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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749026/maxillary-unicystic-ameloblastoma-in-a-6-week-old-filly-evaluated-with-computed-tomography
#1
H L Smith, A J Rosenblatt, W W Suen, H Owen, B J Ahern
CASE REPORT: A 6-week-old Thoroughbred filly was presented for evaluation of an expansile mass overlying the right nasal passage and causing respiratory stertor. On skull radiographs, there was a loculated, soft tissue-opaque mass identified dorsal to the right upper premolars and effacing the right nasal cavity. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a locally extensive mass with relatively benign characteristics located centrally on the tooth root apices of the deciduous second premolar (506)...
August 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748836/morphometric-and-morphological-appraisal-of-the-eggs-of-anopheles-stephensi-diptera-culicidae-from-india
#2
Varun Tyagi, Sunil Dhiman, Ajay K Sharma, A R Srivastava, Bipul Rabha, D Sukumaran, Vijay Veer
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Anopheles stephensi is one of the most important urban malaria vectors in India and contribute about 12% of total malaria cases. An. stephensi has three ecological variants; type, intermediate and mysorensis that can be differentiated on the basis of differences in number of ridges on egg float and on the basis of spiracular indices. Because of its anthropophilic nature the 'type' form is an efficient malaria vector. In the present study, the egg surface morphometry and morphology of An...
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747086/menthol-enhances-nicotine-induced-locomotor-sensitization-and-in-vivo-functional-connectivity-in-adolescence
#3
Matthew F Thompson, Guillaume L Poirier, Martha I Dávila-García, Wei Huang, Kelly Tam, Maxwell Robidoux, Michelle L Dubuke, Scott A Shaffer, Luis Colon-Perez, Marcelo Febo, Joseph R DiFranza, Jean A King
Mentholated cigarettes capture a quarter of the US market, and are disproportionately smoked by adolescents. Menthol allosterically modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function, but its effects on the brain and nicotine addiction are unclear. To determine if menthol is psychoactive, we assessed locomotor sensitization and brain functional connectivity. Adolescent male Sprague Dawley rats were administered nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) daily with or without menthol (0.05 mg/kg or 5.38 mg/kg) for nine days. Following each injection, distance traveled in an open field was recorded...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746226/the-use-of-a-dorsal-double-wing-flap-without-skin-grafts-for-congenital-syndactyly-treatment-a-strobe-compliant-study
#4
Yanzhao Dong, Yisheng Wang
Numerous techniques have been developed that use various flaps to treat syndactyly. Skin grafts have often been used to cover remaining surgical defects. The long-term aim of surgery is to find new methods of separating the digits without using skin grafts. This paper describes a new surgical technique for the correction of simple, incomplete, and complete syndactyly. The technique consists of a dorsal double-wing flap to cover the newly created web space and zigzag incisions in the fingers, thus avoiding the use of skin grafts in this space...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746078/spinal-microglia-are-required-for-long-term-maintenance-of-neuropathic-pain
#5
Stefania Echeverry, Xiang Qun Shi, Mu Yang, Hao Huang, YiChen Wu, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Jimena Perez-Sanchez, Robert P Bonin, Yves De Koninck, Ji Zhang
While spinal microglia play a role in early stages of neuropathic pain etiology, whether they are useful targets to reverse chronic pain at late stages remains unknown. Here, we show that microglia activation in the spinal cord persists for >3 months following nerve injury in rodents, beyond involvement of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine signalling. In this chronic phase, selective depletion of spinal microglia in male rats with the targeted immunotoxin Mac1-saporin and blockade of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signalling with intrathecal TrkB Fc chimera, but not cytokine inhibition, almost completely reversed pain hypersensitivity...
June 21, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746067/perturbing-nr2b-psd-95-interaction-relieves-neuropathic-pain-by-inactivating-camkii-creb-signaling
#6
Fangxia Xu, Xin Zhao, Lin Liu, Jia Song, Yingjun Zhu, Shuaishuai Chu, Xueming Shao, Xiuxiu Li, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
Neuropathic pain is characterized by central sensitization. The interaction between N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) plays a major role in central sensitization. Here, we aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of disruption of the interaction between NMDAR and PSD-95. Chronic dorsal root ganglia compression model rats were used to mimic sciatica. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were evaluated. The expression of spinal phospho-NR2B, PSD-95, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) was measured using western blotting...
