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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105096/nocardiosis-in-ectopic-acth-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-11-cases-from-the-literature
#1
Lichen Xu, Qiaomai Xu, Meifang Yang, Hainv Gao, Mingzhi Xu, Weihang Ma
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome (EAS) associated with nocardiosis is rare, and little information is available regarding its clinical characteristics. In this study, the case of a 35-year-old male patient who showed significant cushingoid features and had a cough with yellow phlegm for 1 month is described. Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scanning and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with CT identified two different lesions in the mediastinum and pulmonary region, respectively...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104186/effects-of-bidi-smoking-on-all-cause-mortality-and-cardiorespiratory-outcomes-in-men-from-south-asia-an-observational-community-based-substudy-of-the-prospective-urban-rural-epidemiology-study-pure
#2
MyLinh Duong, Sumathy Rangarajan, Xiaohe Zhang, Kieran Killian, Prem Mony, Sumathi Swaminathan, Ankalmadagu Venkatsubbareddy Bharathi, Sanjeev Nair, Krishnapillai Vijayakumar, Indu Mohan, Rajeev Gupta, Deepa Mohan, Shanthi Rani, Viswanathan Mohan, Romaina Iqbal, Khawar Kazmi, Omar Rahman, Rita Yusuf, Lakshmi Venkata Maha Pinnaka, Rajesh Kumar, Paul O'Byrne, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: Bidis are minimally regulated, inexpensive, hand-rolled tobacco products smoked in south Asia. We examined the effects of bidi smoking on baseline respiratory impairment, and prospectively collected data for all-cause mortality and cardiorespiratory events in men from this region. METHODS: This substudy of the international, community-based Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study was done in seven centres in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103180/fluoroquinolone-macrolide-and-ketolide-resistance-in-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-from-south-africa
#3
Regina Esinam Abotsi, Usha Govinden, Krishnee Moodley, Sabiha Essack
Fluoroquinolones and ketolides are among the drugs of choice for the treatment of Haemophilus parainfluenzae infections. There has been a report of an emerging fluoroquinolone and telithromycin resistance in H. parainfluenzae isolates from the private sector of KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa that necessitates molecular investigation. The aim of this study is to characterize these resistance delineating mutations in genes commonly associated with reduced susceptibility. Ten H. parainfluenzae isolates retrieved from the sputum of 10 patients with H...
January 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102063/sputum-inflammatory-mediators-are-increased-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-culture-positive-asthmatics
#4
Michael A Ghebre, Dhananjay Desai, Amisha Singapuri, Joanne Woods, Laura Rapley, Suzanne Cohen, Athula Herath, Andrew J Wardlaw, Catherine H Pashley, Richard May, Chris E Brightling
Aspergillus fumigatus sensitization and culture in asthma are associated with disease severity and lung function impairment, but their relationship with airway inflammation is poorly understood. We investigated the profile of 24 sputum inflammatory mediators in A. fumigatus culture-positive or-negative moderate-to-severe asthmatics. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from a single center. A. fumigatus was cultured from 19 asthmatics. Asthma control, symptom score, lung function, and sputum cell count were not significantly different between the asthmatics with and without a positive A...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101187/severe-pneumonia-due-to-infection-with-candida-krusei-in-a-case-of-suspected-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Mingming Tan, Junwei Wang, Peiyang Hu, Bin Wang, Wanghua Xu, Jiao Chen
Candida krusei (C. krusei) pneumonia is a rare infection that is frequently associated with a poor outcome. The present study reports an unusual case of C. krusei pneumonia that was initially suspected to be a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) case. A 64-year-old Saudi Arabian male patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of cough and dyspnea that persisted for 6 days. The patient presented fever (oral temperature, 38.5°C) and slight tachypnea (25 respirations/min). A chest computerized tomography demonstrated unclear lung fields, diffuse pathological changes in the two lungs and multiple lymphadenectasis in the retrocaval and para-aortic arch area...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100602/find-tuberculosis-strain-bank-a-resource-for-researchers-and-developers-working-on-tests-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-related-drug-resistance
#6
Belay Tessema, Pamela Nabeta, Eloise Valli, Audrey Albertini, Jimena Collantes, Nguyen Huu Lan, Elena Romancenco, Nestani Tukavdze, Claudia M Denkinger, David L Dolinger
BACKGROUND: The spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant TB hampers the global efforts in the fight against tuberculosis. To enhance the development and evaluation of diagnostic tests quickly and efficiently, well characterized strains and samples from drug resistant tuberculosis patients are necessary. In this project, FIND has focused on the collection, characterization and storage of such well-characterized reference materials and to make them available to researchers and developers...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100601/the-use-of-selective-fungal-culture-media-increases-detection-rates-of-fungi-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-respiratory-tract
#7
Gina Hong, Heather B Miller, Sarah Allgood, Richard Lee, Noah Lechtzin, Sean X Zhang
The prevalence of fungi in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has risen. However, fungal surveillance is not routinely performed in most clinical centers in the United States, which may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of the problem. We conducted a prospective study comparing fungal detection rates for clinically important fungi (CIF) defined as Aspergillus species, Scedosporium species, Trichosporon species, and Exophiala dermatitidis in CF sputum using standard bacterial culture media and selective-fungal culture media, including Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) with chloramphenicol and gentamicin...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100357/-hemoptysis-in-adults-with-bronchiectasis-correlation-with-disease-severity-and-exacerbation-risk
#8
W J Guan, J J Yuan, Y H Gao, H M Li, N S Zhong, R C Chen
Objective: To investigate the association between hemoptysis and disease severity and risks of acute exacerbations in patients with bronchiectasis. Methods: Between September 2012 and January 2014, we recruited 148 patients (56 males, 92 females, mean age: 44.6 years) with clinically stable bronchiectasis, who were classified into hemoptysis group (36 males, 70 females, mean age: 45.6 years) and non-hemoptysis group (20 males, 22 females, mean age: 41.8 years). We inquired the past history, and evaluated chest imaging characteristics, lung function, cough sensitivity assessed using capsaicin cough challenge tests, and airway inflammation...
