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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453670/incidence-and-drug-resistance-of-zoonotic-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-peshawar-pakistan
#1
Irfan Khattak, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Sultan Ayaz, Sajid Ali, Anwar Sheed, Javed Muhammad, Muhammad Luqman Sohail, Haq Amanullah, Irshad Ahmad, Sadeeq Ur Rahman
Prevalence of zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis (bTB) disease in human population is underreported from the North of Pakistan. Here, we report on the proportion of human bTB disease among the overall TB patients, drug resistance pattern of bTB isolates, and knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP)-based analysis of bTB disease. For this purpose, sputum samples from a total of 300 clinically diagnosed TB patients and 100 randomly selected school children suspected of pulmonary TB were processed by culture as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for isolation, identification, and confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) and bTB species...
February 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453637/cough-hypersensitivity-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome
#2
Cuiqin Shi, Siwei Liang, Xianghuai Xu, Qiang Chen, Lan Wang, Li Yu, Hanjing Lv, Zhongmin Qiu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate cough hypersensitivity and its potential mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). METHODS: Fifteen OSAHS patients, 12 simple snoring patients, and 15 healthy volunteers received cough sensitivity test and induced sputum cytology. Cough thresholds C2 and C5 (the minimum of capsaicin inducing ≥ 2 and ≥ 5 coughs, respectively), total cell count, cell differentials and the levels of bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandin E 2 , substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, pepsin, and interleukin-2 in the induced sputum detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were compared...
February 16, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449406/complete-genome-sequence-of-mycobacterium-sp-strain-4858
#3
Amar Bouam, Anthony Levasseur, Maryline Bonnet, Laurence Borand, Charles Van Goethem, Michel Drancourt, Sylvain Godreuil
Mycobacterium sp. strain 4858 is a nontuberculous mycobacterium isolated from sputum in a Cambodian patient with a pulmonary infection. We report the first complete 5.6-Mbp-long genome sequence of Mycobacterium strain 4858, with 68.24% GC content, carrying 5,255 protein-coding genes, 47 tRNAs, and 3 rRNA genes.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447273/molecular-epidemiology-and-drug-sensitivity-pattern-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-and-around-ambo-town-central-ethiopia
#4
Melaku Tilahun, Gobena Ameni, Kassu Desta, Aboma Zewude, Lawrence Yamuah, Markos Abebe, Abraham Aseffa
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by M. tuberculosis complex and remains a major global public health problem. The epidemic remains a threat to sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia, with further emergence of drug resistant TB. We investigated the drug sensitivity pattern and molecular epidemiology of mycobacterial strains isolated from pulmonary TB patients in and around Ambo town in Oromia Region, Central Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 105 consecutive new smear positive pulmonary TB patients diagnosed at Ambo Hospital and surrounding Health Centers between May 2014 and March 2015 upon informed consent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447204/comparison-of-viral-infection-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-hcap-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-cap
#5
Eun Sun Kim, Kyoung Un Park, Sang Hoon Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jong Sun Park, Young-Jae Cho, Ho Il Yoon, Choon-Taek Lee, Jae Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Although viruses are known to be the second most common etiological factor in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the respiratory viral profile of the patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has not yet been elucidated. We investigated the prevalence and the clinical impact of respiratory virus infection in adult patients with HCAP. METHODS: Patients admitted with HCAP or CAP, between January and December 2016, to a tertiary referral hospital in Korea, were prospectively enrolled, and virus identification was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446377/therapeutic-effects-of-a-long-acting-cholinergic-receptor-blocker-tiotropium-bromide-on-asthma
#6
Li Zhang, Guangyin Huang, Long Jin, Shuhua Han
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of tiotropium bromide on asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 patients with moderate persistent asthma were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=40): the 3 control groups were given fluticasone propionate aerosol (group A), salmeterol-fluticasone propionate inhalant (group B), and tiotropium bromide inhalation powder combined with salmeterol-fluticasone propionate inhalant (group C), respectively, and the experimental group received tiotropium bromide inhalation powder combined with fluticasone propionate aerosol (group D) and salbutamol was used to relieve symptoms when necessary...
