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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731268/-13-c-metabolic-flux-profiling-of-pichia-pastoris-grown-in-aerobic-batch-cultures-on-glucose-revealed-high-relative-anabolic-use-of-tca-cycle-and-limited-incorporation-of-provided-precursors-of-branched-chain-amino-acids
#1
Meng Zhang, Xiao-Wei Yu, Yan Xu, Paula Jouhten, G V T Swapna, Ralf W Glaser, John F Hunt, Gaetano T Montelione, Hannu Maaheimo, Thomas Szyperski
Carbon metabolism of Crabtree negative yeast Pichia pastoris was profiled using (13) C NMR to delineate regulation during exponential growth and to study the import of two precursors for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketobutyrate. Cells were grown in aerobic batch cultures containing (i) only glucose, (ii) glucose along with the precursors, or (iii) glucose and Val. The study provided the following new insights. First, (13) C flux ratio analyses of central metabolism reveal an unexpectedly high anaplerotic supply of the tricarboxylic acid cycle for a Crabtree negative yeast, and show that a substantial fraction of glucose catabolism proceeds through the pentose phosphate pathway...
July 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729386/dormancy-in-embryos-insight-from-hydrated-encysted-embryos-of-an-aquatic-invertebrate
#2
Tamar Ziv, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Nadav Denekamp, Inbar Plaschkes, Sylwiya Sylwia Kierszniowska, Idit Blais, Arie Admon, Esther Lubzens
Numerous aquatic invertebrates remain dormant for decades in a hydrated state as encysted embryos. In search for functional pathways associated with this form of dormancy, we used label-free quantitative proteomics to compare the proteomes of hydrated encysted dormant embryos (resting eggs; RE) with non-dormant embryos (amictic eggs; AM) of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis</p> <p>A total of 2,631 proteins were identified in rotifer eggs. About 62% proteins showed higher abundance in AM relative to RE (Fold Change>3; p=0...
July 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727789/lumpgem-systematic-generation-of-subnetworks-and-elementally-balanced-lumped-reactions-for-the-biosynthesis-of-target-metabolites
#3
Meric Ataman, Vassily Hatzimanikatis
In the post-genomic era, Genome-scale metabolic networks (GEMs) have emerged as invaluable tools to understand metabolic capabilities of organisms. Different parts of these metabolic networks are defined as subsystems/pathways, which are sets of functional roles to implement a specific biological process or structural complex, such as glycolysis and TCA cycle. Subsystem/pathway definition is also employed to delineate the biosynthetic routes that produce biomass building blocks. In databases, such as MetaCyc and SEED, these representations are composed of linear routes from precursors to target biomass building blocks...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727777/8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-ogg1-deficiency-elicits-coordinated-changes-in-lipid-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-muscle
#4
Vladimir Vartanian, Jana Tumova, Pawel Dobrzyn, Agnieszka Dobrzyn, Yusaku Nakabeppu, R Stephen Lloyd, Harini Sampath
Oxidative stress resulting from endogenous and exogenous sources causes damage to cellular components, including genomic and mitochondrial DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is primarily repaired via the base excision repair pathway that is initiated by DNA glycosylases. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) recognizes and cleaves oxidized and ring-fragmented purines, including 8-oxoguanine, the most commonly formed oxidative DNA lesion. Mice lacking the OGG1 gene product are prone to multiple features of the metabolic syndrome, including high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727610/the-metabolopathy-of-tissue-injury-hemorrhagic-shock-and-resuscitation-in-a-rat-model
#5
Anne L Slaughter, Geoffrey R Nunns, Angelo D'Alessandro, Anirban Banerjee, Kirk C Hansen, E E Moore, Christopher C Silliman, Travis Nemkov, Hunter B Moore, Miguel Fragoso, Kiara Leasia, Erik D Peltz
INTRODUCTION: The metabolic consequences of trauma induce significant clinical pathology. In this study we evaluate the independent, metabolic contributions of tissue injury (TI) and combined tissue injury and hemorrhagic shock (TI / HS) using MS-metabolomics in a controlled animal model of critical injury. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 14) underwent TI alone or TI / HS, followed by resuscitation with normal saline and shed blood. Plasma was collected (baseline, post-laparotomy, post-HS, post-resuscitation) for Ultra High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) MS-metabolomics...
