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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339465/comparative-accuracy-of-the-reba-mtb-mdr-and-hain-mtbdrplus-line-probe-assays-for-the-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-multicenter-non-inferiority-study
#1
Joshua Havumaki, Doris Hillemann, Nazir Ismail, Shaheed Vally Omar, Sophia B Georghiou, Samuel G Schumacher, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
INTRODUCTION: Despite recent diagnostic advances, the majority of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases remain undiagnosed. Line probes assays (LiPAs) hold great promise to curb the spread of MDR-TB as they can rapidly detect MDR-TB even when laboratory infrastructure is limited, yet few of these assays are currently widely available or supported by World Health Organization (WHO) policy. METHODS: The aim of this prospective, blinded, non-inferiority study was to compare the performance of YD Diagnostics REBA MTB MDR LiPA (YD) to the WHO-endorsed Hain MTBDRplus V1 LiPA (Hain V1) for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339291/bronchial-microbiome-pa-biofilm-forming-capacity-and-exacerbation-in-severe-copd-patients-colonized-by-p-aerugirona
#2
Marian Garcia-Nuñez, Sara Marti, Carmen Puig, Vicente Perez-Brocal, Laura Millares, Salud Santos, Carmen Ardanuy, Andres Moya, Josefina Liñares, Eduard Monsó
AIM: The bronchial microbiome of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify differences related to biofilm-forming capacity. PATIENTS & METHODS: Patient sputum samples from 21 patients were studied. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences related to biofilm-forming capacity were only found for genera with relative abundances <1%, and Fusobacterium was over-represented when biofilm-forming capacity was high...
March 24, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336588/draft-genome-sequences-of-three-nontypeable-strains-of-haemophilus-influenzae-c188-r535-and-1200-isolated-from-different-types-of-disease
#3
Ulrike Kappler, Rabeb Dhouib, Remya Purushothaman Nair, Alastair G McEwan
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a persistent human respiratory pathogen known to be involved in a range of acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Here, we report the genome sequences of three H. influenzae strains isolated from sputum, otitis media, and blood. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences in the gene contents including the presence of genes mediating antibiotic resistance.
March 23, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336254/effectiveness-of-training-patients-using-dvd-in-the-accurate-use-of%C3%A2-inhalers-for-the-treatment-of-bronchial-asthma
#4
Koichiro Takita, Rieko Kondo, Takahiko Horiguchi
BACKGROUND: Inhalants are the standard treatment for patients with bronchial asthma. Inaccurate inhaler use leads to inadequate therapeutic effects and unnecessary dosage increases. However, it is a challenge for practitioners to master the various devices available and train patients on the accurate use of inhalers. Thus, establishing a system to instruct patients on how to accurately use inhalers is essential. We prepared a DVD and accompanying user manual explaining the operation of each inhaler device used in Japan...
March 20, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335801/different-challenges-different-approaches-and-related-expenditures-of-community-based-tuberculosis-activities-by-international-non-governmental-organizations-in-myanmar
#5
Wai Wai Han, Saw Saw, Petros Isaakidis, Mohammed Khogali, Anthony Reid, Nguyen Hoa, Ko Ko Zaw, Si Thu Aung
BACKGROUND: International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) have been implementing community-based tuberculosis (TB) care (CBTBC) in Myanmar since 2011. Although the National TB Programme (NTP) ultimately plans to take over CBTBC, there have been no evaluations of the models of care or of the costs of providing CBTBC in Myanmar by INGOs. METHODS: This was a descriptive study using routinely-collected programmatic and financial data from four INGOs during 2013 and 2014, adjusted for inflation...
March 24, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334088/relapse-re-infection-and-mixed-infections-in-tuberculosis-disease
#6
Amanda McIvor, Hendrik Koornhof, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be characterized by genotypic and phenotypic complexity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli within a single patient. This microbiological heterogeneity has become an area of intense study due its perceived importance in drug tolerance, drug resistance and as a surrogate measure of transmission rates. This review presents a descriptive analysis of research describing the prevalence of mixed strain TB infections in geographically distinct locations. Despite significant variation in disease burden and a rampant HIV-TB co-epidemic, there was no difference in the prevalence range of mixed infections reported in African countries when compared to the rest of the world...
