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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731412/lung-sound-analysis-is-useful-for-monitoring-therapy-in-patients-with-bronchial-asthma
#1
T Shimoda, Y Obase, Y Nagasaka, H Nakano, R Kishikawa, T Iwanaga
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lung sound analysis (LSA) has been reported to be useful for predicting airway obstruction and inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma. Objectives: We examined whether the exhalation-to-inhalation sound pressure ratio in the middle frequency range (200-400 Hz) (E/I MF) is useful for monitoring therapy in patients with asthma. METHODS: The study population comprised 84 patients with mild to moderate asthma whose LSA data were available before and after 1 year of daily treatment with (budesonide 800 μg)...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727491/impact-of-point-of-care-xpert-mtb-rif-on-tuberculosis-treatment-initiation-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#2
Richard J Lessells, Graham S Cooke, Nuala McGrath, Mark P Nicol, Marie-Louise Newell, Peter Godfrey-Faussett
RATIONALE: Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics have potential to reduce pre-treatment loss to follow-up and delays to initiation of appropriate TB treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a POC diagnostic strategy on initiation of appropriate TB treatment. METHODS: A cluster randomised trial of adults with cough who were HIV positive and/or at high risk of drug-resistant TB. Two-week time blocks were randomised to two strategies (i) Xpert performed at district hospital laboratory (ii) POC Xpert performed at primary health care clinic...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724962/novel-transcriptional-signatures-for-sputum-independent-diagnostics-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#3
John Espen Gjøen, Synne Jenum, Dhanasekaran Sivakumaran, Aparna Mukherjee, Ragini Macaden, Sushil K Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Marielle C Haks, Timothy Mark Doherty, Christian Ritz, Harleen M S Grewal
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is challenging to diagnose, confirmed by growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at best in 40% of cases. The WHO has assigned high priority to the development of non-sputum diagnostic tools. We therefore sought to identify transcriptional signatures in whole blood of Indian children, capable of discriminating intra-thoracic TB disease from other symptomatic illnesses. We investigated the expression of 198 genes in a training set, comprising 47 TB cases (19 definite/28 probable) and 36 asymptomatic household controls, and identified a 7- and a 10-transcript signature, both including NOD2, GBP5, IFITM1/3, KIF1B and TNIP1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724639/production-of-reactive-persulfide-species-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Tadahisa Numakura, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Takaaki Akaike, Tomoaki Ida, Shigemoto Fujii, Akira Koarai, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Katsuhiro Onodera, Yuichiro Hashimoto, Rie Tanaka, Kei Sato, Yutaka Shishikura, Taizou Hirano, Satoru Yanagisawa, Naoya Fujino, Tatsuma Okazaki, Tsutomu Tamada, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Yoshinori Okada, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a major aetiological factor driving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently recognised as potent antioxidants, reactive persulfide and polysulfide species are biosynthesised by cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase. The production of reactive persulfide and polysulfide species in the lungs of patients with COPD remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the production of reactive persulfides and polysulfides, such as glutathione persulfide (GSSH), cysteine persulfide (CysSSH) and glutathione trisulfide (GSSSH), in lung-resident cells and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) obtained from patients with mild to moderate COPD...
July 19, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723769/overlooked-diagnosis-of-infected-paratracheal-air-cysts-in-patients-with-respiratory-symptoms-case-report
#5
Kyungsoo Bae, Kyung N Jeon, Mi J Park, Seung J Lee, Ho C Kim, Seung I Cha, Joung H Byun, Jong W Kim
RATIONALE: Infected paratracheal air cysts as the focus of respiratory symptoms can be overlooked in practice because of nonspecific symptoms and physician's scant knowledge for this entity. We report 2 cases of infected paratracheal air cyst diagnosed at chest computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy/endobronchial ultrasound. PATIENT CONCERN: Two patients visited our hospital with respiratory symptoms, including cough, sputum, and fever. DIAGNOSES: Chest CT showed paratracheal cystic lesions with air-fluid level in the thoracic inlet...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721354/diagnostic-outcomes-after-chest-radiograph-interpretation-in-patients-with-suspected-tuberculosis-and-negative-sputum-smears-in-a-high-burden-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-tuberculosis-setting
