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TCA cycle

David B Medeiros, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Werner C Antunes, Wagner L Araújo, Danilo M Daloso, Alisdair R Fernie
Sucrose has long been thought to play an osmolytic role in stomatal opening. However, recent evidence supports the idea that the role of sucrose in this process is primarily energetic. Here we used a combination of stomatal aperture assays coupled with kinetic [U-13 C]-sucrose isotope labelling experiments to confirm that sucrose is degraded during light-induced stomatal opening and to define the fate of the C released from sucrose breakdown. We additionally show that addition of sucrose in the medium did not enhance light-induced stomatal opening...
March 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Muhammad Shahid, Nicole Gull, Austin Yeon, Eunho Cho, Jooeun Bae, Hyun Seok Yoon, Sungyong You, Hana Yoon, Minjung Kim, Benjamin P Berman, Jayoung Kim
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic urinary tract disease that is characterized by unpleasant sensations, such as persistent pelvic pain, in the absence of infection or other identifiable causes. We previously performed comprehensive metabolomics profiling of urine samples from IC patients using nuclear magnetic resonance and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and found that urinary α-oxoglutarate (α-OG), was significantly elevated. α-OG, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate, reportedly functions to suppress the proliferation of immortalized normal human bladder epithelial cells...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nanako Kanno, Katsumi Matsuura, Shin Haruta
Purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize light energy for growth. We previously demonstrated that light energy contributed to prolonging the survival of multiple purple bacteria under carbon-starved conditions. In order to clarify the effects of illumination on metabolic states under carbon-starved, non-growing conditions, we herein compared the metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light and dark using the purple bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light were markedly different from those in the dark...
March 13, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Tomas Strucko, Katharina Zirngibl, Filipa Pereira, Eleni Kafkia, Elsayed T Mohamed, Mandy Rettel, Frank Stein, Adam M Feist, Paula Jouhten, Kiran Raosaheb Patil, Jochen Forster
Most microbial species, including model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, possess genetic capability to utilize many alternative nutrient sources. Yet, it remains an open question whether these manifest into assimilatory phenotypes. Despite possessing all necessary pathways, S. cerevisiae grows poorly or not at all when glycerol is the sole carbon source. Here we discover, through multiple evolved lineages, genetic determinants underlying glycerol catabolism and the associated fitness trade-offs. Most evolved lineages adapted through mutations in the HOG pathway, but showed hampered osmotolerance...
March 10, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Hannah Crocker Cunningham, Kristi M Cammack, Kristin E Hales, Harvey C Freetly, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry
Feed costs account for over 70% of the annual expenditures in cow/calf production. During the production year the cow uses nutrients to support conceptus growth, milk production, work (grazing and locomotion), and maintenance requirements. The majority of the nutrients are used to support maintenance. Substrate cycling has been identified as one of the major contributors toward energy expenditure associated with maintenance in mature cows. The objective of this study was to determine whether beef cows that differ in the efficiency of weight gain differ in the relative abundance of transcripts for metabolic regulation in adipose tissue...
2018: PloS One
Ye Kuang, Xiaoyun Han, Mu Xu, Qing Yang
Most cancer cells perform glycolysis despite having sufficient oxygen. The specific metabolic pathways of cancer cells have become the focus of cancer treatment. Recently, accumulating evidence indicates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis can be regulated with each other. Thus, we suggest that the glycolysis of cancer cells is inhibited by restoring or improving OXPHOS in cancer cells. In our study, we found that oxaloacetate (OA) induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile, we found that OA induced a decrease in the energy metabolism of HepG2 cells...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Saratram Gopalakrishnan, Himadri B Pakrasi, Costas D Maranas
Completeness and accuracy of metabolic mapping models impacts the reliability of flux estimation in photoautotrophic systems. In this study, metabolic fluxes under photoautotrophic growth conditions in the widely-used cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are quantified by re-analyzing an existing dataset using genome-scale isotopic instationary13 C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (INST-MFA). The reconstructed carbon mapping model imSyn617 and implemented algorithmic updates afforded an approximately 48% reduction in computation time...
