report that IL-17 stimulation induces NOTCH1 activation in OPCs, contributing to Th17-mediated demyelinating disease. Mechanistically, IL-17R interacts with NOTCH1 via the extracellular domain, which facilitates the cleavage of NOTHC1 intracellular domain (NICD1). IL-17-induced NOTCH1 activation results in the interaction of IL-17R adaptor Act1 with NICD1, followed by the translocation of the Act1-NICD1 complex into the nucleus...
May 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557666/factors-released-from-endothelial-cells-exposed-to-flow-impact-adhesion-proliferation-and-fate-choice-in-the-adult-neural-stem-cell-lineage
#9
Courtney M Dumont, Jennifer Piselli, Nadeem Kazi, Evan Bowman, Guoyun Li, Robert J Linhardt, Sally Temple, Guohao Dai, Deanna M Thompson
The microvasculature within the neural stem cell (NSC) niche promotes self-renewal and regulates lineage progression. Previous work identified endothelial-produced soluble factors as key regulators of neural progenitor cell (NPC) fate and proliferation; however endothelial cells (EC) are sensitive to local hemodynamics, and the effect of this key physiological process has not been defined. In this study, we evaluated adult mouse NPC response to soluble factors isolated from static or dynamic (flow) EC cultures...
May 30, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556945/leukemia-lymphoma-related-factor-lrf-exhibits-stage-and-context-dependent-transcriptional-controls-in-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-and-modulates-remyelination
#10
Nathan L Davidson, Fengshan Yu, Naruchorn Kijpaisalratana, Tuan Q Le, Laurel A Beer, Kryslaine L Radomski, Regina C Armstrong
Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF), a zinc-finger transcription factor encoded by Zbtb7a, is a protooncogene that regulates differentiation in diverse cell lineages, and in the CNS, its function is relatively unexplored. This study is the first to examine the role of LRF in CNS pathology. We first examined LRF expression in a murine viral model of spinal cord demyelination with clinically relevant lesion characteristics. LRF was rarely expressed in oligodendrocyte progenitors (OP) yet, was detected in nuclei of the majority of oligodendrocytes in healthy adult CNS and during remyelination...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554396/progenitor-cell-based-treatment-of-glial-disease
#11
Steven A Goldman
Diseases of glia, including astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, are among the most prevalent and disabling, yet least appreciated, conditions in neurology. In recent years, it has become clear that besides the overtly glial disorders of oligodendrocyte loss and myelin failure, such as the leukodystrophies and inflammatory demyelinations, a number of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders may also be causally linked to glial dysfunction and derive from astrocytic as well as oligodendrocytic pathology. The relative contribution of glial dysfunction to many of these disorders may be so great as to allow their treatment by the delivery of allogeneic glial progenitor cells, the precursors to both astroglia and myelin-producing oligodendrocytes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552605/defined-and-scalable-differentiation-of-human-oligodendrocyte-precursors-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-a-3d-culture-system
#12
Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Thomas Gaj, Maroof M Adil, Joyce Wahba, Antara T Rao, Franziska K Lorbeer, Rishi U Kulkarni, Maria Margarida Diogo, Joaquim M S Cabral, Evan W Miller, Dirk Hockemeyer, David V Schaffer
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) offer considerable potential for the treatment of demyelinating diseases and injuries of the CNS. However, generating large quantities of high-quality OPCs remains a substantial challenge that impedes their therapeutic application. Here, we show that OPCs can be generated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in a three-dimensional (3D), scalable, and fully defined thermoresponsive biomaterial system. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create a NKX2.2-EGFP human embryonic stem cell reporter line that enabled fine-tuning of early OPC specification and identification of conditions that markedly increased the number of OLIG2(+) and NKX2...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548216/pathology-of-oligodendroglia-an-overview
#13
Takashi Komori
Oligodendroglia are cells responsible for creating myelin sheaths for axons in the CNS. However, pathologies of oligodendroglia other than demyelination are not well understood due to the lack of adequate methods of characterizing pathological conditions affecting oligodendroglia in human tissue. This review discusses three major topics with the aim of clarifying some of the controversies in the study of oligodendroglia. The oligodendroglioma, a relatively indolent form of diffuse gliomas thought to originate in oligodendrocytes, has never demonstrated myelin formation on electron microscopy nor shown a constant expression of myelin-related proteins...
May 26, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546087/region-specific-oligodendrocyte-transcription-factor-expression-in-a-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-injury
#14
Bethann M Affeldt, Andre Obenaus, Jonathan Chan, Andrea C Pardo
White matter injury (WMI) of prematurity is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders ranging from mild cognitive and behavioral deficits to cerebral palsy. Translational studies have implicated impaired oligodendrocyte development after hypoxia as the primary cause of WMI, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify alterations in the expression of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transcription factors in a mouse model of transient mild global hypoxia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533935/a-review-of-the-emerging-potential-therapy-for-neurological-disorders-human-embryonic-stem-cell-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Geeta Shroff, Jyoti Dhanda Titus, Rhea Shroff
The first human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line was developed in the late nineties. hESCs are capable of proliferating indefinitely and differentiate into all the three embryonic germ layers. Further, the differentiation of hESC lines into neural precursor cells and neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes showed their potential in treating several incurable neurological disorders such as spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we will discuss the global scenario of research and therapeutic use of hESCs in the treatment of neurological disorders...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#16
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522408/multipotency-and-therapeutic-potential-of-ng2-cells
#17
REVIEW
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Jan Kriska, Miroslava Anderova
NG2 cells represent one of the most proliferative glial cell populations in the intact mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are well-known for their ability to renew themselves or to generate new oligodendrocytes during development as well as in adulthood, therefore also being termed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Following CNS injuries, such as demyelination, trauma or ischemia, the proliferative capacity of NG2 cells rapidly increases and moreover, their differentiation potential broadens, as documented by numerous reports also describing their differentiation into astrocytes or even neurons...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518477/acute-oligodendrocyte-loss-with-persistent-white-matter-injury-in-a-third-trimester-equivalent-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#18
Jessie Newville, Carlos Fernando Valenzuela, Lu Li, Lauren L Jantzie, Lee Anna Cunningham
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development...
August 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512781/developmental-regulation-and-localization-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferases-cpts-in-rat-brain
#19
Jennifer N Jernberg, Caitlyn E Bowman, Michael J Wolfgang, Susanna Scafidi
While the brain's high energy demands are largely met by glucose, brain is also equipped with the ability to oxidize fatty acids for energy and metabolism. The brain expresses the carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPTs) that mediate carnitine-dependent entry of long-chain acyl-CoAs into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation - CPT1a and CPT2 located on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Their developmental profile, regional distribution and activity as well as cell type expression remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512742/differing-intrinsic-biological-properties-between-forebrain-and-spinal-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells
#20
Makoto Horiuchi, Yoko Suzuki-Horiuchi, Tasuku Akiyama, Aki Itoh, David Pleasure, Earl Carstens, Takayuki Itoh
Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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