July 25, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745805/tac-302-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-of-isolated-peripheral-neurons-and-prevents-bladder-denervation-related-bladder-dysfunctions-following-bladder-outlet-obstruction-in-rats
#7
Shohei Yoshida, Naoki Orimoto, Hiroshi Tsukihara, Takahisa Noma, Atsushi Hakozaki, Eiji Sasaki
AIMS: To evaluate the ability of TAC-302, a cyclohexenoic fatty alcohol derivative, to enhance neurite outgrowth in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and the preventive effects of TAC-302 on bladder denervation-related storage and voiding dysfunctions in rats with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). METHODS: Rat DRG neurons were cultured in the presence of TAC-302. Cell numbers and neurite lengths were quantified after a 24 h culture. BOO was achieved by partial ligature of the proximal urethra in female rats...
July 26, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745438/functional-donor-site-morbidity-longer-than-one-year-after-fibula-free-flap-a-prospective-biomechanical-analysis
#8
Carsten Rendenbach, Ashkan Rashad, Lara Hansen, Carsten Kohlmeier, Moritz L Dyck, Anna Suling, Alexandre T Assaf, Michael Amling, Max Heiland, Johannes Wikner, Bjoern Riecke, Kilian Kreutzer
OBJECTIVES: The fibula free flap is the workhorse procedure for osseous reconstruction. The objective of this study was to investigate long-term functional outcomes of the harvesting site. PATIENTS AND METHODS: About 19 patients (10 male, 9 female, mean age 58.1 years) were available for the long-term analysis 13-51 months after surgery. Jumping mechanography and balance testing on a ground force reaction plate (Leonardo Mechanograph GFRP) were performed before and surgery...
July 26, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745083/elemental-diet-accelerates-the-recovery-from-oral-mucositis-and-dermatitis-induced-by-5-fluorouracil-through-the-induction-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-2
#9
Koji Harada, Tarannum Ferdous, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Yoshiya Ueyama
Mucositis and dermatitis induced by anticancer agents are common complications of anticancer therapies. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Elental (Ajinomoto Pharmaceutical Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), an elemental diet with glutamine in the treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis and dermatitis in vivo and tried to clarify the underlying mechanisms of its action. Oral mucositis and dermatitis was induced through a combination of 5-FU treatment and mild abrasion of the cheek pouch in hamsters and the dorsal skin in nude mice respectively...
July 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744939/neural-substrates-of-context-and-person-dependent-altruistic-punishment
#10
Lili Wang, Xiaping Lu, Ruolei Gu, Ruida Zhu, Rui Xu, Lucas S Broster, Chunliang Feng
Human altruistic behaviors are heterogeneous across both contexts and people, whereas the neural signatures underlying the heterogeneity remain to be elucidated. To address this issue, we examined the neural signatures underlying the context- and person-dependent altruistic punishment, conjoining event-related fMRI with both task-based and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Acting as an impartial third party, participants decided how to punish norm violators either alone or in the presence of putative others...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744927/hyphessobrycon-platyodus-teleostei-characiformes-a-new-species-from-the-rio-madeira-basin-brazil-with-comments-on-how-multicuspid-teeth-relate-to-feeding-habits-in-characidae
#11
W M Ohara, V P Abrahão, V C Espíndola
A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from the Rio Juma, a tributary of the lower Rio Aripuanã-Rio Madeira basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon platyodus can be distinguished from its congeners by the: presence of an elongated dorsal fin in adult males, 25-28 branched anal-fin rays and absence of dark blotches from the dorsal fin and caudal peduncle. The presence of multicuspid teeth in species of Characidae and its relation with feeding habits are briefly commented on.
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744915/characterization-of-glcci1-expression-in-a-subpopulation-of-lateral-ganglionic-eminence-progenitors-in-the-mouse-telencephalon
#12
Vikram Kohli, Diana Nardini, Lisa A Ehrman, Ronald R Waclaw
The lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) in the ventral telencephalon is a diverse progenitor domain subdivided by distinct gene expression into a dorsal region (dLGE) that gives rise to olfactory bulb and amygdalar interneurons and a ventral region (vLGE) that gives rise to striatal projection neurons. The homeobox gene, Gsx2, is an enriched marker of the LGE and is expressed in a high dorsal to low ventral gradient in the ventricular zone (VZ) as development proceeds. Aside from Gsx2, markers restricted to the VZ in the dorsal and/or ventral LGE remain largely unknown...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744913/aggression-related-brain-function-assessed-with-the-point-subtraction-aggression-paradigm-in-fmri
#13
Anine P Skibsted, Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Justin M Carré, Adam E Hansen, Vincent Beliveau, Gitte M Knudsen, Patrick M Fisher
The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression-related brain reactivity including response to provocations and associations with aggression within the paradigm. Twenty healthy participants completed two 12-min PSAP sessions within the scanner. We evaluated brain responses to aggressive behavior (removing points from an opponent), provocations (point subtractions by the opponent), and winning points...
