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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538728/the-sunflower-genome-provides-insights-into-oil-metabolism-flowering-and-asterid-evolution
#1
Hélène Badouin, Jérôme Gouzy, Christopher J Grassa, Florent Murat, S Evan Staton, Ludovic Cottret, Christine Lelandais-Brière, Gregory L Owens, Sébastien Carrère, Baptiste Mayjonade, Ludovic Legrand, Navdeep Gill, Nolan C Kane, John E Bowers, Sariel Hubner, Arnaud Bellec, Aurélie Bérard, Hélène Bergès, Nicolas Blanchet, Marie-Claude Boniface, Dominique Brunel, Olivier Catrice, Nadia Chaidir, Clotilde Claudel, Cécile Donnadieu, Thomas Faraut, Ghislain Fievet, Nicolas Helmstetter, Matthew King, Steven J Knapp, Zhao Lai, Marie-Christine Le Paslier, Yannick Lippi, Lolita Lorenzon, Jennifer R Mandel, Gwenola Marage, Gwenaëlle Marchand, Elodie Marquand, Emmanuelle Bret-Mestries, Evan Morien, Savithri Nambeesan, Thuy Nguyen, Prune Pegot-Espagnet, Nicolas Pouilly, Frances Raftis, Erika Sallet, Thomas Schiex, Justine Thomas, Céline Vandecasteele, Didier Varès, Felicity Vear, Sonia Vautrin, Martin Crespi, Brigitte Mangin, John M Burke, Jérôme Salse, Stéphane Muños, Patrick Vincourt, Loren H Rieseberg, Nicolas B Langlade
The domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is a global oil crop that has promise for climate change adaptation, because it can maintain stable yields across a wide variety of environmental conditions, including drought. Even greater resilience is achievable through the mining of resistance alleles from compatible wild sunflower relatives, including numerous extremophile species. Here we report a high-quality reference for the sunflower genome (3.6 gigabases), together with extensive transcriptomic data from vegetative and floral organs...
May 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535207/antheraea-pernyi-lepidoptera-saturniidae-and-its-importance-in-sericulture-food-consumption-and-traditional-chinese-medicine
#2
Wenli Li, Zhengyao Zhang, Lan Lin, Olle Terenius
Sericulture was developed in China in ancient times. Antheraea pernyi Guérin-Méneville was domesticated at least 2,000 yr ago, and Chinese farmers developed artificial rearing of A. pernyi before the 17th century. Today, >60,000 tons of cocoons are produced in China each year, which accounts for 90% of the world production. Despite the widespread utilization of A. pernyi in China and a long history of domestic research, the knowledge of A. pernyi outside China is limited. Therefore, we have in this paper summarized the production, usage, and breeding of A...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534869/advancing-precambrian-palaeomagnetism-with-the-paleomagia-and-pint-qpi-databases
#3
Toni H Veikkolainen, Andrew J Biggin, Lauri J Pesonen, David A Evans, Nicholas A Jarboe
State-of-the-art measurements of the direction and intensity of Earth's ancient magnetic field have made important contributions to our understanding of the geology and palaeogeography of Precambrian Earth. The PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases provide thorough public collections of important palaeomagnetic data of this kind. They comprise more than 4,100 observations in total and have been essential in supporting our international collaborative efforts to understand Earth's magnetic history on a timescale far longer than that of the present Phanerozoic Eon...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532795/host-cell-tropism-genome-characterization-and-evolutionary-features-of-oapv4-a-novel-deltapapillomavirus-identified-in-sheep-fibropapilloma
#4
Gessica Tore, Carla Cacciotto, Antonio Giovanni Anfossi, Gian Mario Dore, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Alessandra Scagliarini, Giovanni Pietro Burrai, Salvatore Pau, Maria Teresa Zedda, Gerolamo Masala, Marco Pittau, Alberto Alberti