July 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#6
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716914/metabolic-profiles-of-exercise-in-patients-with-mcardle-disease-or-mitochondrial-myopathy
#7
Nigel F Delaney, Rohit Sharma, Laura Tadvalkar, Clary B Clish, Ronald G Haller, Vamsi K Mootha
McArdle disease and mitochondrial myopathy impair muscle oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by distinct mechanisms: the former by restricting oxidative substrate availability caused by blocked glycogen breakdown, the latter because of intrinsic respiratory chain defects. We applied metabolic profiling to systematically interrogate these disorders at rest, when muscle symptoms are typically minimal, and with exercise, when symptoms of premature fatigue and potential muscle injury are unmasked. At rest, patients with mitochondrial disease exhibit elevated lactate and reduced uridine; in McArdle disease purine nucleotide metabolites, including xanthine, hypoxanthine, and inosine are elevated...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715871/improvement-of-mitochondrial-function-by-celastrol-in-palmitate-treated-c2c12-myotubes-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#8
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Joo Shun Tan
Compelling evidences posited that high level of saturated fatty acid gives rise to mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Celastrol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii that possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties in a number of animal models with metabolic diseases. However, the cellular mechanistic action of celastrol in alleviating obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712726/sengers-syndrome-associated-mitochondrial-acylglycerol-kinase-is-a-subunit-of-the-human-tim22-protein-import-complex
#9
Yilin Kang, David A Stroud, Michael J Baker, David P De Souza, Ann E Frazier, Michael Liem, Dedreia Tull, Suresh Mathivanan, Malcolm J McConville, David R Thorburn, Michael T Ryan, Diana Stojanovski
Acylglycerol kinase (AGK) is a mitochondrial lipid kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol to lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid, respectively. Mutations in AGK cause Sengers syndrome, which is characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis. Here we identified AGK as a subunit of the mitochondrial TIM22 protein import complex. We show that AGK functions in a kinase-independent manner to maintain the integrity of the TIM22 complex, where it facilitates the import and assembly of mitochondrial carrier proteins...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712299/evaluation-of-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-exfoliated-silicate-nanoclays-as-a-feed-additive-for-fumonisin-detoxification
#10
Chiao-Wei Yuan, Jie-Ting Huang, Ching-Chin Chen, Pin-Chi Tang, Jenn-Wen Huang, Jiang-Jen Lin, San-Yuan Huang, Shuen-Ei Chen
The efficacy of nano-silicate clay platelets (NSCP), exfoliated silicates from natural montmorillonites, as a feed additive for ameliorating fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicosis was evaluated. Toxicological mechanisms by NSCP were examined through proteomic and biochemical analyses. Dietary supplementation with NSCP at a low level of 40 mg/kg feed improved growth performances in chickens with respect to FB1 toxicosis. Other issues of ameliorated symptoms including serum and/or hepatic AST activity, oxidative stress indicators, and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio, a hallmark of FB1 toxicosis were considered...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711996/the-physiological-and-metabolic-changes-in-sugar-beet-seedlings-under-different-levels-of-salt-stress
#11
Yuguang Wang, Piergiorgio Stevanato, Lihua Yu, Huijie Zhao, Xuewei Sun, Fei Sun, Jing Li, Gui Geng
Salinity stress is a major limitation to global crop production. Sugar beet, one of the world's leading sugar crops, has stronger salt tolerant characteristics than other crops. To investigate the response to different levels of salt stress, sugar beet was grown hydroponically under 3 (control), 70, 140, 210 and 280 mM NaCl conditions. We found no differences in dry weight of the aerial part and leaf area between 70 mM NaCl and control conditions, although dry weight of the root and whole plant treated with 70 mM NaCl was lower than control seedlings...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711227/oncogenic-activities-of-idh1-2-mutations-from-epigenetics-to-cellular-signaling
#12
REVIEW
Laurence M Gagné, Karine Boulay, Ivan Topisirovic, Marc-Étienne Huot, Frédérick A Mallette
Gliomas and leukemias remain highly refractory to treatment, thus highlighting the need for new and improved therapeutic strategies. Mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, such as the isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2), are frequently encountered in astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas, as well as in acute myeloid leukemias; however, the precise molecular mechanisms by which these mutations promote tumorigenesis remain to be fully characterized. Gain-of-function mutations in IDH1/2 have been shown to stimulate production of the oncogenic metabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), which inhibits α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent enzymes...