February 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332631/integrated-dna-and-rna-extraction-using-magnetic-beads-from-viral-pathogens-causing-acute-respiratory-infections
#7
Hui He, Rongqun Li, Yi Chen, Ping Pan, Wenjuan Tong, Xueyan Dong, Yueming Chen, Daojun Yu
Current extraction methods often extract DNA and RNA separately, and few methods are capable of co-extracting DNA and RNA from sputum. We established a nucleic acid co-extraction method from sputum based on magnetic beads and optimized the method by evaluating influencing factors, such as the guanidinium thiocyanate (GTC) and dithiothreitol (DTT) concentrations, magnetic bead amount, incubation temperature, lysis buffer pH and RNA carrier type. The feasibility of the simultaneous nucleic acid co-extraction method was evaluated by amplifying DNA and RNA viruses from a single clinical specimen with a multiplex RT-qPCR method...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331837/public-health-relevance-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-among-afb-positive-sputa
#8
Prabha Desikan, Karuna Tiwari, Nikita Panwalkar, Saima Khaliq, Manju Chourey, Reeta Varathe, Shaina Beg Mirza, Arun Sharma, Sridhar Anand, Manoj Pandey
BACKGROUND: Sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB) is used by most public health programmes to detect tuberculosis. While most AFB in countries endemic for tuberculosis are Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), some may also be non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The inability to differentiate NTM from MTB by sputum smear microscopy may lead to erroneous diagnoses of tuberculosis, leading in turn to inappropriate therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of consecutive sputum samples received from November 2013 to March 2015 in the Department of Microbiology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre, Bhopal, India...
March 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331348/molecular-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-jigjiga-town-ethiopia
#9
Mussie Brhane, Ameha Kebede, Yohannes Petros
BACKGROUND: Molecular methods that target drug resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of the study was to determine MDR-TB cases and to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. METHODS: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331031/an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#10
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Zhiyi Lan, Dick Menzies
This systematic review aimed to update the current evidence for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment.We searched for studies that reported treatment information and clinical characteristics for at least 25 patients with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary MDR-TB and either end of treatment outcomes, 6-month culture conversion or severe adverse events (SAEs). We assessed the association of these outcomes with patients' characteristics or treatment parameters. We identified 74 studies, including 17 494 participants...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330890/direct-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistance-in-sputum-samples-from-tuberculosis-patients-by-high-resolution-melt-curve-analysis
#11
Divya Anthwal, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Manpreet Bhalla, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi, Sagarika Haldar
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat for TB control worldwide. Globally, only 40% of the 340,000 notified TB patients estimated to have multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) were detected in 2015. This study was carried out to evaluate the utility of High Resolution Melt curve analysis (HRM) for the rapid and direct detection of MDR-TB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in sputum samples. A reference plasmid library was first generated of the most frequently observed mutations in the resistance determining regions of rpoB, katG and inhA promoter and used as positive controls in HRM...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330178/emergence-of-mixed-infection-of-beijing-non-beijing-strains-among-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-pakistan
#12
Samar Mustafa, Hasnain Javed, Jawairia Hashmi, Nazia Jamil, Zarfishan Tahir, Abdul Majeed Akhtar
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the deadliest diseases after HIV globally with 95 % of deaths confined to low-and-middle income countries. Pakistan is fifth among the 22 high-burden TB countries with the incidence rate of 230/100,000 persons, however, studies related to prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their spread, drug resistance pattern and evolutionary genetics are inadequate. The present study was undertaken to highlight the circulation of M. tuberculosis strains causing drug resistant TB in our community by targeting the molecular marker IS6110 and then characterization of these strains as Beijing and Non-Beijing genotypes...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329268/dynamics-of-cough-frequency-in-adults-undergoing-treatment-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#13
Alvaro Proaño, Marjory A Bravard, José W Lopez, Gwenyth O Lee, David Bui, Sumona Datta, Germán Comina, Mirko Zimic, Jorge Coronel, Luz Caviedes, José L Cabrera, Antonio Salas, Eduardo Ticona, Nancy M Vu, Daniela E Kirwan, Maria-Cristina I Loader, Jon S Friedland, David A Moore, Carlton A Evans, Brian H Tracey, Robert H Gilman
Background: Cough is the major determinant of tuberculosis transmission. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding characteristics of cough frequency throughout the day and in response to tuberculosis therapy. Here we evaluate the circadian cycle of cough; cough frequency risk factors; and the impact of appropriate treatment on cough and bacillary load. Methods: We prospectively evaluated HIV-negative adults (n=64) with a new diagnosis of culture-proven, drug-susceptible pul-monary tuberculosis immediately prior to treatment and repeatedly until treatment day 62...
