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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933654/commonalities-and-differences-in-plants-deficient-in-autophagy-and-alternative-pathways-of-respiration-on-response-to-extended-darkness
#1
Jessica A S Barros, João Henrique F Cavalcanti, David B Medeiros, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner L Araújo
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular mechanism in eukaryotes allowing the degradation of cell constituents. It is of crucial significance in both cellular homeostasis and nutrient recycling. During energy limited conditions plant cells can metabolize alternative respiratory substrates, such as amino acids, providing electrons to the mitochondrial metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or electron transfer flavoprotein/ electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) system...
September 21, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928232/sdhd-ablation-promotes-thyroid-tumorigenesis-by-inducing-a-stem-like-phenotype
#2
Amruta Ashtekar, Danielle Huk, Alexa Magner, Krista La Perle, Xiaoli Zhang, Jose Piruat, Jose Lopez-Barneo, Sissy Jhiang, Lawrence Kirschner
Mutations in genes encoding enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, also known as the Krebs cycle) have been implicated as causative genetic lesions in a number of human cancers, including renal cell cancers, glioblastomas, and pheochromocytomas. In recent studies, missense mutations in the Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex have also been proposed to cause differentiated thyroid cancer. In order to gain mechanistic insight into this process, we generated mice lacking the SDH subunit D (SDHD) in the thyroid...
September 19, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928113/pdk4-inhibits-cardiac-pyruvate-oxidation-in-late-pregnancy
#3
Laura Liu, Glenn C Rowe, Steven Yang, Jian Li, Federico Damilano, Mun Chun Chan, Wenyun Lu, Cholsoon Jang, Shogo Wada, Michael Morley, Michael Hesse, Bernd K Fleischmann, Joshua Rabinowitz, Saumya Das, Anthony Rosenzweig, Zoltan Arany
Rationale: Pregnancy profoundly alters maternal physiology. The heart hypertrophies during pregnancy, but its metabolic adaptations are not well understood. Objective: To determine the mechanisms underlying cardiac substrate use during pregnancy. Methods and Results: We use here (13)C-glucose, (13)C-lactate, and (13)C-fatty acid tracing analyses to show that hearts in late pregnant mice increase fatty acid uptake and oxidation into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, while reducing glucose and lactate oxidation...
September 19, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923861/mct1-inhibitor-azd3965-increases-mitochondrial-metabolism-facilitating-combination-therapy-and-non-invasive-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#4
Mounia Beloueche-Babari, Slawomir Wantuch, Teresa Casals Galobart, Markela Koniordou, Harold G Parkes, Vaitha Arunan, Yuen-Li Chung, Thomas R Eykyn, Paul D Smith, Martin O Leach
Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) modulate tumor cell metabolism and offer promising therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Understanding the impact of MCT blockade on tumor cell metabolism may help develop combination strategies or identify pharmacodynamic biomarkers to support the clinical development of MCT inhibitors now in clinical trials. In this study, we assessed the impact of the MCT1 inhibitor AZD3965 on cancer cell metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Exposing human lymphoma and colon carcinoma cells to AZD3965 increased MCT4-dependent accumulation of intracellular lactate, inhibiting monocarboxylate influx and efflux...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920930/gator1-regulates-nitrogenic-cataplerotic-reactions-of-the-mitochondrial-tca-cycle
#5
Jun Chen, Benjamin M Sutter, Lei Shi, Benjamin P Tu
The GATOR1 (SEACIT) complex consisting of Iml1-Npr2-Npr3 inhibits target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) in response to amino acid insufficiency. In glucose medium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking the function of this complex grow poorly in the absence of amino acid supplementation, despite showing hallmarks of increased TORC1 signaling. Such mutants sense that they are amino acid replete and thus repress metabolic activities that are important for achieving this state. We found that npr2Δ mutants have defective mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle activity and retrograde response...
September 18, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918775/frankia-asymbiotica-sp-nov-a-non-infective-actinobacterium-isolated-from-morella-californica-root-nodule
#6
Imen Nouioui, Abdellatif Gueddou, Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari, Manfred Rhode, Maher Gtari, Hans-Peter Klenk
The taxonomic status of strain M16386T, a nitrogen-fixing but non-nodulating isolate from Morella californica, was established on the basis of a polyphasic approach. The strain grows as branched hyphae, with vesicles and non-motile productive multilocular sporangia. It metabolizes short fatty acids, TCA cycle intermediates and carbohydrates as carbon sources, and fixes nitrogen in the absence of combined nitrogen source in the growth media. Chemotaxonomic traits of strain M16386T are consistent with its affiliation to the genus Frankia...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917117/anaerobic-granular-sludge-for-simultaneous-biomethanation-of-synthetic-wastewater-and-co-with-focus-on-the-identification-of-co-converting-microorganisms
#7
Yuhang Jing, Stefano Campanaro, Panagiotis Kougias, Laura Treu, Irini Angelidaki, Shicheng Zhang, Gang Luo
CO is a main component of syngas, which can be produced from the gasification of organic wastes and biomass. CO can be converted to methane by anaerobic digestion (AD), however, it is still challenging due to its toxicity to microorganisms and limited knowledge about CO converting microorganisms. In the present study, anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was used for the simultaneous biomethanation of wastewater and CO. Batch experiments showed that AGS tolerated CO partial pressure as high as 0.5 atm without affecting its ability for synthetic wastewater degradation, which had higher tolerance of CO compared to suspended sludge (less than 0...
