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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432321/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lineage-distribution-in-xinjiang-and-gansu-provinces-china
#1
Haixia Chen, Li He, Hairong Huang, Chengmin Shi, Xumin Ni, Guangming Dai, Liang Ma, Weimin Li
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) genotyping has dramatically improved the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 187 M. tuberculosis isolates from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) and Gansu province in China were genotyped using large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Ten isolates, which represent major nodes of VNTR-based minimum spanning tree, were selected and subsequently subjected to multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) that include 82 genes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432209/a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-of-the-seasonal-dynamics-of-airway-pathogens-in-the-aetiology-of-exacerbations-in-copd
#2
Tom M A Wilkinson, Emmanuel Aris, Simon Bourne, Stuart C Clarke, Mathieu Peeters, Thierry G Pascal, Sonia Schoonbroodt, Andrew C Tuck, Viktoriya Kim, Kristoffer Ostridge, Karl J Staples, Nicholas Williams, Anthony Williams, Stephen Wootton, Jeanne-Marie Devaster
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is incompletely understood. Understanding the relationship between chronic bacterial airway infection and viral exposure may explain the incidence and seasonality of these events. METHODS: In this prospective, observational cohort study (NCT01360398), patients with COPD aged 40-85 years underwent sputum sampling monthly and at exacerbation for detection of bacteria and viruses. Results are presented for subjects in the full cohort, followed for 1 year...
April 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431503/understanding-the-impact-of-symptoms-on-the-burden-of-copd
#3
REVIEW
Marc Miravitlles, Anna Ribera
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) imposes a substantial burden on individuals with the disease, which can include a range of symptoms (breathlessness, cough, sputum production, wheeze, chest tightness) of varying severities. We present an overview of the biomedical literature describing reported relationships between COPD symptoms and disease burden in terms of quality of life, health status, daily activities, physical activity, sleep, comorbid anxiety, and depression, as well as risk of exacerbations and disease prognosis...
April 21, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431478/successful-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-meningitis-with-ampicillin-sulbactam-in-primary-hospital
#4
Leitao Sun, Xiaohong Wang, Zefu Li
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial infections, especially those due to multi-drug resistant strains, are increasingly detected. We want to find the effective treatment measures about multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections through this research. METHODOLOGY: The clinical features and the outcomes of twelve cases of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis treated with ampicillin sulbactam and intrathecal use of amikacin are reported in primary hospital...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428678/productive-cough-in-children-and-adolescents-view-from-primary-health-care-system
#5
REVIEW
Edin Begic, Zijo Begic, Amra Dobraca, Edo Hasanbegovic
Cough is one of the most common symptoms that doctor faces in working with pediatric population, and according to some characteristics of cough, doctors can often conclude localization, and sometimes even the nature of the disease that causes it. Cough is not only the physiological defense reaction, but a symptom of a disease. According to duration it can be acute, chronic and recidivist, recurrent and persistent, strong or discreet, caused by changes in body position and changes in outside temperature. Pathoanatomically it is divided into lobar, lobular, alveolar and interstitial, pathogenetically to bronchogenic and hematogenous, as well as in immuno competent and immunocompromised, and clinically on the local and inpatient (72 hours after hospital admission)...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428530/-duchenne-muscle-dystrophy-caused-bronchial-obstruction
#6
Aki Fujiwara, Nozomu Iwashiro, Masanori Ohara
Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD), X-linked recessive genetic disorder, causes a variety of complications including scoliosis. We report a case of bronchial obstruction and hemorrhage caused by scoliosis with DMD. A man in his forties having been hospitalized due to DMD since the age of 6, produced bloody sputum. A chest X-ray showed atelectasis in his right lower lung. A computed tomography and bronchoscopy indicated that scoliosis and thoracic deformity due to muscle dystrophy caused compression of a right main bronchus by the vertebra, leading to bronchial obstruction and bleeding...
April 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428529/-solitary-peripheral-pulmonary-squamous-cell-papilloma-diagnostic-significance-of-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-findings
#7
Tetsuya Hayashi, Syuichi Tachibana, Keiichi Nakao, Kosuke Tokitsu, Takuya Morita, Genichi Kishima
The patient was a 79-year-old woman who had received enucleation of right pulmonary papilloma 7 years earlier. She experienced bloody sputum and was therefore referred to our hospital. Chest computed tomography revealed a mass shadow(21 mm) in the right upper lobe (S2). By bronchoscopy, there was no bulging lesion in the visible range. SCC and CEA increased to 6.4 ng/ml and 6.42 ng/ml, respectively. Whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed increased FDG uptake in the region of the right-lung mass shadow (maximum standardized uptake value 12...
