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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144465/parallel-palaeogenomic-transects-reveal-complex-genetic-history-of-early-european-farmers
#1
Mark Lipson, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Swapan Mallick, Annamária Pósa, Balázs Stégmár, Victoria Keerl, Nadin Rohland, Kristin Stewardson, Matthew Ferry, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Eadaoin Harney, Susanne Nordenfelt, Bastien Llamas, Balázs Gusztáv Mende, Kitti Köhler, Krisztián Oross, Mária Bondár, Tibor Marton, Anett Osztás, János Jakucs, Tibor Paluch, Ferenc Horváth, Piroska Csengeri, Judit Koós, Katalin Sebők, Alexandra Anders, Pál Raczky, Judit Regenye, Judit P Barna, Szilvia Fábián, Gábor Serlegi, Zoltán Toldi, Emese Gyöngyvér Nagy, János Dani, Erika Molnár, György Pálfi, László Márk, Béla Melegh, Zsolt Bánfai, László Domboróczki, Javier Fernández-Eraso, José Antonio Mujika-Alustiza, Carmen Alonso Fernández, Javier Jiménez Echevarría, Ruth Bollongino, Jörg Orschiedt, Kerstin Schierhold, Harald Meller, Alan Cooper, Joachim Burger, Eszter Bánffy, Kurt W Alt, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Wolfgang Haak, David Reich
Ancient DNA studies have established that Neolithic European populations were descended from Anatolian migrants who received a limited amount of admixture from resident hunter-gatherers. Many open questions remain, however, about the spatial and temporal dynamics of population interactions and admixture during the Neolithic period. Here we investigate the population dynamics of Neolithization across Europe using a high-resolution genome-wide ancient DNA dataset with a total of 180 samples, of which 130 are newly reported here, from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods of Hungary (6000-2900 bc, n = 100), Germany (5500-3000 bc, n = 42) and Spain (5500-2200 bc, n = 38)...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142317/the-maternal-genetic-make-up-of-the-iberian-peninsula-between-the-neolithic-and-the-early-bronze-age
#2
Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Christina Roth, Guido Brandt, Cristina Rihuete-Herrada, Cristina Tejedor-Rodríguez, Petra Held, Íñigo García-Martínez-de-Lagrán, Héctor Arcusa Magallón, Stephanie Zesch, Corina Knipper, Eszter Bánffy, Susanne Friederich, Harald Meller, Primitiva Bueno Ramírez, Rosa Barroso Bermejo, Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann, Ana M Herrero-Corral, Raúl Flores Fernández, Carmen Alonso Fernández, Javier Jiménez Echevarria, Laura Rindlisbacher, Camila Oliart, María-Inés Fregeiro, Ignacio Soriano, Oriol Vicente, Rafael Micó, Vicente Lull, Jorge Soler Díaz, Juan Antonio López Padilla, Consuelo Roca de Togores Muñoz, Mauro S Hernández Pérez, Francisco Javier Jover Maestre, Joaquín Lomba Maurandi, Azucena Avilés Fernández, Katina T Lillios, Ana Maria Silva, Miguel Magalhães Ramalho, Luiz Miguel Oosterbeek, Claudia Cunha, Anna J Waterman, Jordi Roig Buxó, Andrés Martínez, Juana Ponce Martínez, Mark Hunt Ortiz, Juan Carlos Mejías-García, Juan Carlos Pecero Espín, Rosario Cruz-Auñón Briones, Tiago Tomé, Eduardo Carmona Ballestero, João Luís Cardoso, Ana Cristina Araújo, Corina Liesau von Lettow-Vorbeck, Concepción Blasco Bosqued, Patricia Ríos Mendoza, Ana Pujante, José I Royo-Guillén, Marco Aurelio Esquembre Beviá, Victor Manuel Dos Santos Goncalves, Rui Parreira, Elena Morán Hernández, Elena Méndez Izquierdo, Jorge Vega Y Miguel, Roberto Menduiña García, Victoria Martínez Calvo, Oscar López Jiménez, Johannes Krause, Sandra L Pichler, Rafael Garrido-Pena, Michael Kunst, Roberto Risch, Manuel A Rojo-Guerra, Wolfgang Haak, Kurt W Alt
Agriculture first reached the Iberian Peninsula around 5700 BCE. However, little is known about the genetic structure and changes of prehistoric populations in different geographic areas of Iberia. In our study, we focus on the maternal genetic makeup of the Neolithic (~ 5500-3000 BCE), Chalcolithic (~ 3000-2200 BCE) and Early Bronze Age (~ 2200-1500 BCE). We report ancient mitochondrial DNA results of 213 individuals (151 HVS-I sequences) from the northeast, central, southeast and southwest regions and thus on the largest archaeogenetic dataset from the Peninsula to date...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141036/the-disjunct-pattern-of-the-neotropical-harvestman-discocyrtus-dilatatus-gonyleptidae-explained-by-climate-driven-range-shifts-in-the-quaternary-paleodistributional-and-molecular-evidence