July 12, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707979/emerging-roles-for-sirt5-in-metabolism-and-cancer
#13
Lauren Rose Bringman-Rodenbarger, Angela H Guo, Costas A Lyssiotis, David B Lombard
SIGNIFICANCE: Developing evidence in the literature suggests that SIRT5 may be involved in metabolic reprogramming, an emerging hallmark of cancer by which neoplastic cells reconfigure their metabolism to support the anabolic demands of rapid cell division. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is one of the seven members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent sirtuin family of lysine deacylases. It removes succinyl, malonyl, and glutaryl groups from protein targets within the mitochondrial matrix and other subcellular compartments...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704842/analysis-of-metabolomic-profile-of-fermented-orostachys-japonicus-a-berger-by-capillary-electrophoresis-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#14
Gitishree Das, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Sun-Young Lee, Changgeon Kim, Jae Gyu Park, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Microbial cell performance in food biotechnological processes has become an important concern for improving human health worldwide. Lactobacillus plantarum, which is widely distributed in nature, is a lactic acid bacterium with many industrial applications for fermented foods or functional foods (e.g., probiotics). In the present study, using capillary electrophoresis time of flight mass spectrometry, the metabolomic profile of dried Orostachys japonicus A. Berger, a perennial medicinal herb with L. plantarum was compared with that of O...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692032/epigenetic-silencing-of-microrna-137-enhances-asct2-expression-and-tumor-glutamine-metabolism
#15
J Dong, D Xiao, Z Zhao, P Ren, C Li, Y Hu, J Shi, H Su, L Wang, H Liu, B Li, P Gao, G Qing
Tumor cells must activate specific transporters to meet their increased glutamine metabolic demands. Relative to other glutamine transporters, the ASC family transporter 2 (ASCT2, also called SLC1A5) is profoundly elevated in a wide spectrum of human cancers to coordinate metabolic reprogramming and malignant transformation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms whereby tumor cells frequently upregulate this transporter is therefore vital to develop potential strategies for transporter-targeted therapies. Combining in-silico algorithms with systemic experimental screening, we herein identify the tumor suppressor microRNA, miR-137, as an essential regulator that targets ASCT2 and cancer cell glutamine metabolism...
July 10, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690628/comparison-of-salt-tolerance-in-soja-based-on-metabolomics-of-seedling-roots
#16
Mingxia Li, Rui Guo, Yang Jiao, Xiaofei Jin, Haiyan Zhang, Lianxuan Shi
Soybean is an important economic crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Wild soybean is an important germplasm resource for the breeding of cultivated soybean. The root system plays a very important role in plant salt tolerance. To explore the salt tolerance-related mechanisms among Soja, we have demonstrated the seedling roots' growth and metabolomics in wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, and cultivated soybean under two types of salt stress by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687006/glycolytic-reprogramming-through-pck2-regulates-tumor-initiation-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#17
Jiangsha Zhao, Jieran Li, Teresa W M Fan, Steven X Hou
Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Identifying the factors regulating TICs may open new avenues in cancer therapy. Here, we show that TIC-enriched prostate cancer cell clones use more glucose and secrete more lactate than TIC-low clones. We determined that elevated levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase isoform 2 (PCK2) are critical for the metabolic switch and the maintenance of TICs in prostate cancer. Information from prostate cancer patient databases revealed that higher PCK2 levels correlated with more aggressive tumors and lower survival rates...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680578/dysfunctional-bmpr2-signaling-drives-an-abnormal-endothelial-requirement-for-glutamine-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
Robert A Egnatchik, Evan L Brittain, Amy T Shah, Wassim H Fares, H James Ford, Ken Monahan, Christie J Kang, Emily G Kocurek, Shijun Zhu, Thong Luong, Thuy T Nguyen, Erik Hysinger, Eric D Austin, Melissa C Skala, Jamey D Young, L Jackson Roberts, Anna R Hemnes, James West, Joshua P Fessel
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is increasingly recognized as a systemic disease driven by alteration in the normal functioning of multiple metabolic pathways affecting all of the major carbon substrates, including amino acids. We found that human pulmonary hypertension patients (WHO Group I, PAH) exhibit systemic and pulmonary-specific alterations in glutamine metabolism, with the diseased pulmonary vasculature taking up significantly more glutamine than that of controls. Using cell culture models and transgenic mice expressing PAH-causing BMPR2 mutations, we found that the pulmonary endothelium in PAH shunts significantly more glutamine carbon into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle than wild-type endothelium...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676444/the-expression-of-transglutaminase-2-tg-2-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-its-clinical-significance
#19
Elva Lim, Cheng-Hsien Wu, Sin-Hua Moi, Man-Tin Lui, Cheng-Hong Yang, Cheng-Chieh Yang
BACKGROUND: Glutamine has a very important role in the human body, including pH balance in an acidic environment, as well as supporting the TCA cycle in cancer cell growth. However, the expression of transglutaminase-2 (TG-2) in oral cancer growth related to renal function is unknown. Here we examined TG-2 and its expression as a prognostic tool. METHODS: Fifty-six oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues were collected with the inclusion of tumor in any region of oral area, and patients with creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) results...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676110/heterogeneous-oxygen-availability-affects-the-titer-and-topology-but-not-the-fidelity-of-plasmid-dna-produced-by-escherichia-coli
#20
Karim E Jaén, Juan-Carlos Sigala, Roberto Olivares-Hernández, Karsten Niehaus, Alvaro R Lara
BACKGROUND: Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) is hardly constant and homogenously distributed in a bioreactor, which can have a negative impact in the metabolism and product synthesis. However, the effects of DOT on plasmid DNA (pDNA) production and quality have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, the effects of aerobic (DOT ≥30% air sat.), microaerobic (constant DOT = 3% air sat.) and oscillatory DOT (from 0 to 100% air sat.) conditions on pDNA production, quality and host performance were characterized...
July 4, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
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