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Cell cycle tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564988/detection-of-the-incidence-of-infections-and-acute-biochemical-changes-in-diffuses-large-b-cell-lymphoma-patients-treated-with-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-and-prednisone-chop-with-and-without-rituximab
#1
Kashif Ali, Ali Akbar Sial, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Saqib Hussain Ansari, Syed Omair Adil, Tahir Sultan Shamsi
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: Acute biochemical changes, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and frequency of infections are common in diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma patients undergoing Cyclophosphamide, hydroxyrubicin, Oncovin (Vincristine) Prednisolone (CHOP) and Rituximab plus CHOP chemo cycles. Eventually, it leads to prolong hospital stay and suspending the next chemotherapy cycles. Changes in biochemical profile and immunosuppressant effects correlated with dose intensity ratio, the findings of this study will be helpful in choices for the physician to discontinue therapy or delaying treatment...
March 20, 2018: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559980/next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-the-human-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-repertoire-reveals-shifts-in-v%C3%AE-and-v%C3%AE-usage-in-memory-populations-upon-aging
#2
Martine J Kallemeijn, François G Kavelaars, Michèle Y van der Klift, Ingrid L M Wolvers-Tettero, Peter J M Valk, Jacques J M van Dongen, Anton W Langerak
Immunological aging remodels the immune system at several levels. This has been documented in particular for the T-cell receptor (TCR)αβ+ T-cell compartment, showing reduced naive T-cell outputs and an accumulation of terminally differentiated clonally expanding effector T-cells, leading to increased proneness to autoimmunity and cancer development at older age. Even though TCRαβ+ and TCRγδ+ T-cells follow similar paths of development involving V(D)J-recombination of TCR genes in the thymus, TCRγδ+ T-cells tend to be more subjected to peripheral rather than central selection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531181/the-origin-of-chromosomal-replication-is-asymmetrically-positioned-on-the-mycobacterial-nucleoid-and-the-timing-of-its-firing-depends-on-hupb
#3
Joanna Hołówka, Damian Trojanowski, Mateusz Janczak, Dagmara Jakimowicz, Jolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska
The bacterial chromosome undergoes dynamic changes in response to ongoing cellular processes and adaptation to environmental conditions. Among the many proteins involved in maintaining this dynamism, the most abundant is the nucleoid-associated protein (NAP), HU. In mycobacteria, the HU homolog, HupB, possesses an additional C-terminal domain that resembles that of eukaryotic histones H1/H5. Recently, we demonstrated that the highly abundant HupB occupies the entirety of the M. smegmatis chromosome and exhibits a bias from the origin ( oriC ) to the terminus ( ter )...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208413/characterization-of-ml0314c-of-mycobacterium-leprae-and-deciphering-its-role-in-the-immune-response-in-leprosy-patients
#4
Gurkamajit Kaur, Aashish Sharma, Tarun Narang, Sunil Dogra, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium leprae has a reduced genome size due to the reductive evolution over a long period of time. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the life cycle and pathogenesis of this bacterium. In comparison to 26 lip genes (Lip A-Z) of M. tuberculosis, M. leprae retained only three orthologs indicating their importance in its life cycle. ML0314c (LipU) is one of them. It is conserved throughout the mycobacterium species. Bioinformatics analysis showed the presence of an α/β hydrolase fold and 'GXSXG' characteristic of the esterases/lipases...
February 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202851/female-genital-tuberculosis-and-infertility-serial-cases-report-in-bandung-indonesia-and-literature-review
#5
Tono Djuwantono, Wiryawan Permadi, Leri Septiani, Ahmad Faried, Danny Halim, Ida Parwati
BACKGROUND: Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is a Mycobacterium infection in the reproductive organs which often leads to infertility. FGTB is either asymptomatic or causes uncharacteristic clinical presentations, making an early diagnosis is challenging. Our aims were to evaluate the clinical presentations, the process to confirm the diagnosis and followed-up the patients who had undergone laparoscopy at our center. FGTB has been reported from many countries, but has never been reported from Indonesia...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181154/hexane-fraction-of-pluchea-indica-root-extract-inhibits-proliferation-and-induces-autophagy-in-human-glioblastoma-cells
#6
Chung-Lung Cho, Ya-Zhe Lee, Chao-Neng Tseng, Joshua Cho, Yuan-Bin Cheng, Kuo-Wei Wang, Han-Jung Chen, Shean-Jaw Chiou, Chia-Hua Chou, Yi-Ren Hong
Pluchea indica (L.) Less. is a perennial plant known for its versatile uses in traditional medicine. Previous findings have shown that the extracts of Pluchea indica possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and anti-tuberculosis activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of the hexane fraction of P. indica root extract (H-PIRE) in human glioblastoma cells using flow cytometric and western blot analysis. The results shoewd that, H-PIRE suppressed the growth of glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner...