Investigating papillomavirus (PV) diversity is crucial to fully comprehend pathogenicity, genetic features, and evolution of taxa hosted by domestic and wild animal species. This study reports the identification of OaPV4, a novel ovine PV type within Deltapapillomaviruses 3. The study of OaPV4 genomic features combined to in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry investigations allowed extrapolating several general biological features of ovine PVs, such as their cellular tropism, pathogenicity, and evolutionary history...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532521/animal-board-invited-review-sheep-birth-distribution-in-past-herds-a-review-for-prehistoric-europe-6th-to-3rd-millennia-bc
#5
M Balasse, A Tresset, A Bălăşescu, E Blaise, C Tornero, H Gandois, D Fiorillo, É Á Nyerges, D Frémondeau, E Banffy, M Ivanova
In temperate latitudes sheep have a seasonal reproductive behaviour, which imposes strong constraints on husbandry in terms of work organization and availability of animal products. During the last 50 years, researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms driving small ruminants' reproduction cycles and finding ways to control them. This characteristic is inherited from their wild ancestor. However, the history of its evolution over the 10 millennia that separates present day European sheep from their Near Eastern ancestors' remains to be written...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529298/an-aspect-of-the-history-of-medicine-in-ancient-korea-as-examined-through-silla-buddhist-monks-annotations-on-the-chapter-on-eliminating-disease-in-the-sutra-of-golden-light-suvarnabh%C3%A4-sa-s%C3%A5-tra
#6
Chaekun Oh, Jongwook Jeon, Dongwon Shin
Nearly nothing is known of medicine in ancient Korea due to insufficient materials. With several extant prescriptions and esoteric methods of treating diseases alone, it is impossible to gauge in depth the management of medicine during this period. If one exception were to be cited, that would be the fact that the annotations for understanding the contents on Indian medicine in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light, a Buddhist sutra originating from India, reflected the medical knowledge of Buddhist monks from Silla (57 BC-935 AD) who were active immediately after the nation's unification of the two other kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula (668 AD) such as Wonhyo (617-686 AD), Gyeongheung (620?-700? AD), and Seungjang (684-? AD)...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522869/ancient-river-inference-explains-exceptional-oriental-freshwater-mussel-radiations
#7
Ivan N Bolotov, Alexander V Kondakov, Ilya V Vikhrev, Olga V Aksenova, Yulia V Bespalaya, Mikhail Yu Gofarov, Yulia S Kolosova, Ekaterina S Konopleva, Vitaly M Spitsyn, Kitti Tanmuangpak, Sakboworn Tumpeesuwan
The concept of long-lived (ancient) lakes has had a great influence on the development of evolutionary biogeography. According to this insight, a number of lakes on Earth have existed for several million years (e.g., Baikal and Tanganyika) and represent unique evolutionary hotspots with multiple intra-basin radiations. In contrast, rivers are usually considered to be variable systems, and the possibility of their long-term existence during geological epochs has never been tested. In this study, we reconstruct the history of freshwater basin interactions across continents based on the multi-locus fossil-calibrated phylogeny of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513570/a-study-of-the-protective-properties-of-iraqi-olive-leaves-against-oxidation-and-pathogenic-bacteria-in-food-applications
#8
Ammar B Altemimi
There is an ancient and prodigious history of olive trees because of their nutritional, medicinal, and traditional uses. Intensive studies have been conducted on olive leaves because they have many positive and beneficial effects for human health. In this study, different solvents were used to examine the olive leaves for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and their possible food applications. The obtained results showed that the amounts of phenolic compounds of the olive leaf were 190.44 ± 0.50, 173 ± 1...
