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Vigneshwaran Mani, Bhairav Paleja, Karima Larbi, Pavanish Kumar, Jo Ann Tay, Jie Yee Siew, Fatih Inci, ShuQi Wang, Cynthia Chee, Yee Tang Wang, Utkan Demirci, Gennaro De Libero, Amit Singhal
Access to point-of-care (POC), rapid, inexpensive, sensitive, and instrument-free tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge. Here, we report a simple and low-cost microchip-based TB ELISA (MTBE) platform for the detection of anti-mycobacterial IgG in plasma samples in less than 15 minutes. The MTBE employs a flow-less, magnet-actuated, bead-based ELISA for simultaneous detection of IgG responses against multiple mycobacterial antigens. Anti-trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) IgG responses were the strongest predictor for differentiating active tuberculosis (ATB) from healthy controls (HC) and latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI)...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
J González-Nava, K Sánchez-Herrera, N Ramírez-Durán, H Sandoval
Nocardia species are aerobic, Gram-positive bacteria with branched filaments reported as opportunistic microorganisms associated with infectious diseases of the skin. We report the isolation of N. wallacei in Mexico from a 43-year-old man, an HIV-positive construction worker who sought care for difficulty breathing and abundant sputum.
November 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
Diane Lefaudeux, Bertrand De Meulder, Matthew J Loza, Nancy Peffer, Anthony Rowe, Frédéric Baribaud, Aruna T Bansal, Rene Lutter, Ana R Sousa, Julie Corfield, Ioannis Pandis, Per S Bakke, Massimo Caruso, Pascal Chanez, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Louise J Fleming, Stephen J Fowler, Ildiko Horvath, Norbert Krug, Paolo Montuschi, Marek Sanak, Thomas Sandstrom, Dominic E Shaw, Florian Singer, Peter J Sterk, Graham Roberts, Ian M Adcock, Ratko Djukanovic, Charles Auffray, Kian F Chung
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which there is a differential response to asthma treatments. This heterogeneity needs to be evaluated so that a personalised management approach can be provided. OBJECTIVES: We stratified patients with moderate-to-severe asthma based on clinico-physiological parameters and performed an -omics analysis of sputum. METHODS: Partition-around-medoid clustering was applied to a training set of 266 asthma participants from the European U-BIOPRED adult cohort using 8 pre-specified clinic-physiological variables...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
M A Tazón-Varela, H Alonso-Valle, P Muñoz-Cacho, J Gallo-Terán, X Piris-García, L A Pérez-Mier
INTRODUCTION: Knowing the most common microorganisms in our environment can help us to make proper empirical treatment decisions. The aim is to identify those microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational, descriptive and prospective study was conducted, including patients over 14 years with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia during a 383 consecutive day period. A record was made of sociodemographic variables, personal history, prognostic severity scales, progress, and pathogenic agents...
October 20, 2016: Semergen
Helen L Barr, Nigel Halliday, David A Barrett, Paul Williams, Douglas L Forrester, Daniel Peckham, Kate Williams, Alan R Smyth, David Honeybourne, Joanna L Whitehouse, Edward F Nash, Jane Dewar, Andrew Clayton, Alan J Knox, Miguel Cámara, Andrew W Fogarty
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection is associated with poor outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) and early diagnosis is challenging, particularly in those who are unable to expectorate sputum. Specific P. aeruginosa 2-alkyl-4-quinolones are detectable in the sputum, plasma and urine of adults with CF, suggesting that they have potential as biomarkers for P. aeruginosa infection. AIM: To investigate systemic 2-alkyl-4-quinolones as potential biomarkers for pulmonary P...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Tomoshi Sugiyama, Koji Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Usami, Kohei Yokoi
We herein describe a surgical case of pulmonary involvement in Takayasu's arteritis with pulmonary infections of nontuberculous mycobacteria. A 24-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of a recurrent fever, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest revealed the occlusion of the right pulmonary artery and cavitary lesions in the right lower lobe of the lung. A further examination of the neck revealed the occlusion of aortic branches, and the patient was diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis...
October 21, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Michael G Wolfe, Qiang Zhang, Christy Hui, Katherine Radford, Parameswaran Nair, John D Brennan
With over 4.8 million Canadians suffering from chronic airway diseases, respiratory exacerbations are currently the leading cause of hospitalization in Canada. In cases of bacterial infection, neutrophil cell density increases from ∼10 million cells per gram to over 15 million cells per gram. As sputum is a direct discharge from the primarily affected areas of respiratory diseases, quantification of granulocytes (including neutrophils) can be used to effectively determine a course of patient treatment. Unfortunately this quantification is currently limited to labour-intensive and time-consuming cell counts...