February 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444915/predictors-of-accelerated-decline-in-lung-function-in-adult-onset-asthma
#7
Hanneke Coumou, Guus A Westerhof, Selma B de Nijs, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Elisabeth H Bel
Little is known about the prognosis of adults with new-onset asthma. Cross-sectional studies suggest that these patients may exhibit accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ). However, risk factors for accelerated decline in lung function have not yet been identified.We aimed to identify these risk factors in a prospective 5-year follow-up study in 200 adults with newly diagnosed asthma. In the current study, clinical, functional and inflammatory parameters were assessed annually for 5 years...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444834/accuracy-of-high-throughput-nanofluidic-pcr-based-pneumococcal-serotyping-and-quantification-assays-using-sputum-samples-for-diagnosing-vaccine-serotype-pneumococcal-pneumonia-analyses-by-composite-diagnostic-standards-and-bayesian-latent-class-models
#8
Satoshi Kakiuchi, Motoi Suzuki, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel, Akitsugu Furumoto, Hiroyuki Ito, Kei Matsuki, Yoshiko Tsuchihashi, Norichika Asoh, Michio Yasunami, Koya Ariyoshi, Konosuke Morimoto
The lack of reliable diagnostic tests for detecting vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia (VTPP) remains a challenging issue in pneumococcal vaccine studies. This study assessed the performances of high-throughput nanofluidic PCR-based pneumococcal serotyping and quantification assay methods using sputum samples (nanofluidic Sp-qPCR) to diagnose the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate VTPP compared with that of the serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (UAD) assay using urine samples. Adult pneumonia patients from Japan were enrolled in this study between September 2012 and August 2014...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444773/lung-function-inflammation-and-endothelin-1-in-congenital-heart-disease-associated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#9
Andrew Low, Sarah George, Luke Howard, Nicholas Bell, Ann Millar, Robert M R Tulloh
BACKGROUND: Breathlessness is the most common symptom in people with pulmonary arterial hypertension and congenital heart disease (CHD-APAH), previously thought to be caused by worsening PAH, but perhaps also by inflammation and abnormalities of lung function. We studied lung function and airway inflammation in patients with CHD-APAH and compared the results with controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty people were recruited into the study: 20 CHD-APAH, 20 CHD controls, and 20 healthy controls...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444656/implementation-of-a-successful-eradication-protocol-for-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#10
Bryan A Garcia, Jacque L Carden, Dana L Goodwin, Tim A Smith, Amit Gaggar, Kevin Leon, Veena B Antony, Steven M Rowe, George M Solomon
BACKGROUND: Infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) results in a heterogeneous clinical course ranging from asymptomatic colonization of the airways to fulminant respiratory failure in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Early eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa improves clinical outcomes. The efficacy and clinical outcomes following implementation of an eradication protocol for Bcc are less well understood. METHODS: We developed and implemented a single center Bcc eradication protocol that included an intensive combination of intravenous, inhaled, and oral antibiotic therapies based on in vitro sensitivities...
February 14, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443104/absorption-of-nasal-and-bronchial-fluids-precision-sampling-of-the-human-respiratory-mucosa-and-laboratory-processing-of-samples
#11
Ryan S Thwaites, Hannah C Jarvis, Nehmat Singh, Akhilesh Jha, Andy Pritchard, Hailing Fan, Tanushree Tunstall, Joan Nanan, Simon Nadel, Onn Min Kon, Peter J Openshaw, Trevor T Hansel
The methods of nasal absorption (NA) and bronchial absorption (BA) use synthetic absorptive matrices (SAM) to absorb the mucosal lining fluid (MLF) of the human respiratory tract. NA is a non-invasive technique which absorbs fluid from the inferior turbinate, and causes minimal discomfort. NA has yielded reproducible results with the ability to frequently repeat sampling of the upper airway. By comparison, alternative methods of sampling the respiratory mucosa, such as nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) and conventional swabbing, are more invasive and may result in greater data variability...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438536/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#12
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438413/spatial-overlap-links-seemingly-unconnected-genotype-matched-tb-cases-in-rural-uganda
#13
Gabriel Chamie, Midori Kato-Maeda, Devy M Emperador, Bonnie Wandera, Olive Mugagga, John Crandall, Michael Janes, Carina Marquez, Moses R Kamya, Edwin D Charlebois, Diane V Havlir
INTRODUCTION: Incomplete understanding of TB transmission dynamics in high HIV prevalence settings remains an obstacle for prevention. Understanding where transmission occurs could provide a platform for case finding and interrupting transmission. METHODS: From 2012-2015, we sought to recruit all adults starting TB treatment in a Ugandan community. Participants underwent household (HH) contact investigation, and provided names of social contacts, sites of work, healthcare and socializing, and two sputum samples...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437466/gene-promoter-hypermethylation-detected-in-sputum-predicts-fev1-decline-and-all-cause-mortality-in-smokers
#14