#3
Julia Vergara, Luis E Acosta, Raúl E González-Ittig, Luis M Vaschetto, Cristina N Gardenal
The disjunct distribution of the harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae) is used as a case study to test the hypothesis of a trans-Chaco Pleistocene paleobridge during range expansion stages. This would have temporarily connected humid regions ('Mesopotamia' in northeastern Argentina, and the 'Yungas' in the northwest, NWA) in the subtropical and temperate South American lowlands. The present study combines two independent approaches: paleodistributional reconstruction, using the Species Distribution Modeling method MaxEnt and projection onto Quaternary paleoclimates (6 kya, 21 kya, 130 kya), and phylogeographic analyses based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I molecular marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133450/resurrecting-ancestral-genes-in-bacteria-to-interpret-ancient-biosignatures
#4
Betul Kacar, Lionel Guy, Eric Smith, John Baross
Two datasets, the geologic record and the genetic content of extant organisms, provide complementary insights into the history of how key molecular components have shaped or driven global environmental and macroevolutionary trends. Changes in global physico-chemical modes over time are thought to be a consistent feature of this relationship between Earth and life, as life is thought to have been optimizing protein functions for the entirety of its approximately 3.8 billion years of history on the Earth. Organismal survival depends on how well critical genetic and metabolic components can adapt to their environments, reflecting an ability to optimize efficiently to changing conditions...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133421/early-neolithic-wine-of-georgia-in-the-south-caucasus
#5
Patrick McGovern, Mindia Jalabadze, Stephen Batiuk, Michael P Callahan, Karen E Smith, Gretchen R Hall, Eliso Kvavadze, David Maghradze, Nana Rusishvili, Laurent Bouby, Osvaldo Failla, Gabriele Cola, Luigi Mariani, Elisabetta Boaretto, Roberto Bacilieri, Patrice This, Nathan Wales, David Lordkipanidze
Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics from sites in Georgia in the South Caucasus region, dating to the early Neolithic period (ca. 6,000-5,000 BC), provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from the Near East, at ca. 6,000-5,800 BC. The chemical findings are corroborated by climatic and environmental reconstruction, together with archaeobotanical evidence, including grape pollen, starch, and epidermal remains associated with a jar of similar type and date...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131307/breastfeeding-weaning-and-dietary-practices-during-the-western-zhou-dynasty-1122-771-bc-at-boyangcheng-anhui-province-china
#6
Yang Xia, Jinglei Zhang, Fei Yu, Hui Zhang, Tingting Wang, Yaowu Hu, Benjamin T Fuller
OBJECTIVES: Here we investigate breastfeeding and weaning practices and adult dietary habits at the Western Zhou Dynasty (1122-771 BC) site of Boyangcheng () located in Anhui Province, China. In addition, we utilize the differences in bone collagen turnover rates between rib and long bones from the same individual to examine past life histories, such as changes in diet or residence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone collagen from both the rib and long bones (either femora or humeri) of 42 individuals was measured for stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N)...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131013/a-new-baltic-population-specific-human-genetic-marker-in-the-pmca4-gene
#7
Janis Stavusis, Inna Inashkina, Baiba Lace, Dita Pelnena, Svetlana Limborska, Andrey Khrunin, Vaidutis Kucinskas, Astrida Krumina, Linda Piekuse, Branko Zorn, Violeta Fodina, Margus Punab, Juris Erenpreiss
OBJECTIVES: The PMCA gene family consists of 4 genes and at least 21 splice variants; among these, the Ca2+ ATPase 4 (PMCA4) gene encodes a plasma membrane protein abundantly expressed in several tissues, including the kidney, heart, and sperm. Knockout of PMCA4 causes infertility due to immotile sperm in mouse models. We therefore investigated variants in this gene for potential association with infertility in groups of Estonian (n = 191) and Latvian (n = 92) men with reduced sperm motility...
