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Ancient history

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223527/ancient-x-chromosomes-reveal-contrasting-sex-bias-in-neolithic-and-bronze-age-eurasian-migrations
#1
Amy Goldberg, Torsten Günther, Noah A Rosenberg, Mattias Jakobsson
Dramatic events in human prehistory, such as the spread of agriculture to Europe from Anatolia and the late Neolithic/Bronze Age migration from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, can be investigated using patterns of genetic variation among the people who lived in those times. In particular, studies of differing female and male demographic histories on the basis of ancient genomes can provide information about complexities of social structures and cultural interactions in prehistoric populations. We use a mechanistic admixture model to compare the sex-specifically-inherited X chromosome with the autosomes in 20 early Neolithic and 16 late Neolithic/Bronze Age human remains...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222695/evolution-and-expression-of-the-fructokinase-gene-family-in-saccharum
#2
Yihong Chen, Qing Zhang, Weichang Hu, Xingtan Zhang, Liming Wang, Xiuting Hua, Qingyi Yu, Ray Ming, Jisen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is an important sugar crop contributing up to about 80% of the world sugar production. Efforts to characterize the genes involved in sugar metabolism at the molecular level are growing since increasing sugar content is a major goal in the breeding of new sugarcane varieties. Fructokinases (FRK) are the main fructose phosphorylating enzymes with high substrate specificity and affinity. RESULTS: In this study, by combining comparative genomics approaches with BAC resources, seven fructokinase genes were identified in S...
February 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220263/characterization-and-outcome-of-41-patients-with-beta-ketothiolase-deficiency-10%C3%A2-years-experience-of-a-medical-center-in-northern-vietnam
#3
Khanh Ngoc Nguyen, Elsayed Abdelkreem, Roberto Colombo, Yuki Hasegawa, Ngoc Thi Bich Can, Thao Phuong Bui, Hai Thanh Le, Mai Thi Chi Tran, Hoan Thi Nguyen, Hung Thanh Trinh, Yuka Aoyama, Hideo Sasai, Seiji Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki Fukao, Dung Chi Vu
Beta-ketothiolase (T2) deficiency is an inherited disease of isoleucine and ketone body metabolism caused by mutations in the ACAT1 gene. Between 2005 and 2016, a total of 41 patients with T2 deficiency were identified at a medical center in northern Vietnam, with an estimated incidence of one in 190,000 newborns. Most patients manifested ketoacidotic episodes of varying severity between 6 and 18 months of age. Remarkably, 28% of patients showed high blood glucose levels (up to 23.3 mmol/L). Ketoacidotic episodes recurred in 43% of patients...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219279/the-medicalization-of-health-and-shared-responsibility
#4
Gianmarco Contino
Public, occupational and environmental health are relatively novel disciplines compared to the ancient history of medicine. Their development, together with a more insightful knowledge of the human pathophysiology (this more usual term is the one used in the article itself), have progressively expanded the field of investigation of medicine to environmental, behavioural and genetic factors that favour the development of certain medical conditions. As a result we have developed numerous additional strategies to monitor health and prevent disease, including interventions in anticipation of diseases themselves when patients are still healthy or in a grey area of increased risk...
