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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645261/genome-wide-analysis-of-udp-glycosyltransferase-super-family-in-brassica-rapa-and-brassica-oleracea-reveals-its-evolutionary-history-and-functional-characterization
#1
Jingyin Yu, Fan Hu, Komivi Dossa, Zhaokai Wang, Tao Ke
BACKGROUND: Glycosyltransferases comprise a highly divergent and polyphyletic multigene family that is involved in widespread modification of plant secondary metabolites in a process called glycosylation. According to conserved domains identified in their amino acid sequences, these glycosyltransferases can be classified into a single UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) 1 superfamily. RESULTS: We performed genome-wide comparative analysis of UGT genes to trace evolutionary history in algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and angiosperms; then, we further investigated the expansion mechanisms and function characterization of UGT gene families in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645168/genomic-reconstruction-of-the-history-of-native-sheep-reveals-the-peopling-patterns-of-nomads-and-the-expansion-of-early-pastoralism-in-east-asia
#2
Yong-Xin Zhao, Ji Yang, Feng-Hua Lv, Xiao-Ju Hu, Xing-Long Xie, Min Zhang, Wen-Rong Li, Ming-Jun Liu, Yu-Tao Wang, Jin-Quan Li, Yong-Gang Liu, Yan-Ling Ren, Feng Wang, EEr Hehua, Juha Kantanen, Johannes Arjen Lenstra, Jian-Lin Han, Meng-Hua Li
China has a rich resource of native sheep (Ovis aries) breeds associated with historical movements of several nomadic societies. However, the history of sheep and the associated nomadic societies in ancient China remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the genomic diversity of Chinese sheep using genome-wide SNPs, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal variations in more than 1,000 modern samples. Population genomic analyses combined with archaeological records and historical ethnic demographics data revealed genetic signatures of their origins, secondary expansions and admixtures, thereby revealing the peopling patterns of nomads and the expansion of early pastoralism in East Asia...
June 22, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641826/the-chemical-history-of-morphine-an-8000-year-journey-from-resin-to-de-novo-synthesis
#3
Karolina Brook, Jessica Bennett, Sukumar P Desai
Evidence of human use of opium dates back as far as the sixth millennium BCE. Ancient societies through the Renaissance period created a variety of opium products, proliferating its common use and subsequent addiction. Because the active moiety was not known at this time, the potency of these opium concoctions could neither be predicted nor controlled. The first step in identifying opium's active ingredient, morphine, was its chemical isolation in the early 1800s by Wilhelm Sertürner. The subsequent elucidation of morphine's chemical formula and Sir Robert Robinson's derivation of morphine's structural formula, which won him the 1947 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, round out 150 years of the incremental advances in our chemical understanding of morphine...
April 2017: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640885/phylogeography-of-a-tough-rock-survivor-in-european-dry-grasslands
#4
Daniela Listl, Peter Poschlod, Christoph Reisch
Phylogeographic analyses of plants in Europe have revealed common glacial refugia and migration routes for several trees and herbs with arctic-alpine distributions. The postglacial histories of dry grassland species in central Europe have rarely been analyzed, even though the extremely species-rich habitat is threatened. Sedum album (Crassulaceae) is a common inhabitant of rocky sites in central European dry grasslands. We inferred the phylogeographic history of S. album over its distribution range in Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638066/mummified-oligocene-fruits-of-schima-theaceae-and-their-systematic-and-biogeographic-implications
#5
Xiang-Gang Shi, Qiong-Yao Fu, Jian-Hua Jin, Cheng Quan
The genus Schima includes about 20 species and is distributed only in southern China and adjacent areas of Asia. The previous molecular phylogenetic analysis suggested Schima is in the tribe Gordoniae, along with Gordonia and Franklinia. However, because few fossils have been reported, the biogeographic origin of Schima is still poorly known. In this paper mummified fossil fruits of Schima are described from the upper Oligocene Yongning Formation of the Nanning Basin, Guangxi, South China. In gross morphology, the new fossil species, Schima kwangsiensis, is similar to the extant S...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633358/phylogeography-of-herbarium-specimens-of-asexually-propagated-paper-mulberry-broussonetia-papyrifera-l-l-h%C3%A3-r-ex-vent-moraceae-reveals-genetic-diversity-across-the-pacific
#6
Claudia Payacan, Ximena Moncada, Gloria Rojas, Andrew Clarke, Kuo-Fang Chung, Robin Allaby, Daniela Seelenfreund, Andrea Seelenfreund
