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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684501/the-many-ways-sputum-flows-dealing-with-high-within-subject-variability-in-cystic-fibrosis-sputum-rheology
#1
Thomas Radtke, Lukas Böni, Peter Bohnacker, Peter Fischer, Christian Benden, Holger Dressel
We evaluated test-retest reliability of sputum viscoelastic properties in clinically stable patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Data from a prospective, randomized crossover study was used to determine within-subject variability of sputum viscoelasticity (G', storage modulus and G", loss modulus at 1 and 10 rad s-1 ) and solids content over three consecutive visits. Precision of sputum properties was quantified by with in-subject standard deviation (SDws ), coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)...
April 20, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683758/asthma-copd-overlap-phenotypes-and-smoking-comparative-features-of-asthma-in-smoking-or-non-smoking-patients-with-an-incomplete-reversibility-of-airway-obstruction
#2
Louis-Philippe Boulet, Marie-Ève Boulay, Jude-Lyne Dérival, Joanne Milot, Johane Lepage, Lara Bilodeau, François Maltais
The development of COPD features, such as an incomplete reversibility of airway obstruction (IRAO), in smoking or non-smoking asthmatic patients, a condition often named Asthma-COPD Overlap (ACO), has been recognized for decades. However, there is a need to know more about the sub-phenotypes of this condition according to smoking. This study aimed at comparing the clinical, physiological and inflammatory features of smoking and non-smoking asthmatic patients exhibiting IRAO. In this cross-sectional study, patients with an IRAO with (ACO, ≥20 pack-years) or without (NS-IRAO, <5 pack-years) significant smoking history completed questionnaires about asthma control (ACQ, score 0-6, 6 = better score) and quality of life (AQLQ, score 1-7, 1 = better score) and performed expiratory flows, lung volume and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity measurements...
April 23, 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683370/nutritional-supplement-bao-khi-khang-as-an-adjuvant-therapy-in-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Ba X Hoang, Bo Han, Hoang X Nguyen, Khanh T Dang
To investigate the effectiveness of nutritional supplement Bao Khi Khang as an adjuvant therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to conventional therapy alone. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label controlled trial in 60 patients presenting with acute exacerbation of COPD. Patients were randomized into two groups, the control and the experimental groups. The control group was treated with the standard therapeutic protocol (Antimicrobial+Corticosteroids+Bronchodilator+Mucolytic drugs)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682796/phase-2a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-parallel-group-study-of-an-h-4-r-antagonist-jnj-39758979-in-adults-with-uncontrolled-asthma
#4
Alexa P Kollmeier, Andrew Greenspan, Xie L Xu, Philip E Silkoff, Elliot Barnathan, Matthew J Loza, Jingzhi Jiang, Bei Zhou, Bin Chen, Robin L Thurmond
BACKGROUND: The effects of H4 R antagonists in preclinical asthma models support the study of antagonists of the H4 R in the treatment of asthma in humans. JNJ-39758979 is a potent and highly-selective oral H4 R antagonist. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the H4 R-antagonist JNJ-39758979 in adult patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen eligible patients were randomly assigned to JNJ-39758979 300 mg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks in this phase 2a, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study...
April 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680792/-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-a-patient-taking-benepali-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Kay Frances Graham, Anne McEntegart
We present a case of a 57-year-old woman who contracted Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia while on Benepali, the biosimilar version of etanercept for rheumatoid arthritis. She had seropositive erosive disease. She was admitted to clinic with a 2-week history of dyspnoea, dry cough and fever. Her initial examination showed her to be hypoxic on air with saturations of 77% and left basal crackles. Her admission chest X-ray showed fine reticular shadowing, with an initial suspicion of pulmonary fibrosis. She was empirically treated for community-acquired pneumonia but continued to deteriorate with a worsening type 1 respiratory failure...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680106/cost-of-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-patients-with-hiv-a-systematic-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Noemia Teixeira de Siqueira-Filha, Rosa Legood, Aracele Cavalcanti, Andreia Costa Santos
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the costs of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and to assess the methodological quality of these studies. METHODS: We included cost, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility studies that reported primary costing data, conducted worldwide and published between 1990 and August 2016. We retrieved articles in PubMed, Embase, EconLit, CINAHL plus, and LILACS databases. The quality assessment was performed using two guidelines-the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards and the Tool to Estimate Patient's Costs...
April 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678900/prevention-of-exacerbations-in-patients-with-stable-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-therapies
#7
Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Adam T Hill, Claudia C Dobler, Noor Asi, Wigdan H Farah, Qusay Haydour, Zhen Wang, Khalid Benkhadra, Larry J Prokop, Mohammad Hassan Murad
BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies are used to treat stable bronchiectasis of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) aetiology. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the evidence of the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options in patients with stable non-CF bronchiectasis with a focus on reducing exacerbations. STUDY SELECTION: Multiple databases were searched through September 2017...
