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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228273/direct-detection-of-exophiala-and-scedosporium-species-in-sputa-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Min Chen, Nahid Kondori, Shuwen Deng, A H G Gerrits van den Ende, M Lackner, Wanqing Liao, G S de Hoog
Detection of species of Exophiala and Scedosporium in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients remains controversial because of highly variable results. The results of our study suggested a significantly higher prevalence and more complex colonization than previously estimated. Approximately 17% (27/162) of clinical sputum samples were found to be positive for Exophiala dermatitidis and 30% (49/162) were positive for Scedosporium apiospermum / S. boydii species complex determined by reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228063/what-matters-in-chronic-burkholderia-cenocepacia-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#2
Jaroslav Nunvar, Vaclav Capek, Karel Fiser, Libor Fila, Pavel Drevinek
Burkholderia cenocepacia causes severe pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Since the bacterium is virtually untreatable by antibiotics, chronic infections persist for years and might develop into fatal septic pneumonia (cepacia syndrome, CS). To devise new strategies to combat chronic B. cenocepacia infections, it is essential to obtain comprehensive knowledge about their pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative genomic analysis of 32 Czech isolates of epidemic clone B. cenocepacia ST32 isolated from various stages of chronic infection in 8 CF patients...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227262/-combined-course-of-bronchial-asthma-and-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-its-clinical-functional-peculiarities-and-mechanisms-of-its-correction
#3
M Derbak, O Boldizhar, Ye Sirchak, Ya Lazur, M Aleksandrova
The combined course of bronchial asthma (BA) and digestive system pathology is one of the most frequent, severe and clinically varied pathology. The purpose of the paper - to study the influence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on the course of BA and the effectiveness of antireflux therapy in combined pathology. Patients with combined pathology were treated in full-time department more frequently than patients with isolated BA (3,4±0,5 per year to - 1,8±0,3; р<0,05). The statistically reliable correlation between frequency of heartburn and frequency of cough, which goes over to asthma attacks was observed (r=0,59; р<0,05)...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227188/clinical-strains-of-chryseobacterium-and-elizabethkingia-spp-isolated-from-pediatric-patients-in-a-university-hospital-performance-of-maldi-tof-ms-based-identification-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-baseline-patient-characteristics
#4
Hasan Cenk Mirza, Özlem Tuncer, Serpil Ölmez, Burçin Şener, Gökçen Dilşa Tuğcu, Uğur Özçelik, Nafia Canan Gürsoy, Barış Otlu, Ayşe Büyükçam, Ateş Kara, Banu Sancak
Our objective was to evaluate the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of the Chryseobacterium and Elizabethkingia spp. isolated from pediatric patients at Hacettepe University Hospital using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as the gold standard and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates and baseline characteristics of patients. All stored Chryseobacterium and Elizabethkingia spp. isolated from various clinical specimens (sputum, blood, and urine) of pediatric patients at Hacettepe University Hospital between 2012 and 2016 were included in this study...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226216/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-tuberculosis-in-prisons-settings-of-east-gojjam-zone-northwest-ethiopia
#5
Mucheye Gizachew Beza, Emirie Hunegnaw, Moges Tiruneh
Background: Tuberculosis, mainly in prisoners, is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where there is no medical screening during prison admission. This creates scarcity of TB data in such settings. Objective: To determine prevalence and associated factors of TB in prisons in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2016 among 265 prisoners in three prison sites. Sputum was processed using GeneXpert MTB/RIF...
2017: International Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226096/feasibility-of-two-active-case-finding-approaches-for-detection-of-tuberculosis-in-bandung-city-indonesia
#6
S McAllister, B Wiem Lestari, B Sujatmiko, A Siregar, E D Sihaloho, D Fathania, N F Dewi, R C Koesoemadinata, P C Hill, B Alisjahbana
Setting: A community health clinic catchment area in the eastern part of Bandung City, Indonesia. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of two different screening interventions using community health workers (CHWs) in detecting tuberculosis (TB) cases. Design: This was a feasibility study of 1) house-to-house TB symptom screening of five randomly selected 'neighbourhoods' in the catchment area, and 2) selected screening of household contacts of TB index patients and their neighbouring households. Acceptability was assessed through focus group discussions with key stakeholders...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224833/hemostasis-and-lipoprotein-indices-signify-exacerbated-lung-injury-in-tuberculosis-with-diabetes-comorbidity
#7
Zhengwei Dong, Jingyun Shi, Anca Dorhoi, Jie Zhang, Adiilah K Soodeen-Lalloo, Wenlin Chen, Hongyun Yin, Wei Sha, Weitong Li, Ruijuan Zheng, Zhonghua Liu, Hua Yang, Lianhua Qin, Jie Wang, Xiaochen Huang, Chunyan Wu, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Yonghong Feng
BACKGROUND: Exacerbated immunopathology is a frequent consequence of tuberculosis (TB) that is complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM), yet the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined. METHODS: In the two groups of age- and gender-matched TB patients with (DM-TB) and without DM (NDM-TB), we microscopically evaluated the areas of caseous necrosis and graded the extent of perinecrotic fibrosis in lung biopsies from the sputum smear-negative (SN) patients. We scored acid-fast bacilli in smear-positive (SP) patients and compiled computed tomography data from both SN-TB and SP-TB patients...