Background and Aims: Paper mulberry or Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. (Moraceae) is a dioecious species native to continental South-east Asia and East Asia, including Taiwan, that was introduced to the Pacific by pre-historic voyagers and transported intentionally and propagated asexually across the full range of Austronesian expansion from Taiwan to East Polynesia. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dispersal of paper mulberry into Oceania through the genetic analysis of herbaria samples which represent a more complete coverage of the historical geographical range of the species in the Pacific before later introductions and local extinctions occurred...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626414/an-unusual-differential-diagnosis-of-orbital-cavernous-hemangioma-ancient-schwannoma
#7
Sara Filipa Teixeira Ribeiro, Tatiana Queirós, José M Amorim, Ana M Ferreira, Marco Sales-Sanz
Schwannomas are rare lesions of the orbit that can be confused with cavernous hemangioma on imaging studies. We report the case of an 84-year-old woman with a 9-year history of a tumoral lesion in the inferolateral left orbit. The imaging studies did not reveal specific characteristics, only bone remodeling due to the long evolution of the tumor. The patient underwent complete excision of the tumor by anterior orbitotomy via the inferior conjunctival fornix. The histopathological examination revealed an ancient schwannoma, a variant of schwannoma with uncommon histological features...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616065/human-management-and-hybridization-shape-treegourd-fruits-in-the-brazilian-amazon-basin
#8
Priscila Ambrósio Moreira, Cédric Mariac, Leila Zekraoui, Marie Couderc, Doriane Picanço Rodrigues, Charles R Clement, Yves Vigouroux
Local people's perceptions of cultivated and wild agrobiodiversity, as well as their management of hybridization are still understudied in Amazonia. Here we analyze domesticated treegourd (Crescentia cujete), whose versatile fruits have technological, symbolic, and medicinal uses. A wild relative (C. amazonica) of the cultivated species grows spontaneously in Amazonian flooded forests. We demonstrated, using whole chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites, that the two species are strongly differentiated...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615043/-like-sugar-in-milk-reconstructing-the-genetic-history-of-the-parsi-population
#9
Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Qasim Ayub, Niraj Rai, Satya Prakash, Veena Mushrif-Tripathy, Massimo Mezzavilla, Ajai Kumar Pathak, Rakesh Tamang, Sadaf Firasat, Maere Reidla, Monika Karmin, Deepa Selvi Rani, Alla G Reddy, Jüri Parik, Ene Metspalu, Siiri Rootsi, Kurush Dalal, Shagufta Khaliq, Syed Qasim Mehdi, Lalji Singh, Mait Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Chris Tyler-Smith, Richard Villems, Kumarasamy Thangaraj
BACKGROUND: The Parsis are one of the smallest religious communities in the world. To understand the population structure and demographic history of this group in detail, we analyzed Indian and Pakistani Parsi populations using high-resolution genetic variation data on autosomal and uniparental loci (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA). Additionally, we also assayed mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms among ancient Parsi DNA samples excavated from Sanjan, in present day Gujarat, the place of their original settlement in India...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614587/scholars-and-scientists-in-the-history-of-the-lymphatic-system
#10
REVIEW
Gianfranco Natale, Guido Bocci, Domenico Ribatti
The discovery of the lymphatic system has a long and fascinating history. The interest in anatomy and physiology of this system paralleled that of the blood cardiocirculatory system and has been maybe obscured by the latter. Paradoxically, if the closed blood system appeared open in Galen's anatomy and physiology, and took a very long time to be correctly described in terms of pulmonary and general circulation by ibn Al-Nafis/Michael Servetus/Realdo Colombo and William Harvey, respectively, the open lymphatic system was incorrectly described as a closed circuit connected with arteries and veins...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610613/100-million-years-of-multigene-family-evolution-origin-and-evolution-of-the-avian-mhc-class-iib
#11
Julien Goebel, Marta Promerová, Francesco Bonadonna, Karen D McCoy, Céline Serbielle, Maria Strandh, Glenn Yannic, Reto Burri, Luca Fumagalli
BACKGROUND: Gene duplication has led to a most remarkable adaptation involved in vertebrates' host-pathogen arms-race, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). However, MHC duplication history is as yet poorly understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, including birds. RESULTS: Here, we provide evidence for the evolution of two ancient avian MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) lineages by a duplication event prior to the radiation of all extant birds >100 million years ago, and document the role of concerted evolution in eroding the footprints of the avian MHCIIB duplication history...
June 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609429/reciprocal-evolution-of-opiate-science-from-medical-and-cultural-perspectives
#12
George B Stefano, Nastazja Pilonis, Radek Ptacek, Richard M Kream
Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium...