October 21, 2016: Analyst
Madhukar Pai, Mark P Nicol, Catharina C Boehme
Rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for timely initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment, but many people with TB (or TB symptoms) do not have access to adequate initial diagnosis. In many countries, TB diagnosis is still reliant on sputum microscopy, a test with known limitations. However, new diagnostics are starting to change the landscape. Stimulated, in part, by the success and rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated, molecular test, there is now considerable interest in new technologies. The landscape looks promising with a pipeline of new tools, particularly molecular diagnostics, and well over 50 companies actively engaged in product development, and many tests have been reviewed by WHO for policy endorsement...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
K Nakamura, M Kobayashi, N Yamamoto, K Tokuda, S Miura, Y Abe, J Kashiwazaki, T Aoyagi, M Kaku, K Kanemitsu
BACKGROUND: Sixteen pertussis cases in haemodialysis patients and healthcare workers were detected in a 25-bed outpatient haemodialysis facility in Japan between October 2013 and April 2014. AIM: To describe an outbreak of pertussis among patients and healthcare workers, and to identify risk factors for pertussis infection. METHODS: Sputum cultures, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays performed on nasopharyngeal swabs to detect respiratory pathogens including Bordetella pertussis, and serum anti-pertussis toxin immunoglobulin G measurements were performed for all haemodialysis patients and healthcare workers...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Y Liang, J Wang, C Chang, T Amannisa, Y C Sun, B He, W Z Yao
Objective: To analysis the correlative factors that probably affect serum leptin levels in asthmatic patients. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with asthma and 29 health controls who were admitted into outpatient clinic of Peking University Third Hospital from April 2014 to December 2015 were consecutively enrolled in our study prospectively. Serum leptin level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sex, body mass index (BMI), onset age of asthma, allergen detection test, induced sputum cell count and classification, lung function test and asthma control level were recorded...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Katarzyna Górska, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Małgorzata Proboszcz, Rafał Krenke
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) seems a promising asthma biomarker. In earlier studies, mainly the serum concentration of TSLP was investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare the TSLP concentration measured by two different ELISA kits in the serum, induced sputum, and exhaled breath condensate in asthma, COPD, and control subjects. The study included 24 asthmatics, 36 patients with COPD, and 12 controls. TSLP concentration was measured with the use of R&D and EIAab commercial ELISA kits. The results obtained with the EIAab kit were 3 to even 45-fold higher than those measured with the R&D kit...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jing Gao, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Jukka Koskela, Harri Alenius, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno, Tarja Laitinen, Witold Mazur, Ville Pulkkinen
Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a commonly encountered chronic airway disease. However, ACOS is still a consensus-based clinical phenotype and the underlying inflammatory mechanisms are inadequately characterized. To clarify the inflammatory mediatypical for ACOS, five biomarkers, namely interleukin (IL)-13, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), chitinase-like protein (YKL-40), and IL-6, were selected. This study hypothesized that sputum biomarkers relevant for airway inflammation in asthma (IL-13), COPD (MPO, NGAL), or in both asthma and COPD (YKL-40, IL-6) could be used to differentiate ACOS from COPD and asthma...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Stevens M B Kisaka, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Simon Kasasa, Francis Ocen, Joan Nankya-Mutyoba
BACKGROUND: Most tuberculosis (TB) case management guidelines emphasize microbiological cure as treatment goal without highlighting quality of life outcomes. This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and related factors in the pre-treatment, intensive and continuation phases of anti-TB therapy among sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients in Mbale region, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Version 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Glennah Kerubo, Evans Amukoye, Stefan Niemann, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance is an emerging health problem in Kenya and especially in slums. Slum environments create a conducive environment for the spread of tuberculosis (TB) due to high population density and lack of basic amenities such as decent housing, access to clean water, lack of drainage and basic sanitation. Furthermore, ineffective health services in crowded and poorer populations, poor patient compliance, a large pool of untreated cases, delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment regimens are likely to favour selection and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains in such settings, however, precise data on this problem are only sparsely available...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yu Huang, Qingqing Wu, Shuiyang Xu, Jieming Zhong, Songhua Chen, Jinghang Xu, Liping Zhu, Haibo He, Xiaomeng Wang
With 25% of the global burden, China has the highest incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the world. However, surveillance data on extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) from China are scant. To estimate the prevalence of XDR-TB in Zhejiang, Eastern China, 30 of 90 TB treatment centers in Zhejiang were recruited. Patients with suspected TB who reported to the clinics for diagnosis were requested to undergo a smear sputum test. Positive sputum samples were tested for drug susceptibility. Data on anti-TB drug resistance from 1999 to 2008 were also collected to assess drug resistance trends...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Zhijie Pan, Rong Liu, Pei Zhang, Hua Zhou, Yiqi Fu, Jianying Zhou
Raoultella planticola is a gram-negative bacterium that rarely causes diseases in humans. Here, we present a case of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by R. planticola that likely originated in the gastrointestinal tract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report describing the detection of the gene New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) in multidrug-resistant R. planticola. Clinical samples were collected for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing from a patient during hospitalization...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Benny Feng, Patricia Tang, Sharon Shui Yee Leung, Jayesh Dhanani, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients commonly suffer from ventilator-associated pneumonia, hypoxemia, and other lower respiratory tract infection as a result of pathogen colonization and poor sputum clearance. Consequently, there is a high rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Dry powder mannitol increases sputum clearance, and therefore, we developed a system to administer it to mechanically ventilated patients without disconnection from the ventilator. METHODS: The inspiratory line from a ventilator was split by using a three-way valve into two parallel lines where one contains a humidifier for normal breathing cycle and the other line contains a dry powder inhaler (Osmohaler™)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Zully M Puyén, Joshi Acosta, George Obregon, Edson Pacheco, Hada Ramirez, Alberto Mendoza, Diana Marín, Anthony D Harries
Objective To determine the use and performance of a line probe assay (LPA) compared with conventional culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) in patients registered with tuberculosis (TB) under routine program conditions in Peru in 2011-2013. Methods This was a descriptive, operational research, cross-sectional study of sputum specimens from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB and mycobacterial cultures from patients with smear-negative or positive TB. Drug resistance to rifampicin and/or isoniazid detected by LPA was compared to CDST...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
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