April 20, 2018: BMJ evidence-based medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678545/preparation-of-drug-loaded-small-unilamellar-liposomes-and-evaluation-of-their-potential-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#8
Vincenzo De Leo, Silvia Ruscigno, Adriana Trapani, Sante Di Gioia, Francesco Milano, Delia Mandracchia, Roberto Comparelli, Stefano Castellani, Angela Agostiano, Giuseppe Trapani, Lucia Catucci, Massimo Conese
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of liposome formulation on the ability of vesicles to penetrate a pathological mucus model obtained from COPD affected patients in order to assess the potential of such vesicles for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases by inhalation. Therefore, Small Unilamellar Liposomes (PLAIN-LIPOSOMEs), Pluronic® F127-surface modified liposomes (PF-LIPOSOMEs) and PEG 2000PE-surface modified liposomes (PEG-LIPOSOMEs) were prepared using the micelle-to-vesicle transition (MVT) method and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as model drug...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678144/interferon-alpha-as-antiviral-therapy-in-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-disease-with-interstitial-pneumonia-case-report
#9
Jacek Roliński, Ewelina Grywalska, Aleksandra Pyzik, Michał Dzik, Violetta Opoka-Winiarska, Agata Surdacka, Maciej Maj, Franciszek Burdan, Michał Pirożyński, Piotr Grabarczyk, Elżbieta Starosławska
BACKGROUND: Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease (CAEBV) is defined as a severe, progressive lymphoproliferative disorder associated with active EBV infection persisting longer than 6 months and developing in patients without recognised immunodeficiency. Rarely, interstitial pneumonitis (IP) occurs as a serious complication in CAEBV patients. The standard therapeutic regimen for IP in CAEBV has not yet been defined. Although interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) is known to suppress viral DNA replication by affecting its basal promoter activation process, it is rarely used in CAEBV patients...
April 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677666/use-of-cleaner-burning-biomass-stoves-and-airway-macrophage-black-carbon-in-malawian-women
#10
Abigail L Whitehouse, Lisa Miyashita, Norrice M Liu, Maia Lesosky, Graham Flitz, Chifundo Ndamala, John R Balmes, Stephen B Gordon, Kevin Mortimer, Jonathan Grigg
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) from burning of biomass for cooking is associated with adverse health effects. It is unknown whether or not cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves reduce the amount of PM inhaled by women compared with traditional open fires. We sought to assess whether airway macrophage black carbon (AMBC) - a marker of inhaled dose of carbonaceous PM from biomass and fossil fuel combustion - is lower in Malawian women using a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove compared with those using open fires for cooking...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675789/experimental-platform-utilising-melting-curve-technology-for-detection-of-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#11
Agnieszka Broda, Vlad Nikolayevskyy, Nicki Casali, Huma Khan, Richard Bowker, Gemma Blackwell, Bhakti Patel, James Hume, Waqar Hussain, Francis Drobniewski
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly infections with approximately a quarter of cases not being identified and/or treated mainly due to a lack of resources. Rapid detection of TB or drug-resistant TB enables timely adequate treatment and is a cornerstone of effective TB management. We evaluated the analytical performance of a single-tube assay for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) on an experimental platform utilising RT-PCR and melting curve analysis that could potentially be operated as a point-of-care (PoC) test in resource-constrained settings with a high burden of TB...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675788/recent-advances-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-in-resource-limited-settings
#12
REVIEW
Mitsuko Seki, Chang-Ki Kim, Satoshi Hayakawa, Satoshi Mitarai
Smear-negative and drug-resistant cases of tuberculosis (TB) disease necessitate the development of new diagnostic methods, especially in resource-limited settings. To improve the current TB situations, sensitive and specific TB point-of-care tests (POCTs) should be developed. This review addresses the current status of TB, novel diagnostic methodologies for TB, and the impact of those new diagnostics on TB control in such situations. Moreover, the perspective of TB management based on laboratory examinations is described...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674397/massive-haemoptysis-secondary-to-mycotic-pulmonary-artery-aneurysm-in-subacute-invasive-aspergillosis
#13
Shahbaz Piracha, Asad Mahmood, Noman Qayyum, Muhammad Badar Ganaie
A 68-year-old man, presented with 3 week history of infective symptoms and mild haemoptysis. Past medical history included severe emphysema and a chronic right upper lobe (RUL) cavity. He was discharged from follow-up a year ago in view of clinical and radiological stability; previous bronchoscopic examinations yielded no specific diagnosis. CT scan on admission confirmed complex cavitary consolidation of RUL. He developed massive haemoptysis requiring intubation and ventilation. CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) revealed 16 mm RUL pulmonary artery (PA) aneurysm which was successfully embolized...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673561/risk-factors-for-death-from-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia
#14
Kayo Osawa, Katsumi Shigemura, Koichi Kitagawa, Issei Tokimatsu, Masato Fujisawa