November 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176877/rv0004-is-a-new-essential-member-of-the-mycobacterial-dna-replication-machinery
#7
Katherine M Mann, Deborah L Huang, Anna J Hooppaw, Michelle M Logsdon, Kirill Richardson, Hark Joon Lee, Jacqueline M Kimmey, Bree B Aldridge, Christina L Stallings
DNA replication is fundamental for life, yet a detailed understanding of bacterial DNA replication is limited outside the organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Many bacteria, including mycobacteria, encode no identified homologs of helicase loaders or regulators of the initiator protein DnaA, despite these factors being essential for DNA replication in E. coli and B. subtilis. In this study we discover that a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv0004, from the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for bacterial viability and that depletion of Rv0004 leads to a block in cell cycle progression...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114022/hupb-is-a-bacterial-nucleoid-associated-protein-with-an-indispensable-eukaryotic-like-tail
#8
Joanna Hołówka, Damian Trojanowski, Katarzyna Ginda, Bartosz Wojtaś, Bartłomiej Gielniewski, Dagmara Jakimowicz, Jolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska
In bacteria, chromosomal DNA must be efficiently compacted to fit inside the small cell compartment while remaining available for the proteins involved in replication, segregation, and transcription. Among the nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) responsible for maintaining this highly organized and yet dynamic chromosome structure, the HU protein is one of the most conserved and highly abundant. HupB, a homologue of HU, was recently identified in mycobacteria. This intriguing mycobacterial NAP is composed of two domains: an N-terminal domain that resembles bacterial HU, and a long and distinctive C-terminal domain that contains several PAKK/KAAK motifs, which are characteristic of the H1/H5 family of eukaryotic histones...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101806/tetrandrine-and-cancer-an-overview-on-the-molecular-approach
#9
REVIEW
Bhagya N, Chandrashekar K R
Tetrandrine has been known in the treatment of tuberculosis, hyperglycemia, negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects on myocardium, malaria, cancer and fever since years together. It has been known that, tetrandrine could modulate multiple signaling molecules such as kinases of cell cycle and rat sarcoma (RAS) pathway along with proteins of tumor suppressor genes, autophagy related, β-catenins, caspases, and death receptors. Moreover, tetrandrine exhibited reversal of drug resistance by modulating P-glyco protein (P-gp) expression levels in different cancers which is an added advantage of this compound compared to other chemotherapy drugs...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024644/m-%C3%A2-tuberculosis-induced-necrosis-of-infected-neutrophils-promotes-bacterial-growth-following-phagocytosis-by-macrophages
#10
Tobias Dallenga, Urska Repnik, Björn Corleis, Jacqueline Eich, Rudolph Reimer, Gareth W Griffiths, Ulrich E Schaible
Neutrophils represent the main infected cell population in the lungs of active tuberculosis patients. Efficient removal of infected and dying neutrophils is required to protect the surrounding tissue from bioactive neutrophil molecules and subsequent pathological sequelae. While the removal of apoptotic M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected cells, or efferocytosis, is considered beneficial for host defense, little is known about Mtb-infected necrotic neutrophils. We found that Mtb induces necrosis of human neutrophils in an ESX-1-dependent manner, and neutrophil-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) drive this necrosis...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994205/proteomics-and-network-analyses-reveal-inhibition-of-akt-mtor-signaling-in-cd4-t-cells-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mannose-capped-lipoarabinomannan
#11
Ahmad F Karim, Obondo J Sande, Sara E Tomeckho, Xuedong Ding, Ming Li, Sean Maxwell, Rob M Ewing, Clifford V Harding, Roxana E Rojas, Mark R Chance, W Henry Boom
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell wall glycolipid Mannose-capped Lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) inhibits CD4(+) T cell activation by inhibiting proximal T cell receptor (TCR) signaling when activated by anti-CD3. To understand the impact of ManLAM on CD4(+) T cell function when both the TCR-CD3 complex and major co-stimulator CD28 are engaged, we performed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) and network analysis. Mixed effect model analysis of peptide intensity identified 149 unique peptides representing 131 proteins that were differentially regulated by ManLAM in anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 activated CD4(+) T cells...