March 8, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Yeji Sung, Konstantina Spagou, Marina Kafeza, Michael Kyriakides, Brahman Dharmarajah, Joseph Shalhoub, Jose A Diaz, Thomas W Wakefield, Elaine Holmes, Alun H Davies
OBJECTIVES: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem, responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of a simple and effective diagnostic biomarker of DVT remains a challenge. Metabolomics have recently emerged as a new powerful scientific tool to characterise metabolic phenotypes of complex diseases and investigate small molecules in biofluids. The aim of the study was to identify the blood and vein wall metabolomic signature of DVT in a murine experimental model...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Andréa T Faccio, Francisco J Ruperez, Nagendra S Singh, Santiago Angulo, Marina F M Tavares, Michel Bernier, Coral Barbas, Irving W Wainer
BACKGROUND: Impairment in mitochondrial biogenesis and function plays a key role in depression and anxiety, both of which being associated with changes in fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism. The antidepressant effects of (R,S)-ketamine have been linked to its conversion into (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK); however, the connection between structure and stereochemistry of ketamine and HNK in the mitochondrial homeostatic response has not yet been fully elucidated at a metabolic level...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Humberto Mitio Horikoshi, Yoshihiko Sekozawa, Makoto Kobayashi, Kazuki Saito, Miyako Kusano, Sumiko Sugaya
Dormancy is a complex phenomenon that allows plants to survive the winter season. Studies of dormancy have recently attracted more attention due to the expansion of temperate fruit production in areas under mild winters and due to climate changes. This study aimed to identify and characterize the metabolic changes induced by chilling temperatures, as well as during thermal fluctuation conditions that simulate mild winter and/or climate change scenarios. To do this, we compared the metabolic profile of Japanese pear flower buds exposed to constant chilling at 6 °C and thermal fluctuations of 6 °C/18 °C (150 h/150 h) during endodormancy...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Howard Ramirez-Malule, Stefan Junne, Mariano Nicolás Cruz-Bournazou, Peter Neubauer, Rigoberto Ríos-Estepa
Clavulanic acid (CA) is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) as a secondary metabolite. Knowledge about the carbon flux distribution along the various routes that supply CA precursors would certainly provide insights about metabolic performance. In order to evaluate metabolic patterns and the possible accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates during CA biosynthesis, batch and subsequent continuous cultures with steadily declining feed rates were performed with glycerol as the main substrate...
March 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kerry R Belton, Yuan Tian, Limin Zhang, Mallappa Anitha, Philip B Smith, Gary H Perdew, Andrew D Patterson
The liver and the mammary gland have complementary metabolic roles during lactation. Substrates (e.g., glucose and amino acids) synthesized by the liver are released into the circulation and are taken up by the mammary gland for milk production (e.g., lactose and the glycerol backbone of milk triglycerides). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been identified as a lactation regulator in mice, and its activation has been associated with myriad morphological, molecular, and functional defects such as stunted gland development, decreased milk production, and changes in gene expression...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Sobha Puppala, Cun Li, Jeremy P Glenn, Romil Saxena, Samer Gawrieh, Amy Quinn, Jennifer Palarczyk, Edward J Dick, Peter W Nathanielsz, Laura A Cox
Maternal obesity (MO) increases offspring cardiometabolic disease risk. Altered fetal liver development in response to the challenge of MO has metabolic consequences underlying adverse offspring life-course health outcomes. Little is known about molecular pathways and potential epigenetic changes regulating primate fetal liver responses to MO. We hypothesized that MO would induce fetal baboon liver epigenetic changes resulting in dysregulation of key metabolic pathways that impact lipid metabolism. MO was induced prior to pregnancy by a high fat, high sucrose diet...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Sin-Tian Wang, Chia-Mei Lin, Hao-Chieh Chiu, Cheng-Rung Huang, Der-Yen Lee, Geen-Dong Chang, Ting-Chen Chou, Jenn-Wei Chen, Chang-Shi Chen
The enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Several molecular mechanisms have been described for the pathogenicity of EHEC; however, the role of bacterial metabolism in the virulence of EHEC during infection in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that aerobic metabolism plays an important role in the regulation of EHEC virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our functional genomic analyses showed that disruption of the genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase complex (Sdh) of EHEC, including the sdhA gene, attenuated its toxicity toward C...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Lisa Wasserstrom, Diogo Portugal-Nunes, Henrik Almqvist, Anders G Sandström, Gunnar Lidén, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
Engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards efficient D-xylose assimilation has been a major focus over the last decades since D-xylose is the second most abundant sugar in nature, and its conversion into products could significantly improve process economy in biomass-based processes. Up to now, two different metabolic routes have been introduced via genetic engineering, consisting of either the isomerization or the oxido-reduction of D-xylose to D-xylulose that is further connected to the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis...