April 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427296/predictors-of-response-to-therapy-with-omalizumab-in-patients-with-severe-allergic-asthma-a-real-life-study
#8
Maria Kallieri, Andriana I Papaioannou, Evgenia Papathanasiou, Polyxeni Ntontsi, Spyridon Papiris, Stelios Loukides
INTRODUCTION: Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, used for the treatment of severe refractory allergic asthma. However, not all patients with IgE levels within the limits of administration, respond to treatment. The aim of the present study, was to determine clinical and inflammatory characteristics that could predict response to omalizumab. METHODS: We studied retrospectively patients treated with omalizumab as per GINA guidelines in one asthma tertiary referral center...
April 21, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427132/-influences-of-abar-gene-on-biofilm-formation-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#9
H N Guo, J Xiang
Objective: To detect drug-resistant phenotype and abaR gene of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) and investigate influences of abaR gene on biofilm formation of AB. Methods: From February to July 2014, 159 strains AB were collected from Department of Clinical Microbiology of Ruijin Hospital of School of Medicine of Shanghai JiaoTong University and numbered starting from 1 according time when they were collected. (1) The above-mentioned 159 strains of AB were identified by detecting gene sequence of 16S ribosomal DNA...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426171/sputum-basophils-are-increased-in-eosinophilic-asthma-compared-with-non-eosinophilic-asthma-phenotypes
#10
Collin R Brooks, Christine J van Dalen, Ian F Hermans, Peter G Gibson, Jodie L Simpson, Jeroen Douwes
Sputum basophil numbers are increased in allergic asthmatics, but it is unclear what role airway basophils play in "TH2-low" asthma phenotypes. Using flow cytometry we found that basophils were significantly increased in all asthmatics (n=26) compared with healthy controls (n=8) (p=0.007) with highest levels observed in eosinophilic asthma (EA; median 0.22%, IQR 0.11-0.47%; n=14) compared with non-EA (0.06%, 0.00-0.20%; n=12; p<0.05). In asthmatics, basophils were positively correlated with sputum eosinophils (r=0...
April 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425873/rapid-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-and-sputum-smear-negative-pulmonary-suspects-using-xpert-mtb-rif
#11
Irfan Ullah, Arshad Javaid, Haleema Masud, Mazhar Ali, Anila Basit, Waqas Ahmad, Faisal Younis, Rehana Yasmin, Afsar Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Masroor Husain, Zahid Ahmad Butt
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in developing countries such as Pakistan. Rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of drug resistance are very important for timely and appropriate management of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance in extrapulmonary and smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424429/the-volatile-molecule-signature-of-four-mycobacteria-species
#12
Theodore Mellors, Christiaan Rees, Wendy Wieland-Alter, C Fordham von Reyn, Jane E Hill
Mycobacteria are the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide and limitations in current diagnostics are hampering control efforts. In recent years, the use of small volatile molecules as diagnostic biomarkers for mycobacteria has shown promise for use in the rapid analysis of in vitro cultures as well as ex vivo diagnosis using breath or sputum. In this study, 18 strains from four mycobacteria species (Mycobacterium avium, M. bovis BCG, M. intracellulare and M. xenopi) were analyzed for the first time using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424085/the-within-host-population-dynamics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vary-with-treatment-efficacy
#13
Andrej Trauner, Qingyun Liu, Laura E Via, Xin Liu, Xianglin Ruan, Lili Liang, Huimin Shi, Ying Chen, Ziling Wang, Ruixia Liang, Wei Zhang, Wang Wei, Jingcai Gao, Gang Sun, Daniela Brites, Kathleen England, Guolong Zhang, Sebastien Gagneux, Clifton E Barry, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Combination therapy is one of the most effective tools for limiting the emergence of drug resistance in pathogens. Despite the widespread adoption of combination therapy across diseases, drug resistance rates continue to rise, leading to failing treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying treatment failure are well studied, but the processes governing successful combination therapy are poorly understood. We address this question by studying the population dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment with different combinations of antibiotics...
April 19, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423372/patterns-of-disease-in-patients-with-middle-lobe-predominant-bronchiectasis
#14
Melissa J McDonnell, Mohammed Ahmed, Jeeban Das, Michael O'Mahony, David Breen, Anthony O'Regan, J J Gilmartin, John Bruzzi, Robert M Rutherford
BACKGROUND: Middle-lobe predominant bronchiectasis affecting the right middle-lobe and/or lingula (RMLP) is classically described in asthenic, elderly females with skeletal abnormalities or associated nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients with an RMLP phenotype in a cohort of newly diagnosed bronchiectasis patients and determine associations with disease severity. METHODS: A retrospective observational cross-sectional cohort study of consecutive bronchiectasis patients in our institution was performed...