Shuguang Leng, Brenda Diergaarde, Maria A Picchi, David O Wilson, Frank D Gilliland, Jian-Min Yuan, Jill M Siegfried, Steven A Belinsky
RATIONALE: Gene promoter hypermethylation detected in sputum assesses the extent of field cancerization and predicts lung cancer (LC) risk in ever smokers. A rapid decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is a major driver for development of airway obstruction. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of methylation of 12 genes on FEV1 decline and of FEV1 decline on subsequent LC incidence using two independent, longitudinal cohorts (i.e., Lovelace Smokers cohort [LSC] and Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study [PLuSS])...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436839/enhancing-the-spreading-behavior-on-pulmonary-mucus-mimicking-subphase-via-catanionic-surfactant-solutions-towards-effective-drug-delivery-through-the-lungs
#15
Gokce Alp, Nihal Aydogan
Effective and efficient spreading of drug formulations on the pulmonary mucosal layer is key to successful delivery of therapeutics through the lungs. Pulmonary mucus layer, which covers the airway surface, acts as a barrier against therapeutic agents, especially in the case of chronic lung diseases due to increased thickness and viscosity of mucus. Therefore, spreading of the drug formulations on the airways gets harder. Although spreading experiments have been conducted with different types of formulations on mucus-mimicking subphases, a highly effective formulation is yet to be discovered...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436153/advanced-imaging-technology-applications-in-cytology
#16
Liron Pantanowitz, Frederic Preffer, David C Wilbur
Novel techniques have been developed to image cells at cellular and subcellular levels. They allow images to be analyzed with ultra-high resolution, in 2D and/or 3D. Several of these tools have been tested on cytology specimens demonstrating emerging applications that are likely to change the field of cytopathology. This review covers several of these advanced imaging methods. The use of optical coherence tomography to perform optical biopsies during endoscopic ultrasound procedures or visualize cells within effusion samples is discussed...
February 12, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434763/correlation-between-upper-and-lower-airway-inflammations-in-patients-with-combined-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma-syndrome-a-comparison-of-patients-initially-presenting-with-allergic-rhinitis-and-those-initially-presenting-with-asthma
#17
Shu Xia, Zheng Zhu, Wei-Jie Guan, Yan-Qing Xie, Jia-Ying An, Tao Peng, Rong-Chang Chen, Jin-Ping Zheng
Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often coexist. The terminology combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS) was introduced to describe patients with combined AR and asthma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between eosinophilic inflammation in the upper and lower airways of patients with CARAS. Stable patients with CARAS initially presenting with AR or asthma were recruited. Healthy subjects and patients with AR alone were recruited as controls. Clinical characteristics, including disease history, lung function, nasal airway inspiratory resistance and upper and lower airway eosinophilic inflammation were evaluated and compared...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434649/occupational-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-in-police-officers-no-evidence-for-adverse-respiratory-effects
#18
G Jordakieva, I Grabovac, E Valic, K E Schmidt, A Graff, A Schuster, K Hoffmann-Sommergruber, C Oberhuber, O Scheiner, A Goll, J Godnic-Cvar
Background: Inhalation exposure to fine and ultrafine particles (UFPs) has been associated with respiratory diseases. However, little is known on the quality, threshold levels and concentration of these particles causing adverse health effects. Methods: The impact of occupational exposure to submicrometer and UFPs was assessed in 30 healthy police shooting instructors by clinical investigation, self-assessment questionnaire, sputum and spirometry and compared to a control group...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430175/the-ykl-40-protein-is-a-potential-biomarker-for-copd-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#19
Xiang Tong, Dongguang Wang, Sitong Liu, Yao Ma, Zhenzhen Li, Panwen Tian, Hong Fan
Background: Many studies have found that YKL-40 may play an important pathogenic role in COPD. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of YKL-40 in COPD. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in many database and commercial internet search engines to identify studies involving the role of YKL-40 in patients with COPD. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and Fisher's Z-value with its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to investigate the effect sizes...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429458/-burkholderia-cepacia-infection-in-children-a-clinical-analysis-of-16-cases
#20
Fang Peng, Li-Li Zhong, Xiao-Juan Lin, Min Chen, Miao Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution characteristics and clinical features of Burkholderia cepacia infection in children. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 16 children with Burkholderia cepacia infection who were hospitalized between June 2012 and September 2017. RESULTS: All 16 children with Burkholderia cepacia infection were sporadic cases. A total of 16 strains of Burkholderia cepacia were isolated, among which 8 were detected by sputum culture, 5 were detected by blood culture, 2 were detected by tracheal intubation tip culture, and 1 was detected by lung biopsy culture...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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