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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899471/human-ipsc-based-models-highlight-defective-glial-and-neuronal-differentiation-from-neural-progenitor-cells-in-metachromatic-leukodystrophy
#1
Giacomo Frati, Marco Luciani, Vasco Meneghini, Silvia De Cicco, Marcus Ståhlman, Maria Blomqvist, Serena Grossi, Mirella Filocamo, Francesco Morena, Andrea Menegon, Sabata Martino, Angela Gritti
The pathological cascade leading from primary storage to neural cell dysfunction and death in metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) has been poorly elucidated in human-derived neural cell systems. In the present study, we have modeled the progression of pathological events during the differentiation of patient-specific iPSCs to neuroepithelial progenitor cells (iPSC-NPCs) and mature neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes at the morphological, molecular, and biochemical level. We showed significant sulfatide accumulation and altered sulfatide composition during the differentiation of MLD iPSC-NPCs into neuronal and glial cells...
June 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896433/apx3330-promotes-neurorestorative-effects-after-stroke-in-type-one-diabetic-rats
#2
Tao Yan, Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Peng Yu, Ruizhuo Ning, Xiaoxi Qiao, Mark R Kelley, Jieli Chen
APX3330 is a selective inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity. In this study, we investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of APX3330 treatment in type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM) stroke rats. Adult male Wistar rats were induced with T1DM and subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with either PBS or APX3330 (10mg/kg, oral gavage) starting at 24h after MCAo, and daily for 14 days. Rats were sacrificed at 14 days after MCAo and, blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, ischemic lesion volume, immunohistochemistry, cell death assay, Western blot, real time PCR, and angiogenic ELISA array were performed...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896084/epigenetic-and-transcriptional-pre-patterning-an-emerging-theme-in-cortical-neurogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Mareike Albert, Wieland B Huttner
Neurogenesis is the process through which neural stem and progenitor cells generate neurons. During the development of the mouse neocortex, stem and progenitor cells sequentially give rise to neurons destined to different cortical layers and then switch to gliogenesis resulting in the generation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Precise spatial and temporal regulation of neural progenitor differentiation is key for the proper formation of the complex structure of the neocortex. Dynamic changes in gene expression underlie the coordinated differentiation program, which enables the cells to generate the RNAs and proteins required at different stages of neurogenesis and across different cell types...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885287/cellular-fate-decisions-in-the-developing-female-anteroventral-periventricular-nucleus-are-regulated-by-canonical-notch-signaling
#4
Matthew J Biehl, Kerim B Kaylan, Robert J Thompson, Rachel V Gonzalez, Karen E Weis, Gregory H Underhill, Lori T Raetzman
The hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) is the major regulator of reproductive function within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Despite an understanding of the function of neuronal subtypes within the AVPV, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating their development. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that Notch signaling is required in progenitor cell maintenance and formation of kisspeptin neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) while simultaneously restraining POMC neuron number...
June 6, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867353/dynamic-calcium-release-from-endoplasmic-reticulum-mediated-by-ryanodine-receptor-3-is-crucial-for-oligodendroglial-differentiation
#5
Tao Li, Lingyun Wang, Teng Ma, Shouyu Wang, Jianqin Niu, Hongli Li, Lan Xiao
Increased intracellular Ca2+ in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is important to initiate their differentiation, but the intracellular Ca2+ channel involved in this process remains unclear. As a Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release (CICR) channel that mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release, the role of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in oligodendroglial development is unexplored. In the present study, we observed that among the three mammalian isoforms, oligodendroglial lineage cells selectively expressed RyR3...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857830/in-vitro-microenvironment-directs-preconditioning-of-human-chorion-derived-msc-promoting-differentiation-of-opc-like-cells
#6
Ramesh Periasamy, Daniel V Surbek, Andreina Schoeberlein
The loss of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) is a hallmark of perinatal brain injury. Our aim was to develop an in vitro culture condition for human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that enhances their stem cell properties and their capability to differentiate towards OPC-like cells. MSC were grown either in serum replacement medium (SRM) or serum-containing medium (SM) and tested for their morphology, proliferation, secretome, migration, protein expression and differentiation into OPC-like cells...