June 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609252/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-metabolic-syndrome-history-present-and-future
#13
P F de Groot, M N Frissen, N C de Clercq, M Nieuwdorp
The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607045/mio-pliocene-aridity-in-the-south-central-andes-associated-with-southern-hemisphere-cold-periods
#14
William H Amidon, G Burch Fisher, Douglas W Burbank, Patricia L Ciccioli, Ricardo N Alonso, Andrew L Gorin, Perri H Silverhart, Andrew R C Kylander-Clark, Michael S Christoffersen
Although Earth's climate history is best known through marine records, the corresponding continental climatic conditions drive the evolution of terrestrial life. Continental conditions during the latest Miocene are of particular interest because global faunal turnover is roughly synchronous with a period of global glaciation from ∼6.2-5.5 Ma and with the Messinian Salinity Crisis from ∼6.0-5.3 Ma. Despite the climatic and ecological significance of this period, the continental climatic conditions associated with it remain unclear...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606348/about-ganoderma-boninense-in-oil-palm-plantations-of-sumatra-and-peninsular-malaysia-ancient-population-expansion-extensive-gene-flow-and-large-scale-dispersion-ability
#15
Maxime Mercière, Romain Boulord, Catherine Carasco-Lacombe, Christophe Klopp, Yang-Ping Lee, Joon-Sheong Tan, Sharifah S R Syed Alwee, Alba Zaremski, Hubert De Franqueville, Frédéric Breton, Létizia Camus-Kulandaivelu
Wood rot fungi form one of the main classes of phytopathogenic fungus. The group includes many species, but has remained poorly studied. Many species belonging to the Ganoderma genus are well known for causing decay in a wide range of tree species around the world. Ganoderma boninense, causal agent of oil palm basal stem rot, is responsible for considerable yield losses in Southeast Asian oil palm plantations. In a large-scale sampling operation, 357 sporophores were collected from oil palm plantations spread over peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra and genotyped using 11 SSR markers...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605023/the-modern-compound-bow
#16
LokMan Sung, Kilak Kesha, Sarah Avedschmidt, Kelly Root, Leigh Hlavaty
Bows and arrows are ancient weapons that have risen and fallen as the preeminent armaments used by man. Because of the ubiquity of firearms, fatalities from archery injuries in the United States have radically declined. However, when deaths involving this weapon do present themselves, the paucity of reference materials can be a hurdle for forensic pathologists and other forensic scientists. This article will provide a brief history of the origins of the bow and the inception of the compound bow. Comparing and contrasting the structures comprising a traditional bow to those of the modern compound bow will provide insight into how these components function in unison to propel arrows...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604700/excess-of-non-conservative-amino-acid-changes-in-marine-bacterioplankton-lineages-with-reduced-genomes
#17
Haiwei Luo, Yongjie Huang, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Jijun Tang
Surface ocean waters are dominated by planktonic bacterial lineages with highly reduced genomes. The best examples are the cyanobacterial genus Prochlorococcus, the alphaproteobacterial clade SAR11 and the gammaproteobacterial clade SAR86, which together represent over 50% of the cells in surface oceans. Several studies have identified signatures of selection on these lineages in today's ocean and have postulated selection as the primary force throughout their evolutionary history. However, massive loss of genomic DNA in these lineages often occurred in the distant past, and the selective pressures underlying these ancient events have not been assessed...
June 12, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595347/genetic-history-of-xinjiang-s-uyghurs-suggests-bronze-age-multiple-way-contacts-in-eurasia
#18
Qidi Feng, Yan Lu, Xumin Ni, Kai Yuan, Yajun Yang, Xiong Yang, Chang Liu, Haiyi Lou, Zhilin Ning, Yuchen Wang, Dongsheng Lu, Chao Zhang, Ying Zhou, Meng Shi, Lei Tian, Xiaoji Wang, Xi Zhang, Jing Li, Asifullah Khan, Yaqun Guan, Kun Tang, Sijia Wang, Shuhua Xu
The Uyghur people residing in Xinjiang, a territory located in the far west of China and crossed by the Silk Road, are a key ethnic group for understanding the history of human dispersion in Eurasia. Here we assessed the genetic structure and ancestry of 951 Xinjiang's Uyghurs (XJU) representing 14 geographical subpopulations. We observed a southwest and northeast differentiation within XJU, which was likely shaped jointly by the Tianshan Mountains, which traverses from east to west as a natural barrier, and gene flow from both east and west directions...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588261/persistent-effects-of-the-yellow-river-on-the-chinese-marginal-seas-began-at-least-880%C3%A2-ka-ago
#19
Zhengquan Yao, Xuefa Shi, Shuqing Qiao, Qingsong Liu, Selvaraj Kandasamy, Jianxing Liu, Yanguang Liu, Jihua Liu, Xisheng Fang, Jingjing Gao, Yanguang Dou
The Yellow River (or Huanghe and also known as China's Sorrow in ancient times), with the highest sediment load in the world, provides a key link between continental erosion and sediment accumulation in the western Pacific Ocean. However, the exact age of its influence on the marginal sea is highly controversial and uncertain. Here we present high-resolution records of clay minerals and lanthanum to samarium (La/Sm) ratio spanning the past ~1 million years (Myr) from the Bohai and Yellow Seas, the potential sedimentary sinks of the Yellow River...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588246/phylogenetic-evidence-that-both-ancient-vicariance-and-dispersal-have-contributed-to-the-biogeographic-patterns-of-anchialine-cave-shrimps
#20
José A Jurado-Rivera, Joan Pons, Fernando Alvarez, Alejandro Botello, William F Humphreys, Timothy J Page, Thomas M Iliffe, Endre Willassen, Kenneth Meland, Carlos Juan, Damià Jaume
Cave shrimps from the genera Typhlatya, Stygiocaris and Typhlopatsa (Atyidae) are restricted to specialised coastal subterranean habitats or nearby freshwaters and have a highly disconnected distribution (Eastern Pacific, Caribbean, Atlantic, Mediterranean, Madagascar, Australia). The combination of a wide distribution and a limited dispersal potential suggests a large-scale process has generated this geographic pattern. Tectonic plates that fragment ancestral ranges (vicariance) has often been assumed to cause this process, with the biota as passive passengers on continental blocks...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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