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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933174/-viral-hepatitis-a-possible-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-problems
#1
Petr Husa, Petr Husa
Viral hepatitis A (VHA) is the disease which has an ancient history. Reports of epidemic jaundice were described by Hippocrates in Greece during the 5th century B.C. Incidence of VHA in developed countries is dropping in last decades. What was once common disease is now very rare, usually emerging in local epidemies. With decreasing incidence of hepatitis A clinicians losing practical experiences with disease. Authors present possible diagnostic and therapeutic problems based on their experience with large epidemic of hepatitis A, which occurred in 2016-2017 in Brno area...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933100/-decipherment-of-ancient-literature-about-danshen
#2
Ai-Ping Deng, Lan-Ping Guo, Zhi-Lai Zhan, Lu-Qi Huang
Danshen has a long history in China as a commen traditional Chinese medicine, but many other members of the Salvia family is also used as Danshen in particular regions. The name of Danshen were analyzed according to the color, efficacity and etc. To investigate the real origin of Danshen, the stalk, leaf, flower and radix in chronicle and pictures of ancient literature were deciphered. It showed that in the past dynasties, Salvia miltiorrhiza was the most likely plant used as Danshen. The rigin and quality evaluation of Danshen were also summerized, provided new insight and proof for the development and utilization of Danshen...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933009/does-iris-in-bring-bad-news-or-good-news
#3
REVIEW
Silvio Buscemi, Davide Corleo, Carola Buscemi, Carla Giordano
Irisin, a novel myokine produced in response to physical activity, promotes white-to-brown fat transdifferentiation. The name irisin referred to the ancient Greek goddess Iris, the messenger who delivered (bad) news from the gods. In mice, it has been demonstrated that irisin plays a key role in metabolic regulation, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. New findings from various studies carried out in both animals and humans suggest that irisin might also have other favorable effects, such as increasing bone cortical mass, preventing hepatic lipid accumulation, and improving cognitive functions, thus mediating many exercise-induced health benefits...
September 20, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923961/evolution-of-the-3-hydroxypropionate-bicycle-and-recent-transfer-of-anoxygenic-photosynthesis-into-the-chloroflexi
#4
Patrick M Shih, Lewis M Ward, Woodward W Fischer
Various lines of evidence from both comparative biology and the geologic record make it clear that the biochemical machinery for anoxygenic photosynthesis was present on early Earth and provided the evolutionary stock from which oxygenic photosynthesis evolved ca. 2.3 billion years ago. However, the taxonomic identity of these early anoxygenic phototrophs is uncertain, including whether or not they remain extant. Several phototrophic bacterial clades are thought to have evolved before oxygenic photosynthesis emerged, including the Chloroflexi, a phylum common across a wide range of modern environments...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923540/the-contribution-of-admixture-to-primate-evolution
#5
REVIEW
Jenny Tung, Luis B Barreiro
Genome-wide data on genetic variation are now available for multiple primate species and populations, facilitating analyses of evolutionary history within and across taxa. One emerging theme from these studies involves the central role of admixture. Genomic data sets indicate that both ancient gene flow following initial taxonomic divergence and ongoing gene flow at current species boundaries are common. These findings are of particular interest given evidence for a complex history of admixture in our own lineage, including examples of ecologically driven adaptive introgression...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923019/evolutionary-history-and-functional-divergence-of-the-cytochrome-p450-gene-superfamily-between-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-brassica-species-uncover-effects-of-whole-genome-and-tandem-duplications
#6
Jingyin Yu, Sadia Tehrim, Linhai Wang, Komivi Dossa, Xiurong Zhang, Tao Ke, Boshou Liao
BACKGROUND: The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) superfamily is involved in the biosynthesis of various primary and secondary metabolites. However, little is known about the effects of whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) events on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450s in Brassica after splitting from a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana. RESULTS: Using Hidden Markov Model search and manual curation, we detected that Brassica species have nearly 1...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920067/a-history-of-dystonia-ancient-to-modern
#7
REVIEW
Rachel E Newby, Deborah E Thorpe, Peter A Kempster, Jane E Alty
Before 1911, when Hermann Oppenheim introduced the term dystonia, this movement disorder lacked a unifying descriptor. While words like epilepsy, apoplexy, and palsy have had their meanings since antiquity, references to dystonia are much harder to identify in historical documents. Torticollis is an exception, although there is difficulty distinguishing dystonic torticollis from congenital muscular torticollis. There are, nevertheless, possible representations of dystonia in literature and visual art from the pre-modern world...
