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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333345/detection-of-pathways-affected-by-positive-selection-in-primate-lineages-ancestral-to-humans
#1
J T Daub, S Moretti, I I Davydov, L Excoffier, M Robinson-Rechavi
Gene set enrichment approaches have been increasingly successful in finding signals of recent polygenic selection in the human genome. In this study, we aim at detecting biological pathways affected by positive selection in more ancient human evolutionary history. Focusing on four branches of the primate tree that lead to modern humans, we tested all available protein coding gene trees of the Primates clade for signals of adaptation in these branches, using the likelihood-based branch site test of positive selection...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333238/clustering-of-pcos-like-traits-in-naturally-hyperandrogenic-female-rhesus-monkeys
#2
D H Abbott, B H Rayome, D A Dumesic, K C Lewis, A K Edwards, K Wallen, M E Wilson, S E Appt, J E Levine
STUDY QUESTION: Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316208/-the-compilation-characteristic-and-value-of-kun-ming-fang-mu-catalogue-of-formulary-in-kunming
#3
Z Q Yang
Kun ming fang mu (Catalogue of Formulary in Kunming) collected and compiled by the Kunming Medicinal Materials Industry Association in 1939, was first seen in the archives of the Republic of China. All the collected Chinese proprietary medicines were tested by the Yunnan Health Laboratory Office as qualified, and served as a standard for manufacturing products at drugstores of traditional Chinese medicine in Kunming in Republic of China. The book was divided into 14 categories with a total of 82 kinds of proprietary medicines, including their name, composition and quantity...
January 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302856/building-archean-cratons-from-hadean-mafic-crust
#4
Jonathan O'Neil, Richard W Carlson
Geologic processing of Earth's surface has removed most of the evidence concerning the nature of Earth's first crust. One region of ancient crust is the Hudson Bay terrane of northeastern Canada, which is mainly composed of Neoarchean felsic crust and forms the nucleus of the Northeastern Superior Province. New data show these ~2.7-billion-year-old rocks to be the youngest to yield variability in neodymium-142 ((142)Nd), the decay product of short-lived samarium-146 ((146)Sm). Combined (146-147)Sm-(142-143)Nd data reveal that this large block of Archean crust formed by reworking of much older (>4...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302556/genomics-research-for-a-new-age-examining-how-our-shared-evolutionary-history-shapes-future-disease-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Emmanuel Peprah
Cardiometabolic diseases are major contributors to mortality and morbidity, and their burden displays global and regional disparities. Gene-environment interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Population differences in genetic structure, ancient environmental pressures that shape the human genome, and early life environmental adversities (e.g., in utero conditions) all contribute to observed disparities in global cardiometabolic diseases. The genetic and sociocultural diversity of global populations presents opportunities for discovering genomic loci that influence cardiometabolic diseases as illustrated by a few genetic, epigenetic, and population-genetic discoveries leading to notable understanding of disease mechanisms...
March 13, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302420/a-cryptic-mitochondrial-dna-link-between-north-european-and-west-african-dogs
#6
Adeniyi C Adeola, Sheila C Ommeh, Jiao-Jiao Song, S Charles Olaogun, Oscar J Sanke, Ting-Ting Yin, Guo-Dong Wang, Shi-Fang Wu, Zhong-Yin Zhou, Jacqueline K Lichoti, Bernard R Agwanda, Philip M Dawuda, Robert W Murphy, Min-Sheng Peng, Ya-Ping Zhang
Domestic dogs have an ancient origin and a long history in Africa. Nevertheless, the timing and sources of their introduction into Africa remain enigmatic. Herein, we analyse variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from 345 Nigerian and 37 Kenyan village dogs plus 1530 published sequences of dogs from other parts of Africa, Europe and West Asia. All Kenyan dogs can be assigned to one of three haplogroups (matrilines; clades): A, B, and C, while Nigerian dogs can be assigned to one of four haplogroups A, B, C, and D...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293406/%C3%AE-thalassemia-distribution-in-the-old-world-an-ancient-disease-seen-from-a-historical-standpoint
#7
REVIEW
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Christos Kattamis, Duran Canatan, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsedfy, Mehran Karimi, Shahina Daar, Yasser Wali, Mohamed Yassin, Nada Soliman, Praveen Sobti, Soad Al Jaouni, Mohamed El Kholy, Bernadette Fiscina, Michael Angastiniotis
