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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742865/a-novel-mitochondrial-genome-of-arborophila-and-new-insight-into-arborophila-evolutionary-history
#1
Chaochao Yan, Biqin Mou, Yang Meng, Feiyun Tu, Zhenxin Fan, Megan Price, Bisong Yue, Xiuyue Zhang
The lineage of the Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus) was investigated to determine the phylogenetic relationships within Arborophila as the species is centrally distributed within an area covered by the distributions of 22 South-east Asian hill partridge species. The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. brunneopectus was determined and compared with four other hill partridge species mitogenomes. NADH subunit genes are radical in hill partridge mitogenomes and contain the most potential positive selective sites around where variable sites are abundant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735089/biodeterioration-of-marble-in-an-underwater-environment
#2
Beatriz Cámara, Mónica Álvarez de Buergo, Manuel Bethencourt, Tomás Fernández-Montblanc, Mauro F La Russa, Michela Ricca, Rafael Fort
This study examines the deterioration of geomaterials used throughout history that today may be found lying on the ocean floor. Submerged archaeological sites including cargoes from shipwrecks or ancient city ruins have been a topic of interest from a perspective of in situ musealization, as a way of making underwater cultural heritage accessible to the public. In an experimental study conducted at an underwater archaeological site in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain), we subjected two types of marble (Carrara and Macael) to three conditions to which submerged archaeological objects are often exposed: full exposure to the water column, natural processes of burial and unearthing, or permanent burial...
July 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729869/genetic-patterns-of-myrceugenia-correifolia-a-rare-species-of-fog-dependent-forests-of-mediterranean-chile-is-it-a-climatic-relict
#3
Fernanda Pérez, Luis F Hinojosa, Gioconda Peralta, Paz Montenegro, Carla Irarrázabal, Michel Cossio
Rare species frequently occur in areas with microclimatic conditions that are atypical for their regions, but that were more common in the past, and that probably have operated as climatic refugia for a long time. Myrceugenia correifolia is a rare arboreal species that grows in deep canyons and hilltops of the Coast Range of north-central Chile between 30° and 35°S. In the northern edge of its distribution M. correifolia grows in small patches of fog-dependent forest surrounding by xeric vegetation. These forest formations are thought to be remnants of an ancient and continuous rainforest that according to some authors became fragmented during aridization of the Neogene (Neogene relict) and to others during warm-dry cycles of the Pleistocene (glacial relicts)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728593/high-throughput-sequencing-of-small-rnas-reveals-dynamic-micrornas-expression-of-lipid-metabolism-during-camellia-oleifera-and-c-meiocarpa-seed-natural-drying
#4
Jin-Ling Feng, Zhi-Jian Yang, Shi-Pin Chen, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Hui Chen
BACKGROUND: Camellia species are ancient oilseed plants with a history of cultivation over two thousand years. Prior to oil extraction, natural seed drying is often practiced, a process affecting fatty acid quality and quantity. MicroRNAs (miRNA) of lipid metabolism associated with camellia seed natural drying are unexplored. To obtain insight into the function of miRNAs in lipid metabolism during natural drying, Illumina sequencing of C. oleifera and C. meiocarpa small-RNA was conducted...
July 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718817/time-to-spread-your-wings-a-review-of-the-avian-ancient-dna-field
#5
REVIEW
Alicia Grealy, Nicolas J Rawlence, Michael Bunce
Ancient DNA (aDNA) has the ability to inform the evolutionary history of both extant and extinct taxa; however, the use of aDNA in the study of avian evolution is lacking in comparison to other vertebrates, despite birds being one of the most species-rich vertebrate classes. Here, we review the field of "avian ancient DNA" by summarising the past three decades of literature on this topic. Most studies over this time have used avian aDNA to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and clarify taxonomy based on the sequencing of a few mitochondrial loci, but recent studies are moving toward using a comparative genomics approach to address developmental and functional questions...
July 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716571/antiviral-effect-of-forsythoside-a-from-forsythia-suspensa-thunb-vahl-fruit-against-influenza-a-virus-through-reduction-of-viral-m1-protein
#6
Anna Hing-Yee Law, Cindy Lai-Hung Yang, Allan Sik-Yin Lau, Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Yinqiaosan is a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, which has been used to treat respiratory diseases since ancient China. It consists of nine herbs and among them, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl fruit is one of the major herbal components. Despite the long history of Yinqiaosan, the active compounds and the mechanisms of action of this formula remain elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to examine the suppressive effect of Yinqiaosan on influenza virus and to identify the active components in the formula targeting influenza...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714703/localizationism-antilocalizationism-and-the-emergence-of-the-unitary-construct-of-consciousness-in-luigi-luciani-1840-1919
#7
Giorgia Morgese, Giovanni Pietro Lombardo, Vilfredo De Pascalis
This article aims to present the construct of unitary consciousness as it emerged in the work of the Italian physiologist Luigi Luciani (1840-1919). We highlight how Luciani's work, conducted during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, integrated experimental research with the clinical observation of patients, enabling him to develop elaborate theoretical conceptions. From our historical analysis of Luciani's main works, an innovative model of unitary consciousness emerges with respect to his contemporary context...