October 10, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977039/host-transcriptional-responses-following-ex-vivo-re-challenge-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vary-with-disease-status
#12
Elaine A Yu, Serene H John, Elizabeth C Tablante, Christine A King, John Kenneth, David G Russell, Saurabh Mehta
The identification of immune correlates that are predictive of disease outcome for tuberculosis remains an ongoing challenge. To address this issue, we evaluated gene expression profiles from peripheral blood mononuclear cells following ex vivo challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, among participants with active TB disease (ATBD, n = 10), latent TB infection (LTBI, n = 10), and previous active TB disease (after successful treatment; PTBD, n = 10), relative to controls (n = 10). Differential gene expression profiles were assessed by suppression-subtractive hybridization, dot blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the comparative cycle threshold methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949981/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-reactivates-latent-hiv-1-in-t-cells-in-vitro
#13
Erica C Larson, Camille L Novis, Laura J Martins, Amanda B Macedo, Kadyn E Kimball, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles, Louis R Barrows
Following proviral integration into the host cell genome and establishment of a latent state, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can reenter a productive life cycle in response to various stimuli. HIV-1 reactivation occurs when transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and activator protein -1 (AP-1), bind cognate sites within the long terminal repeat (LTR) region of the HIV-1 provirus to promote transcription. Interestingly, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) can reactivate latent HIV-1 through activation of the transcription factor NF-κB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900018/distinct-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-peptidoglycan-synthesis-between-mycobacterium%C3%A2-smegmatis-and-mycobacterium%C3%A2-tuberculosis
#14
Helene Botella, Guangli Yang, Ouathek Ouerfelli, Sabine Ehrt, Carl F Nathan, Julien Vaubourgeix
Peptidoglycan (PG), a polymer cross-linked by d-amino acid-containing peptides, is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. We found that a fluorescent d-alanine analog (FDAA) incorporates chiefly at one of the two poles in Mycobacterium smegmatis but that polar dominance varies as a function of the cell cycle in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: immediately after cytokinesis, FDAAs are incorporated chiefly at one of the two poles, but just before cytokinesis, FDAAs are incorporated comparably at both. These observations suggest that mycobacterial PG-synthesizing enzymes are localized in functional compartments at the poles and septum and that the capacity for PG synthesis matures at the new pole in M...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744015/lactate-oxidation-facilitates-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-human-macrophages
#15
Sandra Billig, Marie Schneefeld, Claudia Huber, Guntram A Grassl, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Franz-Christoph Bange
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) uses alveolar macrophages as primary host cells during infection. In response to an infection, macrophages switch from pyruvate oxidation to reduction of pyruvate into lactate. Lactate might present an additional carbon substrate for Mtb. Here, we demonstrate that Mtb can utilize L-lactate as sole carbon source for in vitro growth. Lactate conversion is strictly dependent on one of two potential L-lactate dehydrogenases. A knock-out mutant lacking lldD2 (Rv1872c) was unable to utilize L-lactate...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665588/biochemical-investigation-of-rv3404c-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Murray M Dunsirn, James B Thoden, Michel Gilbert, Hazel M Holden
The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a bacterium with a complex cell wall and a complicated life cycle. The genome of M. tuberculosis contains well over 4000 genes thought to encode proteins. One of these codes for a putative enzyme referred to as Rv3404c, which has attracted research attention as a potential virulence factor for over 12 years. Here we demonstrate that Rv3404c functions as a sugar N-formyltransferase that converts dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose into dTDP-4-formamido-4,6-dideoxyglucose using N10 -formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source...
July 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632996/taking-control-hijacking-of-rab-gtpases-by-intracellular-bacterial-pathogens
#17
Stefania Spanò, Jorge E Galán
Intracellular bacterial pathogens survive and replicate within specialized eukaryotic cell organelles. To establish their intracellular niches these pathogens have adopted sophisticated strategies to control intracellular membrane trafficking. Since Rab-family GTPases are critical regulators of endocytic and secretory membrane trafficking events, many intracellular pathogens have evolved specific mechanisms to modulate or hijack Rab GTPases dynamics and trafficking functions. One such strategy is the delivery of bacterial effectors through specialized machines to specifically target Rab GTPases...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542477/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-arrests-host-cycle-at-the-g1-s-transition-to-establish-long-term-infection
#18
Bridgette M Cumming, Md Aejazur Rahman, Dirk A Lamprecht, Kyle H Rohde, Vikram Saini, John H Adamson, David G Russell, Adrie J C Steyn
Signals modulating the production of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence factors essential for establishing long-term persistent infection are unknown. The WhiB3 redox regulator is known to regulate the production of Mtb virulence factors, however the mechanisms of this modulation are unknown. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in WhiB3 regulation, we performed Mtb in vitro, intraphagosomal and infected host expression analyses. Our Mtb expression analyses in conjunction with extracellular flux analyses demonstrated that WhiB3 maintains bioenergetic homeostasis in response to available carbon sources found in vivo to establish Mtb infection...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535936/lipids-in-infectious-diseases-the-case-of-aids-and-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Fabrice Dumas, Evert Haanappel
Lipids play a central role in many infectious diseases. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and tuberculosis are two of the deadliest infectious diseases to have struck mankind. The pathogens responsible for these diseases, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rely on lipids and on lipid membrane properties to gain access to their host cells, to persist in them and ultimately to egress from their hosts. In this Review, we discuss the life cycles of these pathogens and the roles played by lipids and membranes...
September 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530656/metabolic-anticipation-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Hyungjin Eoh, Zhe Wang, Emilie Layre, Poonam Rath, Roxanne Morris, D Branch Moody, Kyu Y Rhee
Humans serve as both host and reservoir for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, making tuberculosis a theoretically eradicable disease. How M. tuberculosis alternates between host-imposed quiescence and sporadic bouts of replication to complete its life cycle, however, remains unknown. Here, we identify a metabolic adaptation that is triggered upon entry into hypoxia-induced quiescence but facilitates subsequent cell cycle re-entry. Catabolic remodelling of the cell surface trehalose mycolates of M. tuberculosis specifically generates metabolic intermediates reserved for re-initiation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis...
May 22, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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