April 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216890/evaluate-the-antigenotoxicity-and-anticancer-role-of-%C3%AE-sitosterol-by-determining-oxidative-dna-damage-and-the-expression-of-phosphorylated-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-c-fos-c-jun-and-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor
#5
Ramalingam Sharmila, Ganapathy Sindhu
BACKGROUND: Plant sterols are the major source of micronutrients and have not shown any obvious side effects in human. β-sitosterol is one of the most prevalent phytosterols which have been recorded in ancient medicinal history for its use in the treatment of many chronic diseases, especially cancer. The modulations of mitogen-activated protein kinases' (MAPKs') play a crucial role in the development of human renal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the antigenotoxic and anticancer role of β-sitosterol against renal carcinogen...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216768/competence-to-stand-trial-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Steven K Hoge
The legal concept of competence to stand trial has ancient roots. The history of this legal construct in Anglo-Saxon law will be reviewed. A competent defendant is a requirement of the criminal justice system because it reflects interests related to the dignity of the process, the accuracy of adjudication, and respect for the autonomy of defendants. In the United States, legal decisions have established the contours of the requirements related to competent participation in adjudication. Forensic psychiatrists have operationalized the requirements for assessment purposes...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205612/dna-analysis-of-a-30-000-year-old-urocitellus-glacialis-from-northeastern-siberia-reveals-phylogenetic-relationships-between-ancient-and-present-day-arctic-ground-squirrels
#7
Marina Faerman, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Elisabetta Boaretto, Gennady G Boeskorov, Nikolai E Dokuchaev, Oleg A Ermakov, Fedor N Golenishchev, Stanislav V Gubin, Eugenia Mintz, Evgeniy Simonov, Vadim L Surin, Sergei V Titov, Oksana G Zanina, Nikolai A Formozov
In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El'ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed (14)C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El'ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202101/berber-genealogy-and-the-politics-of-prehistoric-archaeology-and-craniology-in-french-algeria-1860s-1880s
#8
Bonnie Effros
Following the conquest of Algiers and its surrounding territory by the French army in 1830, officers noted an abundance of standing stones in this region of North Africa. Although they attracted considerably less attention among their cohort than more familiar Roman monuments such as triumphal arches and bridges, these prehistoric remains were similar to formations found in Brittany and other parts of France. The first effort to document these remains occurred in 1863, when Laurent-Charles Féraud, a French army interpreter, recorded thousands of dolmens and stone formations south-west of Constantine...
February 16, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202044/the-history-of-leishmaniasis
#9
REVIEW
Dietmar Steverding
In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented...
February 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194329/understanding-breast-cancer-the-long-and-winding-road
#10
REVIEW
Kiven Erique Lukong
BACKGROUND: Despite a remarkable increase in the depth of our understanding and management of breast cancer in the past 50 years, the disease is still a major public health problem worldwide and poses significant challenges. The palpability of breast tumors has facilitated diagnosis and documentation since ancient times. The earliest descriptions of breast cancer date back to around 3500 BCE. For centuries to follow, theories by Hippocrates (460 BCE) and Galen (200 CE), attributing the cause of breast cancer to an "excess of black bile" and treatment options including the use of opium and castor oil, prevailed...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191025/from-egg-to-no-body-an-overview-and-revision-of-developmental-pathways-in-the-ancient-arthropod-lineage-pycnogonida
#11
REVIEW
Georg Brenneis, Ekaterina V Bogomolova, Claudia P Arango, Franz Krapp
BACKGROUND: Arthropod diversity is unparalleled in the animal kingdom. The study of ontogeny is pivotal to understand which developmental processes underlie the incredible morphological disparity of arthropods and thus to eventually unravel evolutionary transformations leading to their success. Work on laboratory model organisms has yielded in-depth data on numerous developmental mechanisms in arthropods. Yet, although the range of studied taxa has increased noticeably since the advent of comparative evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), several smaller groups remain understudied...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190727/the-origin-of-vertebrate-gills
#12
J Andrew Gillis, Olivia R A Tidswell
Pharyngeal gills are a fundamental feature of the vertebrate body plan [1]. However, the evolutionary history of vertebrate gills has been the subject of a long-standing controversy [2-8]. It is thought that gills evolved independently in cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates-lampreys and hagfish) and gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates-cartilaginous and bony fishes), based on their distinct embryonic origins: the gills of cyclostomes derive from endoderm [9-12], while gnathostome gills were classically thought to derive from ectoderm [10, 13]...