July 17, 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713650/the-fossil-osmundales-royal-ferns-a-phylogenetic-network-analysis-revised-taxonomy-and-evolutionary-classification-of-anatomically-preserved-trunks-and-rhizomes
#8
Benjamin Bomfleur, Guido W Grimm, Stephen McLoughlin
The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exceptional source of information on the evolutionary history of the group from the Permian to the present...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710495/tracing-the-vedic-saraswati-river-in-the-great-rann-of-kachchh
#9
Nitesh Khonde, Sunil Kumar Singh, D M Maurya, Vinai K Rai, L S Chamyal, Liviu Giosan
The lost Saraswati River mentioned in the ancient Indian tradition is postulated to have flown independently of the Indus River into the Arabian Sea, perhaps along courses of now defunct rivers such as Ghaggar, Hakra and Nara. The persistence of such a river during the Harappan Bronze Age and the Iron Age Vedic period is strongly debated. We drilled in the Great Rann of Kachchh (Kutch), an infilled gulf of the Arabian Sea, which must have received input from the Saraswati, if active. Nd and Sr isotopic measurements suggest that a distinct source may have been present before 10 ka...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707869/science-eastern-orthodoxy-and-world-religions
#10
COMMENT
John Hedley Brooke, Ronald L Numbers
The history of Orthodoxy and science invites contrasts with other religious traditions. In contradistinction to the Latin West, for example, Eastern Orthodoxy throughout its history embraced the “pagan” scientific achievements of ancient Greece. Also unlike in the West, where ecclesiastical institutions often supported scientific activities, scholars in the East—in both the Byzantine and Ottoman periods— relied primarily on temporal sources to sustain their investigations of nature. Islam, with its strenuous resistance to any assimilation of the human to the divine, provides another contrasting example, as does the later Protestant justification for science grounded in the need to restore a fallen world through the application of experimental research...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702980/a-short-novel-about-the-spread-of-two-important-diseases-in-history-syphilis-and-sars
#11
M Rovesti, F Satolli, A Zucchi, M Gandolfi, M Fioranelli, M G Roccia, M Boccalari, K França, J Lotti, N Zerbinati, T Lotti, C Feliciani
Throughout the centuries, the undefended nature of man has very often manifested in cases of epidemics, which have determined scenarios of suffering and death. Through “historical” observation lens, it is possible to understand the relationship between the spread of viruses, bacteria and parasites responsible for these epidemics and the displacement of ancient or contemporary travellers. We have analysed two infective diseases, syphilis and SARS, and their role in history and in medicine.
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702964/stigmata-in-the-history-between-faith-mysticism-and-science
#12
S Gianfaldoni, J Lotti, M G Roccia, M Fioranelli, R Gianfaldoni, T Lotti
Stigmata are one of the most ancient and fascinating mysteries of the Christian religion. The word “stigmata” derives by the Greek “stigma”, that means sign, mark. Classically, stigmata are the sores inflicted on Jesus Christ during his passion and crucifixion. Today, the term stigmatized has been extended to designate several cases of individuals, who show skin sores similar to those of Christ. The Authors report a brief history of stigmata, trying to give an explanation to such a fascinating phenomenon...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683902/a-history-of-thoracic-aortic-surgery
#13
REVIEW
Paul Michael McFadden, Luke M Wiggins, Joshua A Boys
Ancient historical texts describe the presence of aortic pathology conditions, although the surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease remained insurmountable until the 19th century. Surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease then progressed along with advances in surgical technique, conduit production, cardiopulmonary bypass, and endovascular technology. Despite radical advances in aortic surgery, principles established by surgical pioneers of the 19th century hold firm to this day.