December 7, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224300/-etiological-analysis-and-establishment-of-a-discriminant-model-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hospitalized-patients
#8
Y S Chen, X H Lin, H R Li, Z D Hua, M Q Lin, W S Huang, T Yu, H Y Lyu, W P Mao, Y Q Liang, X R Peng, S J Chen, H Zheng, S Q Lian, X L Hu, X Q Yao
Objective: To analyze the pathogens of lower respiratory tract infection(LRTI) including bacterial, viral and mixed infection, and to establish a discriminant model based on clinical features in order to predict the pathogens. Methods: A total of 243 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in Fujian Provincial Hospital from April 2012 to September 2015. The clinical data and airway (sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage) samples were collected. Microbes were identified by traditional culture (for bacteria), loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) and gene sequencing (for bacteria and atypical pathogen), or Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)for viruses...
December 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224299/-correlation-analysis-of-serum-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-5-levels-with-airway-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#9
G Y Li, S J Yin, Y Liu, H Li, S Song, Z B Kong, C Zuo, H Liu, Z Zhu
Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum secreted frizzled-related protein 5(sfrp5) levels, insulin resistance, and airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Method: A total of 178 COPD patients visiting our respiratory outpatient clinic from February 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled, and 99 healthy control subjects from the same time period were selected. Serum sfrp5 levels were compared between the 2 groups. Serum sfrp5 and inflammatory cytokines in induced sputum were observed in the 4 subgroups: insulin resistant COPD group [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)≥2...
December 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223274/a-woman-in-her-60s-with-lung-adenocarcinoma-presents-with-copious-watery-sputum-and-respiratory-failure
#10
Nicole L Roeder, Jeffrey D Marshall, Clemente J Britto
A woman in her 60s presented with 1 month of progressive dyspnea, watery rhinorrhea, and paroxysmal cough productive of clear, watery sputum. She was diagnosed with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma at another institution 1 week prior to presentation and 3 weeks after the onset of symptoms. She was a never-smoker. She denied fevers and had completed a course of antibiotics for presumed pneumonia, without clinical improvement. She presented to the hospital due to increasing severity of her shortness of breath...
December 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221918/low-variability-in-peak-expiratory-flow-predicts-successful-inhaled-corticosteroid-step-down-in-adults-with-asthma
#11
Naomi Tsurikisawa, Chiyako Oshikata, Toshio Sato, Goro Kimura, Masami Mizuki, Takahiro Tsuburai, Shunsuke Shoji, Hiroshi Saito, Terufumi Shimoda
BACKGROUND: The prognosis for patients beyond 1 year after reduction of their inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose remains unknown. Predictive factors that can be evaluated before the initiation of asthma treatment or at ICS dose reduction are unknown. METHODS: We prospectively studied 223 patients in 6 hospitals in the National Hospital Organization of Japan during the 36 months after 50% reduction of their daily ICS dose. All patients recorded their morning and evening peak expiratory flows (PEFs) in their diaries...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221755/unilateral-brachial-plexopathy-a-rare-complication-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#12
Barbara Robnik, Darja Keše, Tereza Rojko, Alenka Horvat-Ledinek, Aleš Pražnikar, Bojana Beović
Few reports in the literature describe isolated peripheral neuropathies in relation to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without concurrent damage to the central nervous system. To our knowledge only a single case of mononeuritis multiplex with brachial plexus neuropathy coincident with M. pneumoniae has been documented until now. Here we present the first clinical case of lobar M. pneumoniae pneumonia in a 19-year-old female patient, where coincident neurological complications manifested as unilateral brachial plexus neuropathy, affecting axillar and suprascapular nerves...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221714/changes-in-regulatory-b-cell-levels-in-bone-marrow-blood-and-sputum-of-asthmatics-following-inhaled-allergen-challenge
#13
John-Paul Oliveria, Amani I El-Gammal, Michelle Yee, Caitlin D Obminski, Tara X Scime, Rick M Watson, Karen Howie, Paul M O'Byrne, Roma Sehmi, Gail M Gauvreau
Following allergen exposure in the airways of subjects with allergic asthma, Bregs appear to efflux from the bone marrow and accumulate in the lungs with a possible role in dampening local inflammatory responses.