January 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100191/diagnostic-dilemma-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-adults-with-severe-mental-illness-in-beijing-china
#9
Li Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Qiuli Yan, Jie Lu, Baoyin Gao, Yanlin Zhao, Yu Pang
BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of tuberculosis has decreased significantly over the past decades, the certain populations with mental illness are at increased risk for tuberculosis infection and transmission. However, no studies have examined the performance of different laboratory examination methods among people with severe mental illness in China. METHODS: In this study, we firstly performed a retrospective study to evaluate the feasibility of three routine laboratory methods, including sputum microscopy, solid culture and GeneXpert, to diagnose tuberculosis patients with mental illness...
January 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098168/the-il-17a-rs2275913-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-is-associated-with-protection-to-tuberculosis-but-related-to-higher-disease-severity-in-argentina
#10
A Rolandelli, R E Hernández Del Pino, J M Pellegrini, N L Tateosian, N O Amiano, S de la Barrera, N Casco, M Gutiérrez, D J Palmero, V E García
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes nearly 10 millions of new tuberculosis disease cases annually. However, most individuals exposed to Mtb do not develop tuberculosis, suggesting the influence of a human genetic component. Here, we investigated the association of the rs2275913 SNP (G → A) from IL-17A and tuberculosis in Argentina by a case-control study. Furthermore, we evaluated in vitro the functional relevance of this SNP during the immune response of the host against Mtb and analyzed its impact on clinical parameters of the disease...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095790/comparison-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-and-smear-microscopy-with-culture-for-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-tuberculosis
#11
Baye Gelaw, Yitayal Shiferaw, Marta Alemayehu, Abate Assefa Bashaw
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. Sputum smear microscopy remains the most widely available pulmonary TB diagnostic tool particularly in resource limited settings. A highly sensitive diagnostic with minimal infrastructure, cost and training is required. Hence, we assessed the diagnostic performance of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in detecting M.tuberculosis infection in sputum sample compared to LED fluorescent smear microscopy and culture...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095429/high-rates-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolation-in-mozambican-children-with-presumptive-tuberculosis
#12
Elisa López-Varela, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Orvalho J Augusto, Oscar Fraile, Helder Bulo, Tasmiya Ira, Kizito Gondo, Jakko van Ingen, Denise Naniche, Jahit Sacarlal, Pedro L Alonso
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause disease which can be clinically and radiologically undistinguishable from tuberculosis (TB), posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in high TB settings. We aim to describe the prevalence of NTM isolation and its clinical characteristics in children from rural Mozambique. METHODS: This study was part of a community TB incidence study in children <3 years of age. Gastric aspirate and induced sputum sampling were performed in all presumptive TB cases and processed for smear testing using fluorochrome staining and LED Microscopy, liquid and solid culture, and molecular identification by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095128/safety-and-benefits-of-inhaled-hypertonic-saline-following-airway-challenges-with-endotoxin-and-allergen-in-asthmatics
#13
Neil E Alexis, William D Bennett, David B Peden
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether induced sputum (IS) with hypertonic saline inhalation is safe to use in asthmatics within 24 hours of two commonly used airway challenges, namely endotoxin and dust mite allergen, and to assess whether IS can enhance mucociliary clearance (MCC) rates in asthmatics. METHODS: IS (three 7 minute inhalation periods of 3, 4, 5% hypertonic saline) was employed before (N = 29) and within 24 hours of inhaled challenges with endotoxin (N = 13) and dust mite allergen (N = 12) in a cohort of mild to moderate asthmatics...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090056/suspected-pulmonary-infection-with-trichoderma-longibrachiatum-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Tomoaki Akagi, Chizuko Kawamura, Norio Terasawa, Kohei Yamaguchi, Kohmei Kubo
Aspergillus and Candida species are the main causative agents of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised human hosts. However, saprophytic fungi are now increasingly being recognized as serious pathogens. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has recently been described as an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We herein report a case of isolated suspected invasive pulmonary infection with T. longibrachiatum in a 29-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086955/evaluation-of-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-assay-and-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-namibia
#15
Rooyen T Mavenyengwa, Emma Shaduka, Innocent Maposa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills approximately two million people and infects around nine million worldwide annually. Its proper management, especially in resource-limited settings, has been hindered by the lack of rapid and easy-to-use diagnostic tests. Sputum smear microscopy remains the cheapest, readily available diagnostic method but it only identifies less than half of the patients with a HIV/TB co-infection because the bacilli would have disseminated from the lungs to other areas of the body...