April 20, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422515/allergen-induced-increases-in-sputum-levels-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-asthmatic-subjects
#15
Ruchong Chen, Steven G Smith, Brittany Salter, Amani El-Gammal, John Paul Oliveria, Caitlin Obminski, Rick Watson, Paul M O'Byrne, Gail M Gauvreau, Roma Sehmi
RATIONALE: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), a major source of type 2 cytokines, initiate eosinophilic inflammatory responses in murine models of asthma. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the role of ILC2 in allergen-induced airway eosinophilic responses in atopic asthmatics. METHODS: Using a diluent-controlled allergen challenge cross-over study, where all subjects (n=10) developed allergen-induced early and late responses , airway eosinophilia and increased methacholine airway responsiveness, bone marrow, blood and sputum samples were collected pre- and post-inhalation challenge...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421876/congenital-tuberculosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Ching-Wen Chang, Patricia Wanping Wu, Chih-Hua Yeh, Kin-Sun Wong, Chao-Jan Wang, Chih-Chen Chang
Congenital tuberculosis is rare, even where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A 14-day-old girl presented with a 3-day history of fever and respiratory distress. Her mother was diagnosed with a disseminated TB infection immediately after the delivery which was confirmed by a positive TB-polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR) and subsequent culture from ascites and sputum. The infant was separated from her mother at birth. Her chest radiograph showed bilateral miliary nodules. Congenital TB was strongly suspected because of the symptoms, signs and maternal TB history, and was confirmed by TB-PCR and culture from the gastric lavage...
April 19, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420836/high-detection-rates-of-urine-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-suspected-miliary-tuberculosis
#17
Toshinobu Yokoyama, Takashi Kinoshita, Masaki Okamoto, Kazuko Matsunaga, Tomoko Kamimura, Masaharu Kinoshita, Toru Rikimaru, Kazuhito Taguchi, Tomoaki Hoshino, Tomotaka Kawayama
Objective The utility of detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculous with diffuse small nodular shadows (suspected miliary tuberculosis (MTB)) is still unclear in Japan. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the detection rates of M. tuberculosis in urine of patients with suspected MTB. Methods Among 687 hospitalized patients with tuberculosis, 45 with culture-confirmed suspected MTB and the data of culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419462/modeling-and-simulation-of-pivotal-clinical-trials-using-linked-models-for-multiple-endpoints-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-with-roflumilast
#18
Axel Facius, Andreas Krause, Laurent Claret, Rene Bruno, Gezim Lahu
Roflumilast is a selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor (PDE4i) for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In 2 large phase 3 trials in a broader population of COPD patients (BY217/M2-111, ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00076089 and BY217/M2-112, ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00430729), treatment with roflumilast reduced the rate of exacerbations; however, the reduction did not reach statistical significance. Two linked dose-response models for the primary (annualized COPD exacerbation counts) and secondary (change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1 ]) end points were therefore developed to characterize and quantify effect sizes and the patient characteristics influencing them...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419376/latent-tb-infection-and-pulmonary-tb-disease-among-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-in-bandung-indonesia
#19
Raspati C Koesoemadinata, Susan M McAllister, Nanny N M Soetedjo, Dwi Febni Ratnaningsih, Rovina Ruslami, Sarah Kerry, Ayesha J Verrall, Lika Apriani, Reinout van Crevel, Bachti Alisjahbana, Philip C Hill
Background: Screening and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease could reduce diabetes mellitus (DM)-associated TB. We aimed to describe the prevalence of LTBI and pulmonary TB among patients with DM in a TB-endemic setting. Methods: Patients with DM attending a hospital and community centres in Bandung, Indonesia, underwent LTBI screening using interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). TB was investigated by sputum smear, culture and x-ray. TB contacts from a parallel study were age- and sex-matched to patients with DM to compare LTBI and TB disease prevalence...
April 13, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415989/evaluation-of-genotype-mtbdrplus-ver-2-0-line-probe-assay-for-the-detection-of-mdr-tb-in-smear-positive-and-negative-sputum-samples
#20
Abyot Meaza, Abebaw Kebede, Zelalem Yaregal, Zekarias Dagne, Shewki Moga, Bazezew Yenew, Getu Diriba, Helina Molalign, Mengistu Tadesse, Desalegn Adisse, Muluwork Getahun, Kassu Desta
BACKGROUND: Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses formidable challenges to TB control due to its complex diagnostic and treatment challenges and often associated with a high rate of mortality. Accurate and rapid detection of MDR-TB is critical for timely initiation of treatment. Line Probe Assay (LPA) is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic test based on DNA-STRIP technology for the identification of the M. tuberculosis complex and its resistance to rifampicin (RMP) and/or isoniazid (INH)...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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