March 5, 2018: AMB Express
Matteo Audano, Silvia Pedretti, Gaia Cermenati, Elisabetta Brioschi, Giuseppe Riccardo Diaferia, Serena Ghisletti, Alessandro Cuomo, Tiziana Bonaldi, Franco Salerno, Marina Mora, Liliana Grigore, Katia Garlaschelli, Andrea Baragetti, Fabrizia Bonacina, Alberico Luigi Catapano, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Maurizio Crestani, Donatella Caruso, Enrique Saez, Emma De Fabiani, Nico Mitro
Mitochondria are the energy-generating hubs of the cell. In spite of considerable advances, our understanding of the factors that regulate the molecular circuits that govern mitochondrial function remains incomplete. Using a genome-wide functional screen, we identify the poorly characterized protein Zinc finger CCCH-type containing 10 (Zc3h10) as regulator of mitochondrial physiology. We show that Zc3h10 is upregulated during physiological mitochondriogenesis as it occurs during the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes...
March 5, 2018: EMBO Reports
Qiuli OuYang, Nengguo Tao, Miaoling Zhang
Citral exhibits strong antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum . In this study, 41 over-expressed and 84 repressed proteins in P. digitatum after 1.0 μL/mL of citral exposure for 30 min were identified by the iTRAQ technique. The proteins were closely related with oxidative phosphorylation, the TCA cycle and RNA transport. The mitochondrial complex I, complex II, complex III, complex IV and complex V, which are involved in oxidative phosphorylation were drastically affected. Among of them, the activities of mitochondrial complex I and complex IV were apparently suppressed, whereas those of mitochondrial complex II, complex III and complex V were significantly induced...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tingting Ning, Changlong Leng, Lin Chen, Baomiao Ma, Xiaokang Gong
BACKGROUND: Understanding the process of relapse to abused drugs and ultimately developing treatments that can reduce the incidence of relapse remains the primary goal for the study of substance dependence. Therefore, exploring the metabolite characteristics during the relapse stage is valuable. METHODS: A heroin self-administered rat model was employed, and analysis of the1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was performed to investigate the characteristic metabolite profile upon reintroduction to the drug after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Zongdong Li, Natasha M Nesbitt, Lisa E Malone, Dimitri V Gnatenko, Song Wu, Daifeng Wang, Wei Zhu, Geoffrey D Girnun, Wadie F Bahou
Bioenergetic requirements of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and pluripotent stem cells (PSC) vary with lineage fate, and cellular adaptations rely largely on substrate (glucose/glutamine) availability and mitochondrial function to balance TCA-derived anabolic and redox-regulated antioxidant functions.  Heme synthesis and degradation converge in a linear pathway that utilizes TCA cycle-derived carbon in cataplerotic reactions of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, terminated by NAD(P)H-dependent biliverdin reductases (IXα, BLVRA and IXβ, BLVRB) that lead to bilirubin generation and cellular antioxidant functions...
March 2, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Erol S Kavvas, Yara Seif, James T Yurkovich, Charles Norsigian, Saugat Poudel, William W Greenwald, Sankha Ghatak, Bernhard O Palsson, Jonathan M Monk
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of antibiotics against M. tuberculosis has been shown to be influenced by experimental media conditions. Investigations of M. tuberculosis growth in physiological conditions have described an environment that is different from common in vitro media. Thus, elucidating the interplay between available nutrient sources and antibiotic efficacy has clear medical relevance. While genome-scale reconstructions of M. tuberculosis have enabled the ability to interrogate media differences for the past 10 years, recent reconstructions have diverged from each other without standardization...
March 2, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
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