May 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512355/ancient-and-recent-admixture-layers-in-sicily-and-southern-italy-trace-multiple-migration-routes-along-the-mediterranean
#9
Stefania Sarno, Alessio Boattini, Luca Pagani, Marco Sazzini, Sara De Fanti, Andrea Quagliariello, Guido Alberto Gnecchi Ruscone, Etienne Guichard, Graziella Ciani, Eugenio Bortolini, Chiara Barbieri, Elisabetta Cilli, Rosalba Petrilli, Ilia Mikerezi, Luca Sineo, Miguel Vilar, Spencer Wells, Donata Luiselli, Davide Pettener
The Mediterranean shores stretching between Sicily, Southern Italy and the Southern Balkans witnessed a long series of migration processes and cultural exchanges. Accordingly, present-day population diversity is composed by multiple genetic layers, which make the deciphering of different ancestral and historical contributes particularly challenging. We address this issue by genotyping 511 samples from 23 populations of Sicily, Southern Italy, Greece and Albania with the Illumina GenoChip Array, also including new samples from Albanian- and Greek-speaking ethno-linguistic minorities of Southern Italy...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511970/cleomedes-of-astypalaea-a-possible-early-sufferer-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#10
Rodolfo Savica, Mario Roberto Vaz Carneiro Filho, Christopher J Boes
Dementia pugilistica was the term adopted by H. Martland in 1928 to identify boxers with cognitive decline. In more recent years, the syndrome of dementia pugilistica with pathological correlates has been defined as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). A number of sportsmen have been recently diagnosed with CTE; and we may have identified an ancient Greek athlete of pankration who presented with the symptoms that have been associated with CTE. Our study reports the history and the known clinical information about Cleomedes of Astypalaea, possibly the first athlete ever affected by CTE...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510184/footprint-of-the-eastern-euroasian-past-in-italian-populations-of-cryptotaenia-thomasii-ten-dc
#11
Anna Maria Palermo, Liliana Bernardo, Domenico Gargano, Giuseppe Pellegrino
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the genetic architecture of closely related species and/or populations of a single species can be very useful to shed light on the processes that led to their current distributions. The present study provides a preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of the populations of Cryptotaenia thomasii, a very narrow endemic species occurring in southern Italy. Previous studies showed that C. thomasii was phylogenetically closely related to C. flahaultii, endemic species of Caucasus, and to evaluate its conservation status and the genetic variability of plant species the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced and the SNPs were analyzed...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508939/-the-worlds-of-gods-in-medicine
#12
REVIEW
A Karenberg
BACKGROUND: A number of designations for diseases, medicines and human body structures derive from classical mythology. To date, these eponyms have not been systematically investigated. OBJECTIVES: This paper provides an overview of this fringe component of medical vocabulary, looks at the history of several terms and formulates hypotheses as to why such creative etymologies have come into being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to relevant texts on ancient mythology, a variety of medical textbooks from the early modern period were analyzed...
May 16, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498102/chimeric-origins-of-ochrophytes-and-haptophytes-revealed-through-an-ancient-plastid-proteome
#13
Richard G Dorrell, Gillian Gile, Giselle McCallum, Raphaël Méheust, Eric P Bapteste, Christen M Klinger, Loraine Brillet-Guéguen, Katalina D Freeman, Daniel J Richter, Chris Bowler
Plastids are supported by a wide range of proteins encoded within the nucleus and imported from the cytoplasm. These plastid-targeted proteins may originate from the endosymbiont, the host, or other sources entirely. Here, we identify and characterise 770 plastid-targeted proteins that are conserved across the ochrophytes, a major group of algae including diatoms, pelagophytes and kelps, that possess plastids derived from red algae. We show that the ancestral ochrophyte plastid proteome was an evolutionary chimera, with 25% of its phylogenetically tractable proteins deriving from green algae...
May 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497122/the-microbiome-mitochondrion-connection-common-ancestries-common-mechanisms-common-goals
#14
Alfredo Franco-Obregón, Jack A Gilbert
Lynn Margulis in the 1960s elegantly proposed a shared phylogenetic history between bacteria and mitochondria; this relationship has since become a cornerstone of modern cellular biology. Yet, an interesting facet of the interaction between the microbiome and mitochondria has been mostly ignored, that of the systems biology relationship that underpins host health and longevity. The mitochondria are descendants of primordial aerobic pleomorphic bacteria (likely genus Rickettsia) that entered (literally and functionally) into a mutualistic partnership with ancient anaerobic microbes (likely Archaea)...