June 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791837/phosphorylation-state-of-zfp24-controls-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#7
Benayahu Elbaz, Joshua D Aaker, Sara Isaac, Anna Kolarzyk, Pedro Brugarolas, Amir Eden, Brian Popko
Zinc finger protein ZFP24, formerly known as ZFP191, is essential for oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which ZFP24 controls these processes is unknown. We demonstrate that ZFP24 binds to a consensus DNA sequence in proximity to genes important for oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelination, and we show that this binding enhances target gene expression. We also demonstrate that ZFP24 DNA binding is controlled by phosphorylation. Phosphorylated ZFP24, which does not bind DNA, is the predominant form in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788868/contribution-of-spinal-cord-oligodendrocytes-to-neuroinflammatory-diseases-and-pain
#8
Sergio M Borghi, Victor Fattori, Miriam S N Hohmann, Waldiceu A Verri
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory diseases that affect spinal cord or associated spinal nerves represent challenging conditions for management in current medicine because of their complex pathology, poor prognosis, and high morbidity, which strikingly reduces the quality of life of patients. In this sense, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of spinal cord neuroinflammation might contribute to the development of novel therapies. Oligodendrocytes have unique and vital biological properties in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and physiology...
May 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772232/hypomyelination-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-lacking-cd133-prominin-1
#9
Mi-Hyun Choi, Ji Eun Na, Ye Ran Yoon, Im Joo Rhyu, Young-Gyu Ko, Ja-Hyun Baik
The CD133 antigen, also known as prominin-1, is a glycoprotein that specifically localizes to plasma membrane protrusions. The precise function of CD133 remains unknown, but it is expressed in various progenitor cells including those derived from the neural and hematopoietic system, as well as different tissues. In the adult mouse brain, CD133 is highly expressed in white matter. Here, we performed immunochemical staining and electron microscopy to demonstrate that mice lacking CD133 (CD133-/- ) exhibit decreased myelin in the corpus callosum, the largest white matter tract in the brain...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759026/efficacy-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-transplantation-in-rat-models-with-traumatic-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Haitao Fu, Die Hu, Licheng Zhang, Xuezhen Shen, Peifu Tang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that results in severe motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction, for which there is currently no available treatments. Following the primary mechanical damage, progressive secondary damage further exacerbates the functional deficit. Demyelination may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SCI. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are considered a candidate cellular treatment approach for SCI due to their unique potential. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of OPC transplantation in rat models with traumatic thoracic SCI and 17 studies (20 experiments, 402 rats) were identified...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751775/cxcl12-engineered-endothelial-progenitor-cells-enhance-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-after-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#11
Yaning Li, Shuang Chang, Wanlu Li, Guanghui Tang, Yuanyuan Ma, Yanqun Liu, Fang Yuan, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke causes a multitude of brain damage. Neurovascular injury and myelin sheath degradation are two manifestations of ischemic brain damage. Therapeutic strategies aiming only at repairing the neural components or the vessels cannot efficiently restore neurological function. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the advantages of both promoting angiogenesis and secreting trophic factors that would promote neurogenesis. Chemokine cxcl12 gene therapy has also been shown to promote angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and remyelination, attracting EPCs, neural progenitor cells, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the injured sites of the brain...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743549/human-cortex-spheroid-with-a-functional-blood-brain-barrier-for-high-throughput-neurotoxicity-screening-and-disease-modeling
#12
Goodwell Nzou, R T Wicks, E E Wicks, S A Seale, C H Sane, A Chen, S V Murphy, J D Jackson, A J Atala
The integral selectivity characteristic of the blood brain barrier (BBB) limits therapeutic options for many neurologic diseases and disorders. Currently, very little is known about the mechanisms that govern the dynamic nature of the BBB. Recent reports have focused on the development and application of human brain organoids developed from neuro-progenitor cells. While these models provide an excellent platform to study the effects of disease and genetic aberrances on brain development, they may not model the microvasculature and BBB of the adult human cortex...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740943/vanishing-white-matter-a-leukodystrophy-due-to-astrocytic-dysfunction
#13
Marianna Bugiani, Caroline Vuong, Marjolein Breur, Marjo S van der Knaap
VWM is one of the most prevalent leukodystrophies with unique clinical, pathological and molecular features. It mostly affects children, but may develop at all ages, from birth to senescence. It is dominated by cerebellar ataxia and susceptible to stresses that act as factors provoking disease onset or episodes of rapid neurological deterioration possibly leading to death. VWM is caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding the five subunits of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Although eIF2B is ubiquitously expressed, VWM primarily manifests as a leukodystrophy with increasing white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration, meager astrogliosis with no glial scarring and dysmorphic immature astrocytes and increased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that are restrained from maturing into myelin-forming cells...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739868/the-dorsal-wave-of-neocortical-oligodendrogenesis-begins-embryonically-and-requires-multiple-sources-of-sonic-hedgehog
#14
Caitlin C Winkler, Odessa R Yabut, Santiago P Fregoso, Hector G Gomez, Brett E Dwyer, Samuel J Pleasure, Santos J Franco
Neural progenitor cells in the developing dorsal forebrain give rise to excitatory neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes for the neocortex. Compared to neurons and astrocytes, less is known about the molecular mechanisms that instruct dorsal forebrain progenitors to an oligodendrocyte fate. In this study, we show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is required in dorsal progenitors for their late embryonic transition to oligodendrogenesis. Using genetic lineage-tracing in mice of both sexes, we demonstrate that the majority of oligodendrocytes in the embryonic neocortex derive from Emx1+ dorsal forebrain progenitors...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732611/jmy-regulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-via-modulation-of-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#15
Maria M Azevedo, Helena S Domingues, Fabrice P Cordelières, Paula Sampaio, Ana I Seixas, João B Relvas
During central nervous system development, oligodendrocytes form structurally and functionally distinct actin-rich protrusions that contact and wrap around axons to assemble myelin sheaths. Establishment of axonal contact is a limiting step in myelination that relies on the oligodendrocyte's ability to locally coordinate cytoskeletal rearrangements with myelin production, under the control of a transcriptional differentiation program. The molecules that provide fine-tuning of actin dynamics during oligodendrocyte differentiation and axon ensheathment remain largely unidentified...