December 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221643/respiratory-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-walking-down-a-traffic-polluted-road-compared-with-walking-in-a-traffic-free-area-in-participants-aged-60-years-and-older-with-chronic-lung-or-heart-disease-and-age-matched-healthy-controls-a-randomised-crossover
#14
Rudy Sinharay, Jicheng Gong, Benjamin Barratt, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Sabine Ernst, Frank Kelly, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Peter Collins, Paul Cullinan, Kian Fan Chung
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults...
December 5, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221581/biomarkers-for-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#15
REVIEW
Steven W Yancey, Oliver N Keene, Frank C Albers, Hector Ortega, Stewart Bates, Eugene R Bleecker, Ian Pavord
The last decade has seen the approval of several new biologics for the treatment of severe asthma-targeting specific endotypes and phenotypes. This review will examine how evidence generated from the mepolizumab clinical development program showed that blood eosinophil counts, rather than sputum or tissue eosinophil counts, evolved as a pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarker for the efficacy of treatment with mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Based on the available evidence and combined with clinical judgement, a baseline blood eosinophil threshold of 150 cells/μL or greater or a historical blood eosinophil threshold of 300 cells/μL or greater will allow selection of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma who are most likely to achieve clinically significant reductions in the rate of exacerbations with mepolizumab treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221270/analysis-of-the-clinical-differentiation-of-pulmonary-sclerosing-pneumocytoma-and-lung-cancer
#16
Jun Zhu
Background: Pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma (PSP) is a rare benign lung tumor. This study investigated the diagnostic experience of PSP and lung cancer. Methods: This study is a retrospective study. We observed the locations of lung lesions, imaging form and clinical symptoms, and recorded the surgical complications through comparing patients with PSP and lung cancer. Results: From December 2012 to February 2017, 187 PSP cases and 197 lung cancer cases were collected...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217950/agreement-between-direct-fluorescent-microscopy-and-ziehl-neelsen-concentration-techniques-in-detection-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-northwest-ethiopia
#17
Meseret Workineh, Mandie Maru, Ibrahim Seman, Ziyadu Bezu, Markos Negash, Mulugeta Melku, Addisu Gize, Agumas Shibabaw
Background: The sensitivity of smear microscopy for diagnosis of tuberculosis might be improved through treatment of sputum with sodium hypochlorite and application of fluorescent microscopy. This study aimed to determine the agreement between direct Fluorescent Microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen concentration technique by their ability of detecting acid fast bacilli in resource poor settings. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216262/direct-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rifampin-resistance-in-bio-safe-stained-sputum-smears
#18
Surabhi Lavania, Divya Anthwal, Manpreet Bhalla, Nagendra Singh, Sagarika Haldar, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi
Direct smear microscopy of sputum forms the mainstay of TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Stained sputum smear slides can serve as a ready-made resource to transport sputum for molecular drug susceptibility testing. However, bio-safety is a major concern during transport of sputum/stained slides and for laboratory workers engaged in processing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected sputum specimens. In this study, a bio-safe USP (Universal Sample Processing) concentration-based sputum processing method (Bio-safe method) was assessed on 87 M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215824/pulmonary-histoplasmosis-identified-by-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-vats-biopsy-a-case-report
#19
Ye Jin Lee, Hye Rin Kang, Jin Hwa Song, Sooim Sin, Sang Min Lee
Histoplasmosis is a common endemic mycosis in North, Central, and South America, but Korea is not known as an endemic area. We treated an immunocompetent Korean patient who had histoplasmosis. A 65-year-old Korean man presented with multiple pulmonary clumps of tiny nodules in the both lungs. He had been diagnosed 40 years earlier with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and a fungus ball had been diagnosed 4 years earlier. He denied any history of overseas travel. The patient visited our hospital with dyspnea, blood-tinged sputum, and weight loss, which had appeared 2 months earlier...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215188/pcr-test-in-induced-sputum-of-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#20
Verônica da Silva Paiva, Fernanda Luiza Staub, Dirceu Felipe Valentini, Regina Bones Barcellos, Karen Barros Schmid, Elis Regina Dalla Costa, Maria Lucia Rosa Rossetti, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Denise Rossato Silva
INTRODUCTION: Induced sputum (IS) is an alternative method of obtaining sputum, but IS smears are frequently negative. Culture is more time-consuming in its results, and less useful to guide the diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most common methodology for rapid diagnosis of TB, and few studies evaluated its role in IS samples. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic yield of PCR for TB compared with culture in IS samples...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
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