PURPOSE: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has low pathogenicity potential, but if it causes bacteremia it can be fatal, because it has shown high resistance to many antibiotics and can be difficult to treat. Patient death from S. maltophilia bacteremia has increased since 2014 in our hospital. In this study, we investigated risk factors for death due to S. maltophilia bacteremia. METHODS: Seventy patients from the hospital database with S. maltophilia bacteremia between January 2010 and July 2017 were investigated...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673395/shorter-treatment-for-minimal-tuberculosis-tb-in-children-shine-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Chishala Chabala, Anna Turkova, Margaret J Thomason, Eric Wobudeya, Syed Hissar, Vidya Mave, Marieke van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Monica Kapasa, Perumal K Bhavani, Sarath Balaji, Priyanka A Raichur, Anne-Marie Demers, Graeme Hoddinott, Ellen Owen-Powell, Aarti Kinikar, Philippa Musoke, Veronica Mulenga, Rob Aarnoutse, Helen McIlleron, Anneke Hesseling, Angela M Crook, Mark Cotton, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is frequently paucibacillary and non-severe forms of pulmonary TB are common. Evidence for tuberculosis treatment in children is largely extrapolated from adult studies. Trials in adults with smear-negative tuberculosis suggest that treatment can be effectively shortened from 6 to 4 months. New paediatric, fixed-dose combination anti-tuberculosis treatments have recently been introduced in many countries, making the implementation of World Health Organisation (WHO)-revised dosing recommendations feasible...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672122/pruning-of-the-pulmonary-vasculature-in-asthma-the-sarp-cohort
#16
Samuel Y Ash, Farbod N Rahaghi, Carolyn E Come, James C Ross, Alysha G Colon, Juan Carlos Cardet-Guisasola, Eleanor M Dunican, Eugene R Bleecker, Mario Castro, John V Fahy, Sean B Fain, Benjamin M Gaston, Eric A Hoffman, Nizar N Jarjour, David T Mauger, Sally E Wenzel, Bruce D Levy, Raul San Jose Estepar, Elliot Israel, George R Washko
RATIONALE: Loss of the peripheral pulmonary vasculature, termed vascular pruning, is associated with disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine if pulmonary vascular pruning is associated with asthma severity and exacerbations. METHODS: We measured the total pulmonary blood vessel volume (TBV) and the blood vessel volume of vessels less than 5mm2 in cross sectional area (BV5) and of vessels less than 10mm2 (BV10) in cross sectional area on non-contrast computed tomographic scans of participants from the Severe Asthma Research Program...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670345/practical-considerations-when-prescribing-a-long-acting-muscarinic-antagonist-for-patients-with-copd
#17
REVIEW
Anthony D D'Urzo, Peter Kardos, Russell Wiseman
COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation, progressive breathlessness, cough, and sputum production. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are one of the recommended first-choice therapeutic options for patients with COPD, and several new agents have been developed in recent years. A literature search identified 14 published randomized, placebo-controlled studies of the efficacy and safety of LAMAs in patients with COPD, with improvements seen in lung function, exacerbations, breathlessness, and health status...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669351/bronchial-thermoplasty-in-severe-asthma-best-practice-recommendations-from-an-expert-panel
#18
Peter I Bonta, Pascal Chanez, Jouke T Annema, Pallav L Shah, Robert Niven
Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic treatment for patients with severe asthma who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy. In this "expert best practice" paper, the background and practical aspects of BT are highlighted. Randomized, controlled clinical trials have shown BT to be safe and effective in reducing severe exacerbations, improving quality of life, and decreasing emergency department visits. Five-year follow-up studies have provided evidence of the functional stability of BT-treated patients with persistence of a clinical benefit...
April 17, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669324/clinical-significance-of-mir-210-and-its-prospective-signaling-pathways-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-evidence-from-gene-expression-omnibus-and-the-cancer-genome-atlas-data-mining-with-2763-samples-and-validation-via-real-time-quantitative-pcr
#19
Rong-Quan He, Wei-Luan Cen, Jie-Mei Cen, Wei-Ning Cen, Jia-Yi Li, Mei-Wei Li, Ting-Qing Gan, Xiao-Hua Hu, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since the function of microRNA (miR)-210 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear, we aimed to explore the clinical significance of miR-210 in NSCLC. METHODS: NSCLC-related data from 1673 samples on Gene Expression Omnibus and 1090 samples on The Cancer Genome Atlas were obtained and analyzed. The expression level of miR-210 was validated via real-time quantitative PCR analysis with 125 paired clinical samples. A meta-analysis was performed to generate a comprehensive understanding of miR-210 expression and its clinical significance in NSCLC...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667580/severe-asthma-phenotypes-classified-by-site-of-airway-involvement-and-remodeling-via-chest-ct-scan
#20
S Kim, K Nam Jin, S H Cho, C Hyun Lee, H R Kang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish a system that can classify severe asthma on the basis of airway remodeling patterns visualized by computed tomography (CT) images and to evaluate the clinical characteristics of individual image-based subtypes. METHODS: Chest CT images of severe asthma patients were retrospectively evaluated to classify phenotypes by site of airway involvement and remodeling. The association between radiologic subtypes and clinical characteristics was assessed...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
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