July 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919640/charon-tectonics
#8
Ross A Beyer, Francis Nimmo, William B McKinnon, Jeffrey M Moore, Richard P Binzel, Jack W Conrad, Andy Cheng, K Ennico, Tod R Lauer, C B Olkin, Stuart Robbins, Paul Schenk, Kelsi Singer, John R Spencer, S Alan Stern, H A Weaver, L A Young, Amanda M Zangari
New Horizons images of Pluto's companion Charon show a variety of terrains that display extensional tectonic features, with relief surprising for this relatively small world. These features suggest a global extensional areal strain of order 1% early in Charon's history. Such extension is consistent with the presence of an ancient global ocean, now frozen.
May 1, 2017: Icarus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915805/antibiotic-resistance-it-s-bad-but-why-isn-t-it-worse
#9
REVIEW
Nicholas Waglechner, Gerard D Wright
Antibiotic natural products are ancient and so is resistance. Consequently, environmental bacteria harbor numerous and varied antibiotic resistance elements. Nevertheless, despite long histories of antibiotic production and exposure, environmental bacteria are not resistant to all known antibiotics. This means that there are barriers to the acquisition of a complete resistance armamentarium. The sources, distribution, and movement of resistance mechanisms in different microbes and bacterial populations are mosaic features that act as barriers to slow this movement, thus moderating the emergence of bacterial pan-resistance...
September 15, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910712/raman-analysis-of-cobalt-blue-pigment-in-blue-and-white-porcelain-a-reassessment
#10
Xiaochenyang Jiang, Yanying Ma, Yue Chen, Yuanqiu Li, Qinglin Ma, Zhaoxia Zhang, Changsui Wang, Yimin Yang
Cobalt blue is a famous pigment in human history. In the past decade it is widely reported that the cobalt aluminate has been detected in ancient ceramics as blue colorant in glaze, yet the acquired Raman spectra are incredibly different from that of synthesised references, necessitating a reassessment of such contradictory scenario with more accurate analytic strategies. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were performed on under-glaze cobalt pigments from one submerged blue and white porcelain shard dated from Wanli reign (1573-1620CE) of Ming dynasty (1365-1644CE) excavated at Nan'ao I shipwreck off the southern coast of China...
September 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902834/alternative-evolutionary-histories-in-the-sequence-space-of-an-ancient-protein
#11
Tyler N Starr, Lora K Picton, Joseph W Thornton
To understand why molecular evolution turned out as it did, we must characterize not only the path that evolution followed across the space of possible molecular sequences but also the many alternative trajectories that could have been taken but were not. A large-scale comparison of real and possible histories would establish whether the outcome of evolution represents an optimal state driven by natural selection or the contingent product of historical chance events; it would also reveal how the underlying distribution of functions across sequence space shaped historical evolution...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902506/non-invasive-synchrotron-based-x-ray-raman-scattering-discriminates-carbonaceous-compounds-in-ancient-and-historical-materials
#12
Pierre Gueriau, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Sylvain Bernard, Josiane Albert Kaddissy, Sarah Goler, Christoph J Sahle, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Roy A Wogelius, Philip L Manning, Uwe Bergmann, Loïc Bertrand
Carbon compounds are ubiquitous and occur in a diversity of chemical forms in many systems including ancient and historic materials ranging from cultural heritage to paleontology. Determining their speciation cannot only provide unique information on their origin, but may also elucidate degradation processes. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the carbon K-edge (280-350 eV) is a very powerful method to probe carbon speciation. However, the short penetration depth of soft X-rays imposes stringent constraints on sample type, preparation and analytical environment...
September 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893940/oncogenic-human-papillomaviruses
#13
REVIEW
Alison A McBride
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an ancient group of viruses with small, double-stranded DNA circular genomes. They are species-specific and have a strict tropism for mucosal and cutaneous stratified squamous epithelial surfaces of the host. A subset of these viruses has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of several human cancers. Here, we review the biology, natural history, evolution and cancer association of the oncogenic HPVs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'.
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890534/harnessing-ancient-genomes-to-study-the-history-of-human-adaptation
#14
REVIEW
Stephanie Marciniak, George H Perry
The past several years have witnessed an explosion of successful ancient human genome-sequencing projects, with genomic-scale ancient DNA data sets now available for more than 1,100 ancient human and archaic hominin (for example, Neandertal) individuals. Recent 'evolution in action' analyses have started using these data sets to identify and track the spatiotemporal trajectories of genetic variants associated with human adaptations to novel and changing environments, agricultural lifestyles, and introduced or co-evolving pathogens...