May 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722306/dissecting-the-multifactorial-nature-of-demyelinating-disease
#16
REVIEW
Karolina Kucharova, William B Stallcup
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-4 (CSPG4) is a surface component of two key cell types (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and myeloid cells) present in lysolecithin-induced lesions in mouse spinal cord. Two types of CSPG4 manipulations have been used to study the roles of these cells in myelin damage and repair: (1) OPC and myeloid-specific ablation of CSPG4, and (2) transplantation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled progenitors to distinguish between bone marrow-derived macrophages and resident microglia...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720228/characterization-of-a-murine-mixed-neuron-glia-model-and-cellular-responses-to-regulatory-t-cell-derived-factors
#17
Marie Dittmer, Andrew Young, Thomas O'Hagan, George Eleftheriadis, Peter Bankhead, Yvonne Dombrowski, Reinhold J Medina, Denise C Fitzgerald
One of the unmet clinical needs in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is to provide therapies that actively enhance the process of myelin regeneration (remyelination) in the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the CNS, play a central role in remyelination and originate from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We recently showed that depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg) impairs remyelination in vivo, and that Treg-secreted factors directly enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690837/neutralization-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-following-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-mouse-attenuates-the-loss-of-mature-oligodendrocytes
#18
Johanna Flygt, Karsten Ruscher, Amanda Norberg, Anis Mir, Hermann Gram, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly results in injury to the components of the white matter tracts, causing post-injury cognitive deficits. The myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (OLs) are vulnerable to TBI although may plausibly be replaced by proliferating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). The cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key mediator of the complex inflammatory response, and when neutralized in experimental TBI behavioral outcome was improved. To evaluate the role of IL-1β on OL cell death and OPC proliferation, 116 adult male mice subjected to sham injury or the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) model of traumatic axonal injury, were analyzed at 2, 7 and 14 days post-injury...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689424/conditional-deletion-of-id2-or-notch1-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-does-not-ameliorate-disease-outcome-in-sod1-g93a-mice
#19
Caroline Eykens, Annelies Nonneman, Cathy Jensen, Antonio Iavarone, Philip Van Damme, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Wim Robberecht
Oligodendrocytes are essential for structural and trophic support of motor axons. Their impairment has been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells fail to differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes and thereby jeopardize the health of motor neurons. Here, we report that oligodendrocytic ablation of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) or Notch receptor 1 (Notch1), 2 negative master modulators of oligodendrocyte differentiation, fails to alleviate oligodendrocyte dysfunction or alter disease outcome in a murine model of ALS...
August 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685289/remyelination-in-the-medulla-oblongata-of-adult-mouse-brain-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#20
Daishi Hiratsuka, Eriko Furube, Katsutoshi Taguchi, Masaki Tanaka, Mitsuhiro Morita, Seiji Miyata
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is primarily used as an animal model of autoimmune demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. In this study, we found the proliferative rate of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the medulla elevated twofold above control levels during EAE and new generation of mature oligodendrocytes was increased as well. Although astrocytes showed hypertrophic reactive phenotype, a new generation of them was rare. Astrocyte- and tanycyte-like neural stem cells (NSCs), multipotent NSCs, did not augment their low proliferative rate...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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