BACKGROUND: Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. β-thalassaemia is characterised by the reduced synthesis (β(+)) or absence (β(o)) of the β-globin chains in the HbA molecule, resulting in accumulation of excess unbound α-globin chains that precipitate in erythroid precursors in the bone marrow and in the mature erythrocytes, leading to ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral haemolysis...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286102/historical-gene-flow-and-profound-spatial-genetic-structure-among-golden-pheasant-populations-suggested-by-multi-locus-analysis
#8
Ke He, Hong-Yi Liu, Yun-Fa Ge, Shao-Ying Wu, Qiu-Hong Wan
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a good marker system for geographical genetics since they are functional genes in the immune system that are likely to affect the fitness of the individual, and the survival and evolutionary potential of a population in a changing environment. Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) is a wild Phasianidae distributed in central and north China. In this study, we used a locus-specific genotyping technique for MHC IIB genes of golden pheasant. Combining with microsatellites (simple sequence repeat, SSR) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region, we investigated the demographic history and illuminate genetic structure of this bird in detail...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282382/population-genetic-analysis-of-the-darc-locus-duffy-reveals-adaptation-from-standing-variation-associated-with-malaria-resistance-in-humans
#9
Kimberly F McManus, Angela M Taravella, Brenna M Henn, Carlos D Bustamante, Martin Sikora, Omar E Cornejo
The human DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene encodes a membrane-bound chemokine receptor crucial for the infection of red blood cells by Plasmodium vivax, a major causative agent of malaria. Of the three major allelic classes segregating in human populations, the FY*O allele has been shown to protect against P. vivax infection and is at near fixation in sub-Saharan Africa, while FY*B and FY*A are common in Europe and Asia, respectively. Due to the combination of strong geographic differentiation and association with malaria resistance, DARC is considered a canonical example of positive selection in humans...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280099/discovery-of-an-endogenous-deltaretrovirus-in-the-genome-of-long-fingered-bats-chiroptera-miniopteridae
#10
Helena Farkašová, Tomáš Hron, Jan Pačes, Pavel Hulva, Petr Benda, Robert James Gifford, Daniel Elleder
Retroviruses can create endogenous forms on infiltration into the germline cells of their hosts. These forms are then vertically transmitted and can be considered as genetic fossils of ancient viruses. All retrovirus genera, with the exception of deltaretroviruses, have had their representation identified in the host genome as a virus fossil record. Here we describe an endogenous Deltaretrovirus, identified in the germline of long-fingered bats (Miniopteridae). A single, heavily deleted copy of this retrovirus has been found in the genome of miniopterid species, but not in the genomes of the phylogenetically closest bat families, Vespertilionidae and Cistugonidae...
March 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278153/a-model-for-brain-life-history-evolution
#11
Mauricio González-Forero, Timm Faulwasser, Laurent Lehmann
Complex cognition and relatively large brains are distributed across various taxa, and many primarily verbal hypotheses exist to explain such diversity. Yet, mathematical approaches formalizing verbal hypotheses would help deepen the understanding of brain and cognition evolution. With this aim, we combine elements of life history and metabolic theories to formulate a metabolically explicit mathematical model for brain life history evolution. We assume that some of the brain's energetic expense is due to production (learning) and maintenance (memory) of energy-extraction skills (or cognitive abilities, knowledge, information, etc...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274887/bayesian-inference-reveals-ancient-origin-of-simian-foamy-virus-in-orangutans
#12
Michael J C Reid, William M Switzer, Michael A Schillaci, Amy R Klegarth, Ellsworth Campbell, Manon Ragonnet, Isabelle Joanisse, Kyna Caminiti, Carl A Lowenberger, Birute Mary F Galdikas, Hope Hollocher, Paul A Sandstrom, James I Brooks
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) infect most nonhuman primate species and appears to co-evolve with its hosts. This co-evolutionary signal is particularly strong among great apes, including orangutans (genus Pongo). Previous studies have identified three distinct orangutan SFV clades. The first of these three clades is composed of SFV from P. abelii from Sumatra, the second consists of SFV from P. pygmaeus from Borneo, while the third clade is mixed, comprising an SFV strain found in both species of orangutan. The existence of the mixed clade has been attributed to an expansion of P...