January 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329213/postoperative-pulmonary-complications-and-rehabilitation-requirements-following-lobectomy-a-propensity-score-matched-study-of-patients-undergoing-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-versus-thoracotomy%C3%A2
#14
Paula Agostini, Sebastian T Lugg, Kerry Adams, Nelia Vartsaba, Maninder S Kalkat, Pala B Rajesh, Richard S Steyn, Babu Naidu, Alison Rushton, Ehab Bishay
OBJECTIVES: : Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) lobectomy is increasingly used for curative intent lung cancer surgery compared to open thoracotomy due to its minimally invasive approach and associated benefits. However, the effects of the VATS approach on postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC), rehabilitation and physiotherapy requirements are unclear; our study aimed to use propensity score matching to investigate this. METHODS: Between January 2012 and January 2016 all consecutive patients undergoing lobectomy via thoracotomy or VATS were prospectively observed...
March 8, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325344/chitosan-gold-nanoparticles-for-detection-of-amplified-nucleic-acids-isolated-from-sputum
#15
Salma N Tammam, Mahmoud A F Khalil, Eman Abdul Gawad, Asma Althani, Hosam Zaghloul, Hassan M E Azzazy
A platform for nucleic acid detection employing chitosan and chitosan coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was used as a model target. MTB DNA was extracted from sputum using simple total nucleic acid extraction. Following amplification of MTB DNA, chitosan and AuNPs were added to samples. Free chitosan conjugated non-target DNA in negative samples, avoiding AuNP-DNA interaction and hence negative samples remained red. In positive samples, amplified DNA was capable of saturating free chitosan leading to AuNP aggregation where positive samples turned blue...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321543/understanding-the-lung-abscess-microbiome-outcomes-of-percutaneous-lung-parenchymal-abscess-drainage-with-microbiologic-correlation
#16
Christopher Duncan, Gregory J Nadolski, Terence Gade, Stephen Hunt
INTRODUCTION: Lung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed...
March 20, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320384/diagnostic-accuracy-incremental-yield-and-prognostic-value-of-determine-tb-lam-for-routine-diagnostic-testing-for-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-patients-requiring-acute-hospital-admission-in-south-africa-a-prospective-cohort
#17
Stephen D Lawn, Andrew D Kerkhoff, Rosie Burton, Charlotte Schutz, Andrew Boulle, Monica Vogt, Ankur Gupta-Wright, Mark P Nicol, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that one-third of HIV-positive adults requiring medical admission to a South African district hospital had laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) and that almost two-thirds of cases could be rapidly diagnosed using Xpert MTB/RIF-testing of concentrated urine samples obtained on the first day of admission. Implementation of urine-based, routine, point-of-care TB screening is an attractive intervention that might be facilitated by use of a simple, low-cost diagnostic tool, such as the Determine TB-LAM lateral-flow rapid test for HIV-associated TB...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320359/chronic-cough-conundrum-a-case-report-of-a-new-diagnosis-of-hiv-and-pulmonary-kaposi-s-sarcoma
#18
Pamela P Bailey, Marylou M Dryer, John P Piper, Sajjad Ahmad
BACKGROUND: When evaluating a common complaint such as cough, clinicians should rely on a patient's history and physical to guide them, but also not diverge from guidelines in screening and testing lest certain diagnoses be overlooked. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44 year old Hispanic male presented to a pulmonologist's office after failing multiple courses of antibiotics for chronic cough, now six months in duration. He described intermittent scant hemoptysis and an evanescent migratory non-pruritic rash occasionally noted on his trunk or limbs...
March 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320351/the-prevalence-and-factors-associated-for-anti-tuberculosis-treatment-non-adherence-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-public-health-care-facilities-in-south-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Tadele Teshome Woimo, Wondwossen Kassahun Yimer, Temesgen Bati, Hailay Abrha Gesesew
BACKGROUND: Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb) patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings...
March 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318886/airway-inflammation-phenotype-prediction-in-asthma-patients-using-lung-sound-analysis-with-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide
#20
Terufumi Shimoda, Yasushi Obase, Yukio Nagasaka, Hiroshi Nakano, Reiko Kishikawa, Tomoaki Iwanaga
BACKGROUND: We previously reported the results of lung sound analysis in patients with bronchial asthma and demonstrated that the exhalation-to-inhalation sound pressure ratio in the low frequency range between 100 and 200 Hz (E/I LF) was correlated with the presence of airway inflammation and airway obstruction. We classified asthma patients by airway inflammation phenotype using the induced sputum eosinophil and neutrophil ratio and determined whether this phenotype could be predicted using E/I LF and fractional exhaled nitric oxide values...
March 16, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
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