May 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496186/an-ancient-selective-sweep-linked-to-reproductive-life-history-evolution-in-sockeye-salmon
#15
Andrew J Veale, Michael A Russello
Study of parallel (or convergent) phenotypic evolution can provide important insights into processes driving sympatric, ecologically-mediated divergence and speciation, as ecotype pairs may provide a biological replicate of the underlying signals and mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence for a selective sweep creating an island of divergence associated with reproductive behavior in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), identifying a series of linked single nucleotide polymorphisms across a ~22,733 basepair region spanning the leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 9 gene exhibiting signatures of divergent selection associated with stream- and shore-spawning in both anadromous and resident forms across their pan-Pacific distribution...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494847/history-of-cupping-hijama-a-narrative-review-of-literature
#16
REVIEW
Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, Gazzaffi Ibrahim Ali, Tamer Shaban Abushanab, Ahmed Tawfik El-Olemy, Meshari Saleh Alqaed, Ibrahim S El-Subai, Abdullah M N Al-Bedah
Cupping (Hijama in Arabic) is an ancient, holistic method for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Though the exact origin of cupping therapy is a matter of controversy, its use has been documented in early Egyptian and Chinese medical practices. Diverse human civilizations have contributed to the historical development and continuation of cupping therapy. This narrative review describes the history of cupping, historical definitions, cupping instruments and uses of cupping therapy. Electronic searches of relevant databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and OvidSP) were conducted using keywords and Boolean operators...
May 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494025/sequencing-of-small-rnas-of-the-fern-pleopeltis-minima-polypodiaceae-offers-insight-into-the-evolution-of-the-microrna-repertoire-in-land-plants
#17
Florencia Berruezo, Flávio S J de Souza, Pablo I Picca, Sergio I Nemirovsky, Leandro Martínez Tosar, Mercedes Rivero, Alejandro N Mentaberry, Alicia M Zelada
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single stranded RNA molecules that regulate the stability and translation of messenger RNAs in diverse eukaryotic groups. Several miRNA genes are of ancient origin and have been maintained in the genomes of animal and plant taxa for hundreds of millions of years, playing key roles in development and physiology. In the last decade, genome and small RNA (sRNA) sequencing of several plant species have helped unveil the evolutionary history of land plants. Among these, the fern group (monilophytes) occupies a key phylogenetic position, as it represents the closest extant cousin taxon of seed plants, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489974/diversity-of-the-tlr4-immunity-receptor-in-czech-native-cattle-breeds-revealed-using-the-pacific-biosciences-sequencing-platform
#18
Karel Novák, Jitka Pikousová, Vladimíra Czerneková, Věra Mátlová
The allelic variants of immunity genes in historical breeds likely reflect local infection pressure and therefore represent a reservoir for breeding. Screening to determine the diversity of the Toll-like receptor gene TLR4 was conducted in two conserved cattle breeds: Czech Red and Czech Red Pied. High-throughput sequencing of pooled PCR amplicons using the PacBio platform revealed polymorphisms, which were subsequently confirmed via genotyping techniques. Eight SNPs found in coding and adjacent regions were grouped into 18 haplotypes, representing a significant portion of the known diversity in the global breed panel and presumably exceeding diversity in production populations...
May 10, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480010/testing-the-role-of-ancient-and-contemporary-landscapes-on-structuring-genetic-variation-in-a-specialist-grasshopper
#19
Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J Cordero, Joaquín Ortego
Understanding the processes underlying spatial patterns of genetic diversity and structure of natural populations is a central topic in evolutionary biogeography. In this study, we combine data on ancient and contemporary landscape composition to get a comprehensive view of the factors shaping genetic variation across the populations of the scrub-legume grasshopper (Chorthippus binotatus binotatus) from the biogeographically complex region of southeast Iberia. First, we examined geographical patterns of genetic structure and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach to compare different plausible scenarios of population divergence...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469196/malaria-was-a-weak-selective-force-in-ancient-europeans
#20
Pere Gelabert, Iñigo Olalde, Toni de-Dios, Sergi Civit, Carles Lalueza-Fox
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium parasites, is thought to be one of the strongest selective forces that has shaped the genome of modern humans and was endemic in Europe until recent times. Due to its eradication around mid-twentieth century, the potential selective history of malaria in European populations is largely unknown. Here, we screen 224 ancient European genomes from the Upper Palaeolithic to the post-Roman period for 22 malaria-resistant alleles in twelve genes described in the literature. None of the most specific mutations for malaria resistance, like those at G6PD, HBB or Duffy blood group, have been detected among the available samples, while many other malaria-resistant alleles existed well before the advent of agriculture...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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