March 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273082/ancient-dna-reveals-late-pleistocene-existence-of-ostriches-in-indian-sub-continent
#13
Sonal Jain, Niraj Rai, Giriraj Kumar, Parul Aggarwal Pruthi, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Sunil Bajpai, Vikas Pruthi
Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of extinct ratite species is of considerable interest as it provides important insights into their origin, evolution, paleogeographical distribution and vicariant speciation in congruence with continental drift theory. In this study, DNA hotspots were detected in fossilized eggshell fragments of ratites (dated ≥25000 years B.P. by radiocarbon dating) using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). DNA was isolated from five eggshell fragments and a 43 base pair (bp) sequence of a 16S rRNA mitochondrial-conserved region was successfully amplified and sequenced from one of the samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272534/genetics-of-the-peloponnesean-populations-and-the-theory-of-extinction-of-the-medieval-peloponnesean-greeks
#14
George Stamatoyannopoulos, Aritra Bose, Athanasios Teodosiadis, Fotis Tsetsos, Anna Plantinga, Nikoletta Psatha, Nikos Zogas, Evangelia Yannaki, Pierre Zalloua, Kenneth K Kidd, Brian L Browning, John Stamatoyannopoulos, Peristera Paschou, Petros Drineas
Peloponnese has been one of the cradles of the Classical European civilization and an important contributor to the ancient European history. It has also been the subject of a controversy about the ancestry of its population. In a theory hotly debated by scholars for over 170 years, the German historian Jacob Philipp Fallmerayer proposed that the medieval Peloponneseans were totally extinguished by Slavic and Avar invaders and replaced by Slavic settlers during the 6th century CE. Here we use 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate the genetic structure of Peloponnesean populations in a sample of 241 individuals originating from all districts of the peninsula and to examine predictions of the theory of replacement of the medieval Peloponneseans by Slavs...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265503/neogene-paleogeography-provides-context-for-understanding-the-origin-and-spatial-distribution-of-cryptic-diversity-in-a-widespread-balkan-freshwater-amphipod
#15
Michał Grabowski, Tomasz Mamos, Karolina Bącela-Spychalska, Tomasz Rewicz, Remi A Wattier
BACKGROUND: The Balkans are a major worldwide biodiversity and endemism hotspot. Among the freshwater biota, amphipods are known for their high cryptic diversity. However, little is known about the temporal and paleogeographic aspects of their evolutionary history. We used paleogeography as a framework for understanding the onset of diversification in Gammarus roeselii: (1) we hypothesised that, given the high number of isolated waterbodies in the Balkans, the species is characterised by high level of cryptic diversity, even on a local scale; (2) the long geological history of the region might promote pre-Pleistocene divergence between lineages; (3) given that G...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264299/-i-cetopirus-complanatus-i-cirripedia-coronulidae-from-the-late-middle-pleistocene-human-settlement-of-pinnacle-point-13b-mossel-bay-south-africa
#16
Alberto Collareta, Curtis W Marean, Antonieta Jerardino, Mark Bosselaers
The late Middle Pleistocene cave site of Pinnacle Point 13B (PP13B, South Africa) has provided the archaeologically oldest evidences yet known of human consumption of marine resources. Among the marine invertebrates recognised at PP13B, an isolated whale barnacle compartment was tentatively determined as Coronula diadema and regarded as indirect evidence of human consumption of a baleen whale (likely Megaptera novaeangliae). In this paper we redetermine this coronulid specimen as Cetopirus complanatus. This record significantly extends the fossil history of C...
February 27, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264195/paleoproterozoic-sterol-biosynthesis-and-the-rise-of-oxygen
#17
David A Gold, Abigail Caron, Gregory P Fournier, Roger E Summons
Natural products preserved in the geological record can function as 'molecular fossils', providing insight into organisms and physiologies that existed in the deep past. One important group of molecular fossils is the steroidal hydrocarbons (steranes), which are the diagenetic remains of sterol lipids. Complex sterols with modified side chains are unique to eukaryotes, although simpler sterols can also be synthesized by a few bacteria. Sterol biosynthesis is an oxygen-intensive process; thus, the presence of complex steranes in ancient rocks not only signals the presence of eukaryotes, but also aerobic metabolic processes...
March 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257470/rethinking-the-history-of-common-walnut-juglans-regia-l-in-europe-its-origins-and-human-interactions
#18
Paola Pollegioni, Keith Woeste, Francesca Chiocchini, Stefano Del Lungo, Marco Ciolfi, Irene Olimpieri, Virginia Tortolano, Jo Clark, Gabriel E Hemery, Sergio Mapelli, Maria Emilia Malvolti
Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its high-quality wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J. regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new habitats via trade and cultural expansion. The history of walnut in Europe is a matter of debate, however. In this study, we estimated the genetic diversity and structure of 91 Eurasian walnut populations using 14 neutral microsatellites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249737/historical-documents-on-epilepsy-from-antiquity-through-the-20th-century
#19
REVIEW
Christos P Panteliadis, Photios Vassilyadi, Julia Fehlert, Christian Hagel
Historical documents dating back almost 4500years have alluded to the condition of epilepsy, describing signs and symptoms that are well-known today. Epilepsy was thought to be a mystical disorder by almost all Ancient cultures, including the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Indians, Iranians and Chinese. Hippocrates was the first to de-mystify the condition of epilepsy, providing a more scientific approach to the condition. As the signs and symptoms of epilepsy occurred without an obvious cause, the idea stood that it was a mystical phenomenon of divine punishment...
February 26, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247585/aging-yeast-gain-a-competitive-advantage-on-non-optimal-carbon-sources
#20
Stephen Frenk, Grazia Pizza, Rachael V Walker, Jonathan Houseley
Animals, plants and fungi undergo an aging process with remarkable physiological and molecular similarities, suggesting that aging has long been a fact of life for eukaryotes and one to which our unicellular ancestors were subject. Key biochemical pathways that impact longevity evolved prior to multicellularity, and the interactions between these pathways and the aging process therefore emerged in ancient single-celled eukaryotes. Nevertheless, we do not fully understand how aging impacts the fitness of unicellular organisms, and whether such cells gain a benefit from modulating rather than simply suppressing the aging process...
March 1, 2017: Aging Cell
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