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887164/type-a-viral-hepatitis-a-summary-and-update-on-the-molecular-virology-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Stanley M Lemon, Jördis J Ott, Pierre Van Damme, Daniel Shouval
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is an ancient disease and likely to have afflicted mankind since humans first began to live in groups large enough to sustain transmission of the causative agent, HAV. In reviewing what was known as 'catarrhal jaundice' in 1912, Cockayne noted descriptions of epidemic jaundice extending back to antiquity1. The infectious nature of the disease was proven several decades later in deliberate human transmission studies2. Such experiments led to a clear distinction between hepatitis A ('infectious hepatitis') and hepatitis B ('homologous serum jaundice') and recognition of the lack of cross immunity between these two forms of transmissible hepatitis as early as 19453...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859623/ancient-human-mirnas-are-more-likely-to-have-broad-functions-and-disease-associations-than-young-mirnas
#16
Vir D Patel, John A Capra
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential to the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, and improper expression of miRNAs contributes to hundreds of diseases. Despite the essential functions of miRNAs, the evolutionary dynamics of how they are integrated into existing gene regulatory and functional networks is not well understood. Knowledge of the origin and evolutionary history a gene has proven informative about its functions and disease associations; we hypothesize that incorporating the evolutionary origins of miRNAs into analyses will help resolve differences in their functional dynamics and how they influence disease...
August 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859116/the-sommersdorf-mummies-an-interdisciplinary-investigation-on-human-remains-from-a-17th-19th-century-aristocratic-crypt-in-southern-germany
#17
Amelie Alterauge, Manuel Kellinghaus, Christian Jackowski, Natallia Shved, Frank Rühli, Frank Maixner, Albert Zink, Wilfried Rosendahl, Sandra Lösch
Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856812/resolving-the-complexity-of-vitellogenins-and-their-receptors-in-the-tetraploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-ancient-origin-of-the-phosvitin-less-vtgc-in-chondrichthyean-fishes
#18
Øivind Andersen, Chunxia Xu, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Katrine Hånes Kirste, Ingun Naeve, Maren Mommens, Helge Tveiten
Egg yolk proteins are mainly derived from vitellogenin (Vtg), and serve as essential nutrients during early development in oviparous organisms. Vertebrate Vtgs are predominantly synthesized in the liver of maturing females, and are internalized by the oocyte after binding to specific surface receptors (VtgR). Here we clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Vtgs, including the teleost VtgC, which lacks phosvitin, and investigate the repertoire of Vtgs and VtgRs in the tetraploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839126/ancestor-of-land-plants-acquired-the-dna-3-methyladenine-glycosylase-mag-gene-from-bacteria-through-horizontal-gene-transfer
#19
Huimin Fang, Liexiang Huangfu, Rujia Chen, Pengcheng Li, Shuhui Xu, Enying Zhang, Wei Cao, Li Liu, Youli Yao, Guohua Liang, Chenwu Xu, Yong Zhou, Zefeng Yang
The origin and evolution of land plants was an important event in the history of life and initiated the establishment of modern terrestrial ecosystems. From water to terrestrial environments, plants needed to overcome the enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation and many other DNA-damaging agents. Evolving new genes with the function of DNA repair is critical for the origin and radiation of land plants. In bacteria, the DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase (MAG) recognizes of a variety of base lesions and initiates the process of the base excision repair for damaged DNA...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837888/retroviruses-of-the-rdr-superinfection-interference-group-ancient-origins-and-broad-host-distribution-of-a-promiscuous-env-gene
#20
REVIEW
Anindita Sinha, Welkin E Johnson
Due to recombination, different regions of a retrovirus genome can have distinct phylogenetic histories. The RD114-and-D-type-retrovirus (RDR) interference group provides an extreme example: the RDR group comprises a variety of taxonomically distinct retroviruses, isolated from diverse mammalian and avian hosts, that share a homologous env gene and use the same cell-surface entry receptor. RDR env homologs are also found among ancient endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences, including the syncytin genes of humans and rabbits, indicating that RDR Env glycoproteins have likely mediated endogenization on multiple occasions in diverse vertebrate lineages...
August 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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