September 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915789/rapid-transcriptional-and-metabolic-regulation-of-the-deacclimation-process-in-cold-acclimated-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Majken Pagter, Jessica Alpers, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka, Ellen Zuther, Dirk K Hincha
BACKGROUND: During low temperature exposure, temperate plant species increase their freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. This is accompanied by dampened oscillations of circadian clock genes and disrupted oscillations of output genes and metabolites. During deacclimation in response to warm temperatures, cold acclimated plants lose freezing tolerance and resume growth and development. While considerable effort has been directed toward understanding the molecular and metabolic basis of cold acclimation, much less information is available about the regulation of deacclimation...
September 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912786/co-infection-of-sweet-orange-with-severe-and-mild-strains-of-citrus-tristeza-virus-is-overwhelmingly-dominated-by-the-severe-strain-on-both-the-transcriptional-and-biological-levels
#9
Shimin Fu, Jonathan Shao, Changyong Zhou, John S Hartung
Citrus tristeza is one of the most destructive citrus diseases and is caused by the phloem-restricted Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus. Mild strain CTV-B2 does not cause obvious symptoms on indicators whereas severe strain CTV-B6 causes symptoms, including stem pitting, cupping, yellowing, and stiffening of leaves, and vein corking. Our laboratory has previously characterized changes in transcription in sweet orange separately infected with CTV-B2 and CTV-B6. In the present study, transcriptome analysis of Citrus sinensis in response to double infection by CTV-B2 and CTV-B6 was carried out...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901465/1h-nmr-based-metabolic-profiling-of-a-colorectal-cancer-ct-26-lung-metastasis-model-in-mice
#10
Yan Li, Chunting Wang, Dandan Li, Pengchi Deng, Xiaoni Shao, Jing Hu, Chunqi Liu, Hui Jie, Yiyun Lin, Zhuoling Li, Xinying Qian, Huaqin Zhang, Yinglan Zhao
Lung metastasis is an important cause for the low 5-year survival rate of colorectal cancer patients. Understanding the metabolic profile of lung metastasis of colorectal cancer is important for developing molecular diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We carried out the metabonomic profiling of lung tissue samples on a mouse lung metastasis model of colorectal cancer using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The lung tissues of mice were collected at different intervals after marine colon cancer cell line CT-26 was intravenously injected into BALB/c mice...
September 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900542/mitochondrial-dna-haplotypes-induce-differential-patterns-of-dna-methylation-that-result-in-differential-chromosomal-gene-expression-patterns
#11
William T Lee, Xin Sun, Te-Sha Tsai, Jacqueline L Johnson, Jodee A Gould, Daniel J Garama, Daniel J Gough, Matthew McKenzie, Ian A Trounce, Justin C St John
Mitochondrial DNA copy number is strictly regulated during development as naive cells differentiate into mature cells to ensure that specific cell types have sufficient copies of mitochondrial DNA to perform their specialised functions. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes are defined as specific regions of mitochondrial DNA that cluster with other mitochondrial sequences to show the phylogenetic origins of maternal lineages. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes are associated with a range of phenotypes and disease. To understand how mitochondrial DNA haplotypes induce these characteristics, we used four embryonic stem cell lines that have the same set of chromosomes but possess different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900168/identification-of-key-metabolic-changes-during-liver-fibrosis-progression-in-rats-using-a-urine-and-serum-metabolomics-approach
#12
Hong Chang, Hong-Yu Meng, Shu-Min Liu, Yu Wang, Xiao-Xu Yang, Fang Lu, Hong-Yu Wang
Reversibility of hepatic fibrosis is an intrinsic response to chronic injury, and with on-going damage, fibrosis can progress to its end-stage consequence, cirrhosis. Non-invasive and reliable biomarkers for early detection of liver fibrosis are needed. Based on the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rat model, urinary and serum metabolic profiling performed by LC-QTOF-MS associated with histological progression were utilized to identify liver fibrosis-specific potential biomarkers for early prediction and to reveal significant fibrotic pathways and their dynamic changes in different stages of liver fibrosis...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899396/transcriptomic-meta-analysis-identifies-gene-expression-characteristics-in-various-samples-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-nonprogressive-disease
#13
Le-Le Zhang, Zi-Ning Zhang, Xian Wu, Yong-Jun Jiang, Ya-Jing Fu, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: A small proportion of HIV-infected patients remain clinically and/or immunologically stable for years, including elite controllers (ECs) who have undetectable viremia (<50 copies/ml) and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) who maintain normal CD4(+) T cell counts for prolonged periods (>10 years). However, the mechanism of nonprogression needs to be further resolved. In this study, a transcriptome meta-analysis was performed on nonprogressor and progressor microarray data to identify differential transcriptome pathways and potential biomarkers...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893177/integrated-application-of-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics-provides-insights-into-glycogen-content-regulation-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#14
Busu Li, Kai Song, Jie Meng, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