#6
Patrick G T Cudahy, Rodney Dawson, Brian W Allwood, Gary Maartens, Douglas Wilson
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of patients with suspected tuberculosis and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is challenging, especially in high human immunodeficiency virus coinfection settings where sputum smears have lower sensitivity for detecting AFB. METHODS: We examined the utility of chest radiographs for detecting smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Three hundred sixty sputum smear-negative patients who were referred from primary care clinics in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa were evaluated...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719498/incidence-of-active-tuberculosis-and-cohort-retention-among-adolescents-in-western-kenya
#7
Videlis Nduba, Anna H Van't Hoog, Ellen M H Mitchell, Martien Borgdorff, Kayla F Laserson
SETTING: Siaya County, with the highest tuberculosis notification rates in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of active tuberculosis and one year cohort retention in 12-18 year old adolescents, in preparation for Phase III tuberculosis vaccine trials. METHODS: Adolescents were enrolled and followed up for 1-2 years to determine tuberculosis incidence. Adolescents with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST), history of cohabitation with a tuberculosis case, or at least one tuberculosis symptom received clinical and sputum examination and a chest radiograph...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719264/the-human-microbiome-in-the-fight-against-tuberculosis
#8
Madeleine R Wood, Elaine A Yu, Saurabh Mehta
AbstractThe human microbiome is an intriguing potentially modifiable risk factor in our arsenal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the leading infectious disease killer globally. Previous studies have shown associations between the human microbiome and pulmonary disease states; however, etiological links between the microbiome and tuberculosis (TB) infection or disease remain unclear. Immunomodulatory roles of the microbiome may prove to be a critical asset in the host response against TB, including in preventing TB infection, reducing progression from latency, mitigating disease severity, and lowering the incidence of drug resistance and coinfections...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718275/-assessment-of-adherence-to-antibiotic-treatment-in-primary-care-by-determining-levels-of-the-drug-using-a-liquid-chromatography-technique
#9
P Navarro-Gómez, A Sorlózano-Puerto, M M Olmo-Navas, P Nieto-Guindo, R Dueñas-Alcalá, J Gutiérrez-Fernández, R Romero-González, M A Rodriguez-Maresca
OBJECTIVE: The lack of adherence to antibiotic treatments is a matter of special interest, which has important clinical implications, as it is associated with therapeutic failure and increased bacterial resistance causing a high sani-tary cost. The objective of our study was to assess the degree of adherence to prescribed antibiotic treatment in outpatients through the detection of these in blood, urine or sputum. METHODS: Concentrations of antibiotics prescribed in 39 patients (34 with clinical suspicion of urinary tract infection and 5 with clinical suspicion of low respiratory tract infection) treated in Primary Care consultations of the Sanitary District of Almería (Spain) were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
July 18, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717096/disseminated-mycobacterium-scrofulaceum-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-host
#10
Yu Takemoto, Hirokazu Tokuyasu, Tomoyuki Ikeuchi, Hirofumi Nakazaki, Satoru Nakamatsu, Suguru Kakite, Keiichi Yamasaki
A 56-year-old woman, without any immunocompromising diseases, was referred to our hospital because of a recurrence of pyogenic spondylitis. Computed tomography revealed multiple osteolytic changes in the whole body. Vertebral magnetic resonance imaging revealed osteomyelitis and spondylitis. Mycobacterium scrofulaceum was detected in sputum cultures, in abscesses from the right knee, and in a subcutaneous forehead abscess. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with disseminated Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716644/muc5ac-and-a-glycosylated-variant-of-muc5b-alter-mucin-composition-in-children-with-acute-asthma
#11
Kathryn G Welsh, Karine Rousseau, Gemma Fisher, Luke R Bonser, Peter Bradding, Chris E Brightling, David J Thornton, Erol A Gaillard
BACKGROUND: Diffuse airway mucus obstruction is an important feature of severe and fatal asthma. MUC5AC and MUC5B are the principal gel-forming mucins found in airway mucus. The mucin composition of airway mucus likely affects its functional properties. METHODS: We quantified the principal airway mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B in the sputum of age-matched children with acute and stable asthma and healthy controls using Western blotting. RESULTS: Sputum samples from 38 children (13 acute asthma, 15 stable asthma, 10 controls) were obtained...