November 2, 2017: Human Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130595/naphthoquinones-a-continuing-source-for-discovery-of-therapeutic-antineoplastic-agents
#8
REVIEW
Han-Yue Qiu, Peng-Fei Wang, Hong-Yan Lin, Cheng-Yi Tang, Hai-Liang Zhu, Yong-Hua Yang
Naturally occurring naphthoquinones, usually in forms of botanical extracts, have been implicated with human life since ancient time, far earlier than their isolation and identification in modern era. The long use history of naphthoquinones has witnessed their functional shift from the original purposes as dyes and ornaments towards medicinal benefits. Hitherto, numerous studies have been carried out to elucidate the pharmacological profile of both natural and artificial naphthoquinones. A number of entities have been identified with promising therapeutic potential...
November 11, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116078/tracing-the-origin-and-evolution-of-supergene-mimicry-in-butterflies
#9
Wei Zhang, Erica Westerman, Eyal Nitzany, Stephanie Palmer, Marcus R Kronforst
Supergene mimicry is a striking phenomenon but we know little about the evolution of this trait in any species. Here, by studying genomes of butterflies from a recent radiation in which supergene mimicry has been isolated to the gene doublesex, we show that sexually dimorphic mimicry and female-limited polymorphism are evolutionarily related as a result of ancient balancing selection combined with independent origins of similar morphs in different lineages and secondary loss of polymorphism in other lineages...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090737/investigating-cranial-morphological-variation-of-early-human-skeletal-remains-from-chile-a-3d-geometric-morphometric-approach
#10
Susan C Kuzminsky, Omar Reyes Báez, Bernardo Arriaza, César Méndez, Vivien G Standen, Manuel San Román, Iván Muñoz, Ángel Durán Herrera, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Archaeological and genetic research has demonstrated that the Pacific Coast was a key route in the early colonization of South America. Research examining South American skeletons >8000 cal BP has revealed differences in cranial morphology between early and late Holocene populations, which may reflect distinct migration events and/or populations. However, genetic, cultural, and some skeletal data contradict this model. Given these discrepancies, this study examines ∼9000 years of prehistory to test the hypothesis that Early skeletons have a distinct cranial morphology from later skeletons...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082681/-research-and-investigation-on-original-plants-of-medicinal-moutan
#11
Hua-Sheng Peng, De-Qun Wang, Dai-Yin Peng, Lu-Qi Huang
As a kind of famous ornamental flowers, Moutan, known as "the king of flower", mainly originates from various cultivars of Paeonia suffruticosa. Moutan Cortex, a common traditional Chinese medicine, has a long medicinal history for more than 2 000 years. At present, "Fengdanpi", which is the root bark of P. ostii mainly growing in Tongling, Anhui, is a sort of Dao-di herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. However,various editions of Chinese pharmacopoeia has been stipulating that Moutan Cortex originates from the bark root of P...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082679/-variety-and-distribution-of-anhui-native-medicinal-materials-in-ancient-chinese-materia-medica
#12
Jin Xie, Liang-Ping Zha, Hua-Sheng Peng, De-Qun Wang, Dai-Yin Peng
Anhui is located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Plain, its across warm temperate zone and subtropics. The mountain and water next to each other, which leads to Chinese medicine resources ranked first in East China. The utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources in Anhui has a long history, which could date back to the publishing time of Ming Yi Bie Lu (Appendant Records of Famous Physicians). And the kinds of traditional Chinese medicine in Song Dynasty ups to 80. There are also some differences in the distribution of various geographical units in terms of the types: Jianghuai hilly region's ups to 64, 25 in Wannan mountainous area, the species in Dabie Mountains and Huaibei plain are 16 and 14 respectively...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066736/enhanced-ice-sheet-melting-driven-by-volcanic-eruptions-during-the-last-deglaciation
#13
Francesco Muschitiello, Francesco S R Pausata, James M Lea, Douglas W F Mair, Barbara Wohlfarth
Volcanic eruptions can impact the mass balance of ice sheets through changes in climate and the radiative properties of the ice. Yet, empirical evidence highlighting the sensitivity of ancient ice sheets to volcanism is scarce. Here we present an exceptionally well-dated annual glacial varve chronology recording the melting history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet at the end of the last deglaciation (∼13,200-12,000 years ago). Our data indicate that abrupt ice melting events coincide with volcanogenic aerosol emissions recorded in Greenland ice cores...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066546/adaptation-to-chronic-nutritional-stress-leads-to-reduced-dependence-on-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Berra Erkosar, Sylvain Kolly, Jan R van der Meer, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Numerous studies have shown that animal nutrition is tightly linked to gut microbiota, especially under nutritional stress. In Drosophila melanogaster, microbiota are known to promote juvenile growth, development, and survival on poor diets, mainly through enhanced digestion leading to changes in hormonal signaling. Here, we show that this reliance on microbiota is greatly reduced in replicated Drosophila populations that became genetically adapted to a poor larval diet in the course of over 170 generations of experimental evolution...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065352/sequence-analysis-of-malacoherpesvirus-proteins-pan-herpesvirus-capsid-module-and-replication-enzymes-with-an-ancient-connection-to-megavirales
#15
Arcady Mushegian, Eli Levy Karin, Tal Pupko
The order Herpesvirales includes animal viruses with large double-strand DNA genomes replicating in the nucleus. The main capsid protein in the best-studied family Herpesviridae contains a domain with HK97-like fold related to bacteriophage head proteins, and several virion maturation factors are also homologous between phages and herpesviruses. The origin of herpesvirus DNA replication proteins is less well understood. While analyzing the genomes of herpesviruses in the family Malacohepresviridae, we identified nearly 30 families of proteins conserved in other herpesviruses, including several phage-related domains in morphogenetic proteins...