August 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681914/2-000-year-old-%C3%AE-thalassemia-case-in-sardinia-suggests-malaria-was-endemic-by-the-roman-period
#14
Claudia Viganó, Cordula Haas, Frank J Rühli, Abigail Bouwman
OBJECTIVES: The island of Sardinia has one of the highest incidence rates of β-thalassemia in Europe due to its long history of endemic malaria, which, according to historical records, was introduced around 2,600 years ago by the Punics and only became endemic around the Middle Ages. In particular, the cod39 mutation is responsible for more than 95% of all β-thalassemia cases observed on the island. Debates surround the origin of the mutation. Some argue that its presence in the Western Mediterranean reflects the migration of people away from Sardinia, others that it reflects the colonization of the island by the Punics who might have carried the disease allele...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672035/modern-day-siv-viral-diversity-generated-by-extensive-recombination-and-cross-species-transmission
#15
Sidney M Bell, Trevor Bedford
Cross-species transmission (CST) has led to many devastating epidemics, but is still a poorly understood phenomenon. HIV-1 and HIV-2 (human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2), which have collectively caused over 35 million deaths, are the result of multiple CSTs from chimpanzees, gorillas, and sooty mangabeys. While the immediate history of HIV is known, there are over 45 lentiviruses that infect specific species of primates, and patterns of host switching are not well characterized. We thus took a phylogenetic approach to better understand the natural history of SIV recombination and CST...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669760/eight-millennia-of-matrilineal-genetic-continuity-in-the-south-caucasus
#16
Ashot Margaryan, Miroslava Derenko, Hrant Hovhannisyan, Boris Malyarchuk, Rasmus Heller, Zaruhi Khachatryan, Pavel Avetisyan, Ruben Badalyan, Arsen Bobokhyan, Varduhi Melikyan, Gagik Sargsyan, Ashot Piliposyan, Hakob Simonyan, Ruzan Mkrtchyan, Galina Denisova, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Eske Willerslev, Morten E Allentoft
The South Caucasus, situated between the Black and Caspian Seas, geographically links Europe with the Near East and has served as a crossroad for human migrations for many millennia [1-7]. Despite a vast archaeological record showing distinct cultural turnovers, the demographic events that shaped the human populations of this region is not known [8, 9]. To shed light on the maternal genetic history of the region, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes of 52 ancient skeletons from present-day Armenia and Artsakh spanning 7,800 years and combined this dataset with 206 mitochondrial genomes of modern Armenians...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667796/when-new-human-modified-habitats-favor-the-expansion-of-an-amphibian-pioneer-species-evolutionary-history-of-the-natterjack-toad-bufo-calamita-in-a-coal-basin
#17
Leslie Faucher, Laura Hénocq, Cédric Vanappelghem, Stéphanie Rondel, Robin Quevillart, Sophie Gallina, Cécile Godé, Julie Jaquiéry, Jean-François Arnaud
Human activities affect microevolutionary dynamics by inducing environmental changes. In particular, land cover conversion and loss of native habitats decrease genetic diversity and jeopardize the adaptive ability of populations. Nonetheless, new anthropogenic habitats can also promote the successful establishment of emblematic pioneer species. We investigated this issue by examining the population genetic features and evolutionary history of the natterjack toad (Bufo [Epidalea] calamita) in northern France, where populations can be found in native coastal habitats and coalfield habitats shaped by European industrial history, along with an additional set of European populations located outside this focal area...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663690/role-of-honey-in-modern-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Saleh Ahmad Al-Asiri, Abdul Latief Mahesar, Mohammad Javed Ansari
Use of honey has a very long history. Honey has been used since ancient time due to its nutritional and therapeutic values. There had been varied ways of consumption honey including its use as a sweetener and flavoring agent. Honey is produced all over the world. The most important nutriment of honey is carbohydrates present in the form of monosaccharides, fructose and glucose. Honey plays an important role as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial agent and augments the adherence of skin grafts and wound healing process...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657887/lessons-from-the-environmental-antibiotic-resistome
#19
Matthew Surette, Gerard D Wright
Antibiotic resistance is a global public health issue of growing proportions. All antibiotics are susceptible to resistance. The evidence is now clear that the environment is the single largest source and reservoir of resistance. Soil, aquatic, atmospheric, animal- associated, and built ecosystems are home to microbes that harbor antibiotic resistance elements and the means to mobilize them. The diversity and abundance of resistance in the environment is consistent with the ancient origins of antibiotics and a variety of studies support a long natural history of associated resistance...
June 28, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656497/the-effect-of-biodegradation-on-gammacerane-in-crude-oils
#20
Haiping Huang
Gammacerane is one of the major biomarkers widely used in depositional environment diagnosis, oil family classification, and oil-source correlation. It is generally accepted that gammacerane is more resistant to biodegradation than regular hopanes. However, whether it is biodegradable as well has not been reported in literatures. In order to investigate the effect of biodegradation on gammacerane in crude oils, 69 core samples from two biodegraded petroleum accumulations were geochemically characterized by quantitative GC-MS analysis...
June 27, 2017: Biodegradation
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