July 14, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716529/the-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-salivary-cortisol-and-alpha-amylase-are-associated-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad-in-patients-with-asthma
#12
Chang-Jiang Yang, Di Liu, Zhen-Sheng Xu, Shen-Xun Shi, Yi-Jie Du
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common in patients with asthma. High levels of GAD may lead both to exacerbation of the condition and poor management. However, the physiological mechanisms of GAD in asthma patient is unclear. This study investigated the associations between the diurnal rhythm of sputum cytokines, salivary cortisol, α-amylase and GAD in asthma patients. Patients with co-morbid GAD and asthma showed higher sputum IL-1 AUC, sputum IL-6 AUC and sAA AUC. And there were positive correlations between Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) scores and sputum IL-1 AUC concentrations (r=0...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716462/rapid-identification-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-full-genetic-drug-resistance-profile-through-whole-genome-sequencing-directly-from-sputum
#13
Camus Nimmo, Ronan Doyle, Carrie Burgess, Rachel Williams, Rebecca Gorton, Timothy D McHugh, Mike Brown, Stephen Morris-Jones, Helen Booth, Judith Breuer
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to second line tuberculosis drugs is common, but slow to diagnose with phenotypic drug sensitivity testing. Rapid molecular tests speed up diagnosis, but can only detect limited mutations. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of culture isolates can generate a complete genetic drug resistance profile, but is delayed by the initial culture step. We previously successfully achieved WGS directly from sputum using targeted enrichment. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old Nigerian lady was diagnosed with tuberculosis...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714832/satisfaction-of-tuberculosis-patients-with-health-services-in-ghana
#14
Frank Bonsu, Felix Afutu, Nii Nortey Hanson-Nortey, Mary-Anne Ahiabu, Joshua Amo-Adjei
Purpose Within human services, client satisfaction is highly prioritised and considered a mark of responsiveness in service delivery. A large body of research has examined the concept of satisfaction from the perspective of service users. However, not much is known about how service providers construct client satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to throw light on healthcare professionals' perspectives on patient satisfaction, using tuberculosis (TB) clinics as a case study. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 TB clinic supervisors purposively sampled from six out of the ten regions of Ghana...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712819/clinical-characteristics-radiologic-findings-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-serum-galactomannan-negative-invasive-pulmonary%C3%A2-aspergillosis
#15
Jiwon Jung, Mi Young Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of galactomannan (GM) assay is suboptimal for detecting invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in serum samples. However, the clinical characteristics, radiologic findings, and outcomes in patients with GM-negative IPA have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Over a 7-year period, adult patients with proven or probable IPA by the EORTC/MSG definition were retrospectively enrolled. Patients with negative GM results and positive Aspergillus spp...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712088/erratum-to-expression-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-induced-sputum-comparative-study-in-asthma-and-copd
#16
Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Katarzyna Górska, Katarzyna Białek-Gosk, Joanna Hermanowicz-Salamon, Rafał Krenke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710581/validation-of-a-model-for-predicting-smear-positive-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-initial-acid-fast-bacilli-smear-negative-sputum
#17
Jun -Jun Yeh
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for final smear-positive (SP) active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) in patients with initial negative acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smears (iSN-SP-aPTB) based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Eighty (126, 21) patients of iSN-SP-aPTB and 402 (459, 876) patients of non-initial positive acid fast bacilli (non-iSP) pulmonary disease without iSN-SP-aPTB were included in a derivation (validation, prospective) cohort...
July 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710242/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-as-an-unusual-cause-of-cavitating-lung-lesion
#18
Justin D Salciccioli, Hannah Woodcock, Mathina Darmalingam
A 31-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus presented to the emergency department with cough for 1 week. Chest radiograph demonstrated cavitating lesion in the right upper zone with surrounding ground-glass change. Blood culture results from the day of hospital presentation grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sputum sample and pleural fluid grew P. aeruginosa and were negative for acid-fast bacilli. P. aeruginosa is a rare cause of cavitating lung lesion and has been associated with immunocompromised hosts...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709491/band-pattern-analysis-of-mutations-in-rifampicin-resistance-strain-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-line-probe-assay-in-patients-from-delhi-india
#19
Himanshu Vashistha, M Hanif, K K Chopra, Ashwani Khanna, Divya Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: The GenoType MTBDRplus, a commercial Line Probe Assay (LPA) kit from Hain Lifescience, Germany, is endorsed by India's RNTCP Program for diagnosis of DRTB cases among smear-positive sputum samples. Although the LPA has been studied in several laboratories, there is a wide variation in existing M. tuberculosis strains across the globe, and false results can occur due to the presence of unique genetic mutations in different settings. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: An attempt was made to carry out band pattern analysis using LPA and also to observe uncommon mutations in MDR strains...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709489/the-success-and-safety-profile-of-sputum-induction-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-an-indian-experience
#20
Lalita Fernandes, Anthony Menezes Mesquita
BACKGROUND: Neutrophilic inflammation is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease while Asthma COPD overlap syndrome has eosinophilic predominance. Identifying the type of inflammation will aid in better management of COPD, but published studies show that induced sputum examination is more frequently used in asthma than COPD, with safety being the limiting factor. We aimed to determine the success and safety of sputum induction (SI) in COPD patients. METHODS: 116 stable COPD patients underwent SI...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
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