October 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065293/genetics-ancient-dna-clarifies-population-histories-of%C3%A2-the-northeastern-margin-of-north-america
#16
Jennifer Raff
A new study of ancient mitochondrial DNA from Newfoundland and Labrador indicates that this region at the northeastern margin of North America was populated three times in succession by different indigenous groups. This research helps shed light on the movement of populations across the continent, following the initial peopling of the Americas.
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056454/evolutionary-history-of-saber-toothed-cats-based-on-ancient-mitogenomics
#17
Johanna L A Paijmans, Ross Barnett, M Thomas P Gilbert, M Lisandra Zepeda-Mendoza, Jelle W F Reumer, John de Vos, Grant Zazula, Doris Nagel, Gennady F Baryshnikov, Jennifer A Leonard, Nadin Rohland, Michael V Westbury, Axel Barlow, Michael Hofreiter
Saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) are among the most widely recognized representatives of the now largely extinct Pleistocene megafauna. However, many aspects of their ecology, evolution, and extinction remain uncertain. Although ancient-DNA studies have led to huge advances in our knowledge of these aspects of many other megafauna species (e.g., mammoths and cave bears), relatively few ancient-DNA studies have focused on saber-toothed cats [1-3], and they have been restricted to short fragments of mitochondrial DNA...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055169/diversification-in-tropics-and-subtropics-following-the-mid-miocene-climate-change-a-case-study-of-the-spider-genus-nesticella
#18
Francesco Ballarin, Shuqiang Li
Caves may offer suitable refugia for troglophilic invertebrates during periods of unfavourable climatic conditions because of their stable microclimates. As a consequence, allopatric divergence from their epigean counterparts may occur, leading to formation of truly hypogean communities (the Climatic Relict Hypothesis). Unlike the well-studied effects of Pleistocene glaciations, we know little about how ancient climate changes drove the development of cave-dwelling organisms living at both middle and lower latitudes...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054772/through-clinical-observation-the-history-of-priapism-after-spinal-cord-injuries
#19
REVIEW
Mihaela Dana Turliuc, Serban Turliuc, Andrei Ionut Cucu, Camelia Tamas, Alexandru Carauleanu, Catalin Buzduga, Anca Sava, Gabriela Florenta Dumitrescu, Claudia Florida Costea
Since ancient times, the physicians of Antiquity noted the occurrence of priapism in some spinal cord injuries. Although priests saw it as a consequence of curses and witchcraft, after clinical observations of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, first medical hypotheses emerged in the 17(th)-19(th) centuries completed and argued by neuroscience and neurology developed in the European laboratories and hospitals. This study aims to present a short overview of the history of clinical observations of posttraumatic male priapism after spinal cord injuries since Antiquity until the beginning of the 20(th) century...
October 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052376/-the-present-situation-and-countermeasures-of-uighur-medicine-compound
#20
Jiang He, Hong Wang, Lun-Li Zhang, Xiao-Jun Yang, Xuan-Chen Zhang, Wei-Jun Yang
Uighur medicine compound, which created and used by Uighur nationality, is under the guidance of the Uighur medical theory system of herbal formula and dialectical use of minority nationality conventional medicines. In recent years, Uighur medicine attracted more and more attention of people which have used and were using it. Combining the history of Uighur medicine, this article summarizes the Uighur resources, medicinal materials, drugs preparation, ancient documents, and the establishment of the clinical evaluation system and so on, and then analyzes the status quo and the existing problems in Uighur medicine compound research and industry...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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