January 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081336/the-factors-affecting-survival-in-patients-with-bronchiectasis
#16
Fatma Çiftçi, Elif Şen, Sevgi Behiye Saryal, Zeynep Pınar Önen, Banu Gülbay, Öznur Yıldız, Turan Acıcan, Gülseren Karabıyıkoğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: There is limited information about the rate and modifiers of mortality in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study enrolled a total of 56 bronchiectasis patients. Patients' body mass index, smoking habit, previous therapies, comorbid disorders, history of vaccination, bronchiectasis type and radiological extent, arterial blood gas analysis, respiratory function tests, and laboratory results were recorded. RESULTS: After a follow-up of 65...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077110/the-first-rib-hypoplasia-and-the-aberrant-pulmonary-artery-branch-detected-by-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-in-a-surgical-case-with-apical-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#17
Yasoo Sugiura, Hiroyuki Fujimoto, Masao Naruke, Toshinori Hashizume, Shizuka Kaseda, Etsuo Nemoto
BACKGROUND: The complete resection is one of the most crucial requirements to achieve favorable outcomes in oncologic surgery. The apex of the lung is surrounded complicatedly by the clavicle, the first rib, the subclavian artery and vein, and the brachial plexus. Therefore, the image information especially about the infiltration of adjacent anatomic structures, facilitates the surgery in the apical lung cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old man presented at our hospital with a computed tomography (CT) scan showing a tumor at the left lung apex that infiltrated the chest wall...
January 11, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077104/effects-of-treadmill-exercise-versus-flutter%C3%A2-on-respiratory-flow-and-sputum-properties-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-trial
#18
Tiffany J Dwyer, Rahizan Zainuldin, Evangelia Daviskas, Peter T P Bye, Jennifer A Alison
BACKGROUND: Treadmill exercise and airway clearance with the Flutter® device have previously been shown to improve mucus clearance mechanisms in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) but have not been compared. It is therefore not known if treadmill exercise is an adequate form of airway clearance that could replace established airway clearance techniques, such as the Flutter®. The aim of this study was to evaluate respiratory flow, sputum properties and subjective responses of treadmill exercise and Flutter® therapy, compared to resting breathing (control)...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076530/factors-associated-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-among-the-elderly
#19
Ana Teresa Fernandes Barbosa, Jair Almeida Carneiro, Gizele Carmen Fagundes Ramos, Maísa Tavares Leite, Antônio Prates Caldeira
This study aimed to identify factors associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) among non-institutionalized elderly people. It involved a cross-sectional study conducted on the basis of a household survey, followed by spirometry. People diagnosed with COPD were compared with those with normal spirometry, through bivariate analysis, followed by multivariate regression analysis. We identified 53 elderly people were identified with COPD. After multivariate analysis, the following factors associated with COPD were identified: past or current smoking (OR: 3...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076011/pulmonary-tuberculosis-role-of-radiology-in-diagnosis-and-management
#20
Arun C Nachiappan, Kasra Rahbar, Xiao Shi, Elizabeth S Guy, Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Girish S Shroff, Daniel Ocazionez, Alan E Schlesinger, Sharyn I Katz, Mark M Hammer
Tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide, including in the United States-particularly among immunocompromised patients and other high-risk groups. Tuberculosis manifests in active and latent forms. Active disease can occur as primary tuberculosis, developing shortly after infection, or postprimary tuberculosis, developing after a long period of latent infection. Primary tuberculosis occurs most commonly in children and immunocompromised patients, who present with lymphadenopathy, pulmonary consolidation, and pleural effusion...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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