February 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179113/traditional-mediterranean-and-european-herbal-medicines
#13
Marco Leonti, Robert Verpoorte
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168581/-letting-go-from-ancient-to-modern-perspectives-on-relinquishing-personal-control-a-theoretical-perspective-on-religion-and-coping-with-cancer
#14
Thomas V Merluzzi, Errol J Philip
The concept of "letting go" or relinquishing control has a long intellectual history, including the earliest Taoist writings, long-standing religious traditions, modern conceptualizations of religious coping, and current psychological control theory. This paper briefly traces the ancient roots of "letting go," with an emphasis on Stoic philosophers, and plants it firmly in current control theory and religious coping research, with a focus on its more modern conceptualization, that of secondary control. Presenting the theoretical perspective, which is grounded in religious conceptions of control of outcomes integrated with modern control theory in psychology, is the main goal of this paper...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146581/multilocus-intron-trees-reveal-extensive-male-biased-homogenization-of-ancient-populations-of-chamois-rupicapra-spp-across-europe-during-late-pleistocene
#15
Trinidad Pérez, Margarita Fernández, Sabine E Hammer, Ana Domínguez
The inferred phylogenetic relationships between organisms often depend on the molecular marker studied due to the diverse evolutionary mode and unlike evolutionary histories of different parts of the genome. Previous studies have shown conflicting patterns of differentiation of mtDNA and several nuclear markers in chamois (genus Rupicapra) that indicate a complex evolutionary picture. Chamois are mountain caprine that inhabit most of the medium to high altitude mountain ranges of southern Eurasia. The most accepted taxonomical classification considers two species, R...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145430/reconstructing-the-population-history-of-the-largest-tribe-of-india-the-dravidian-speaking-gond
#16
Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Rakesh Tamang, Erwan Pennarun, Pavan Dubey, Niraj Rai, Rakesh Kumar Upadhyay, Rajendra Prasad Meena, Jayanti R Patel, George van Driem, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Mait Metspalu, Richard Villems
The Gond comprise the largest tribal group of India with a population exceeding 12 million. Linguistically, the Gond belong to the Gondi-Manda subgroup of the South Central branch of the Dravidian language family. Ethnographers, anthropologists and linguists entertain mutually incompatible hypotheses on their origin. Genetic studies of these people have thus far suffered from the low resolution of the genetic data or the limited number of samples. Therefore, to gain a more comprehensive view on ancient ancestry and genetic affinities of the Gond with the neighbouring populations speaking Indo-European, Dravidian and Austroasiatic languages, we have studied four geographically distinct groups of Gond using high-resolution data...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141965/evolution-of-stored-product-entomology-protecting-the-world-food-supply
#17
David W Hagstrum, Thomas W Phillips
Traditional methods of stored-product pest control were initially passed from generation to generation. Ancient literature and archaeology reveal hermetic sealing, burning sulfur, desiccant dusts, and toxic botanicals as early control methods. Whereas traditional nonchemical methods were subsequently replaced by synthetic chemicals, other traditional methods were improved and integrated with key modern pesticides. Modern stored-product integrated pest management (IPM) makes decisions using knowledge of population dynamics and threshold insect densities...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140657/mitochondrial-super-haplogroup-u-diversity-in-serbians
#18
Slobodan Davidovic, Boris Malyarchuk, Jelena Aleksic, Miroslava Derenko, Vladanka Topalovic, Andrey Litvinov, Katarzyna Skonieczna, Urszula Rogalla, Tomasz Grzybowski, Milena Stevanovic, Natasa Kovacevic-Grujicic
BACKGROUND: Available mitochondrial (mtDNA) data demonstrate genetic differentiation among South Slavs inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula. However, their resolution is insufficient to elucidate the female-specific aspects of the genetic history of South Slavs, including the genetic impact of various migrations which were rather common within the Balkans, a region having a turbulent demographic history. AIM: Therefore, we thoroughly studied complete mitogenomes of Serbians, a population linking westward and eastward South Slavs...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137258/ancient-coexistence-of-norepinephrine-tyramine-and-octopamine-signaling-in-bilaterians
#19
Philipp Bauknecht, Gáspár Jékely
BACKGROUND: Norepinephrine/noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter implicated in arousal and other aspects of vertebrate behavior and physiology. In invertebrates, adrenergic signaling is considered absent and analogous functions are performed by the biogenic amines octopamine and its precursor tyramine. These chemically similar transmitters signal by related families of G-protein-coupled receptors in vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that octopamine/tyramine are the invertebrate equivalents of vertebrate norepinephrine...
January 30, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126515/post-eocene-climate-change-across-continental-australia-and-the-diversification-of-australasian-spiny-trapdoor-spiders-idiopidae-arbanitinae
#20
Michael G Rix, Steven J B Cooper, Karen Meusemann, Seraina Klopfstein, Sophie E Harrison, Mark S Harvey, Andrew D Austin
The formation and spread of the Australian arid zone during the Neogene was a profoundly transformative event in the biogeographic history of Australia, resulting in extinction or range contraction in lineages adapted to mesic habitats, as well as diversification and range expansion in arid-adapted taxa (most of which evolved from mesic ancestors). However, the geographic origins of the arid zone biota are still relatively poorly understood, especially among highly diverse invertebrate lineages, many of which are themselves poorly documented at the species level...
January 23, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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