BACKGROUND: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is an important marine fishery resource, which contains high levels of glycogen that contributes to the flavor and the quality of the oyster. However, little is known about the molecular and chemical mechanisms underlying glycogen content differences in Pacific oysters. Using a homogeneous cultured Pacific oyster family, we explored these regulatory networks at the level of the metabolome and the transcriptome. RESULTS: Oysters with the highest and lowest natural glycogen content were selected for differential transcriptome and metabolome analysis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890689/integration-between-glycolysis-and-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-flux-may-explain-preferential-glycolytic-increase-during-brain-activation-requiring-glutamate
#15
REVIEW
Leif Hertz, Ye Chen
The 1988 observation by Fox et al. (1988) that brief intense brain activation increases glycolysis (pyruvate formation from glucose) much more than oxidative metabolism has been abundantly confirmed. Specifically glycolytic increase was unexpected because the amount of ATP it generates is much smaller than that formed by subsequent oxidative metabolism of pyruvate. The present article shows that preferential glycolysis can be explained by metabolic processes associated with activation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884354/synthetic-biology-for-manufacturing-chemicals-constraints-drive-the-use-of-non-conventional-microbial-platforms
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey Czajka, Qinhong Wang, Yechun Wang, Yinjie J Tang
Genetically modified microbes have had much industrial success producing protein-based products (such as antibodies and enzymes). However, engineering microbial workhorses for biomanufacturing of commodity compounds remains challenging. First, microbes cannot afford burdens with both overexpression of multiple enzymes and metabolite drainage for product synthesis. Second, synthetic circuits and introduced heterologous pathways are not yet as "robust and reliable" as native pathways due to hosts' innate regulations, especially under suboptimal fermentation conditions...
September 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883002/genetic-dissociation-of-glycolysis-and-the-tca-cycle-affects-neither-normal-nor-neoplastic-proliferation
#17
Laura E Jackson, Sucheta Kulkarni, Huabo Wang, Jie Lu, James M Dolezal, Sivakama S Bharathi, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Mulchand S Patel, Rahul Deshpande, Frances Alencastro, Stacy G Wendell, Eric S Goetzman, Andrew W Duncan, Edward V Prochownik
Rapidly proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) to generate sufficient levels of glycolytic intermediates for use as anabolic substrates. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a critical mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes pyruvate's conversion to acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), thereby connecting these two pathways in response to complex energetic, enzymatic and metabolic cues. Here we utilized a mouse model of hepatocyte-specific PDC inactivation to determine the need for this metabolic link during normal hepatocyte regeneration and malignant transformation...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882676/malonylome-analysis-in-developing-rice-oryza-sativa-seeds-suggesting-that-protein-lysine-malonylation-is-well-conserved-and-overlaps-with-acetylation-and-succinylation-substantially
#18
Hana Mujahid, Xiaoxi Meng, Shihai Xing, Xiaojun Peng, Cailin Wang, Zhaohua Peng
In recent years, lysine malonylation has garnered wide spread interest due to its potential regulatory roles. While studies have been performed in bacteria, mouse, and human, the involvement and the biological function of this modification in plant are still largely unknown. We examined the global proteome profile of lysine malonylation in developing rice seeds using affinity enrichment followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 421 malonylated lysine sites across 247 proteins. Functional analyses showed predominant presence of malonylated proteins in metabolic processes, including carbon metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, as well as photosynthesis...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881665/hpv-associated-differential-regulation-of-tumor-metabolism-in-oropharyngeal-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
Young-Suk Jung, Abdo J Najy, Wei Huang, Seema Sethi, Michael Snyder, Wael Sakr, Gregory Dyson, Maik Hüttemann, Icksoo Lee, Rouba Ali-Fehmi, Silvia Franceschi, Linda Struijk, Harold E Kim, Ikuko Kato, Hyeong-Reh Choi Kim
HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer patients experience significantly lower locoregional recurrence and higher overall survival in comparison with HPV-negative patients, especially among those who received radiation therapy. The goal of the present study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential radiation sensitivity between HPV-negative and HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we show that HPV-negative HNSCC cells exhibit increased glucose metabolism as evidenced by increased production of lactate, while HPV-positive HNSCC cells effectively utilize mitochondrial respiration as evidenced by increased oxygen consumption...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872622/metabolic-profiling-in-association-with-vascular-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-following-non-toxic-cadmium-exposure
#20
Qiuan Zhong, Xiaofei Li, Qingjiao Nong, Baoyu Mao, Xue Pan
This study aimed to determine the metabolic profile of non-toxic cadmium (Cd)-induced dysfunctional endothelial cells using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs (n = 6 per group) were treated with 0, 1, 5, or 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl₂) for 48 h. Cell phenotypes, including nitric oxide (NO) production, the inflammatory response, and oxidative stress, were evaluated in Cd-exposed and control HUVECs. Cd-exposed and control HUVECs were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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