July 25, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744909/high-diversity-in-neuropeptide-immunoreactivity-patterns-among-three-closely-related-species-of-dinophilidae-annelida
#14
Alexandra Kerbl, Markus Conzelmann, Gáspár Jékely, Katrine Worsaae
Neuropeptides are conserved metazoan signaling molecules, and represent useful markers for comparative investigations on the morphology and function of the nervous system. However, little is known about the variation of neuropeptide expression patterns across closely related species in invertebrate groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744071/sequential-mr-imaging-with-diffusion-weighted-imaging-changes-in-metronidazole-induced-encephalopathy
#15
Rupinder Singh, Ramanjeet Kaur, Pawan Pokhariyal, Rajul Aggarwal
Metronidazole-induced neuro-toxicity, though rare, is known. A characteristic spatial distribution of lesions in cerebellar dentate nuclei and dorsal pons is known. However, temporal progression of lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been described previously. We describe two such cases which presented initially with splenial hyperintesity and showed progression to characterstic lesions. Both cases improved with stoppage of metronidazole.
April 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743861/multimodal-fingerprints-of-resting-state-networks-as-assessed-by-simultaneous-trimodal-mr-pet-eeg-imaging
#16
N J Shah, J Arrubla, R Rajkumar, E Farrher, J Mauler, E Rota Kops, L Tellmann, J Scheins, F Boers, J Dammers, P Sripad, C Lerche, K J Langen, H Herzog, I Neuner
Simultaneous MR-PET-EEG (magnetic resonance imaging - positron emission tomography - electroencephalography), a new tool for the investigation of neuronal networks in the human brain, is presented here for the first time. It enables the assessment of molecular metabolic information with high spatial and temporal resolution in a given brain simultaneously. Here, we characterize the brain's default mode network (DMN) in healthy male subjects using multimodal fingerprinting by quantifying energy metabolism via 2- [(18)F]fluoro-2-desoxy-D-glucose PET (FDG-PET), the inhibition - excitation balance of neuronal activation via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), its functional connectivity via fMRI and its electrophysiological signature via EEG...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743859/let-7-microrna-dependent-control-of-leukotriene-signaling-regulates-the-transition-of-hematopoietic-niche-in-mice
#17
Xuan Jiang, John S Hawkins, Jerry Lee, Carlos O Lizama, Frank L Bos, Joan P Zape, Prajakta Ghatpande, Yongbo Peng, Justin Louie, Giorgio Lagna, Ann C Zovein, Akiko Hata
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells arise from the vascular endothelium of the dorsal aorta and subsequently switch niche to the fetal liver through unknown mechanisms. Here we report that vascular endothelium-specific deletion of mouse Drosha (Drosha (cKO)), an enzyme essential for microRNA biogenesis, leads to anemia and death. A similar number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells emerge from Drosha-deficient and control vascular endothelium, but Drosha (cKO)-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells accumulate in the dorsal aorta and fail to colonize the fetal liver...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743754/sik3-hdac4-signaling-regulates-drosophila-circadian-male-sex-drive-rhythm-via-modulating-the-dn1-clock-neurons
#18
Shinsuke Fujii, Patrick Emery, Hubert Amrein
The physiology and behavior of many organisms are subject to daily cycles. In Drosophila melanogaster the daily locomotion patterns of single flies are characterized by bursts of activity at dawn and dusk. Two distinct clusters of clock neurons-morning oscillators (M cells) and evening oscillators (E cells)-are largely responsible for these activity bursts. In contrast, male-female pairs of flies follow a distinct pattern, most notably characterized by an activity trough at dusk followed by a high level of male courtship during the night...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743726/why-new-spinal-cord-plasticity-does-not-disrupt-old-motor-behaviors
#19
Yi Chen, Lu Chen, Yu Wang, Xiang Yang Chen, Jonathan R Wolpaw
When new motor learning changes the spinal cord, old behaviors are not impaired; their key features are preserved by additional, compensatory, plasticity. To explore the mechanisms responsible for this compensatory plasticity, we transected the spinal dorsal ascending tract (DA) before or after female rats acquired a new behavior -- operantly conditioned increase or decrease in the right soleus H-reflex - and examined an old behavior - locomotion. Neither DA transection nor H-reflex conditioning alone impaired locomotion...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743620/reviewing-the-functional-basis-of-the-syntactic-merge-mechanism-for-language-a-coordinate-based-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Emiliano Zaccarella, Marianne Schell, Angela D Friederici
The ability to create structures out of single words is a key aspect of human language. This combinatorial capacity relies on a low-level syntactic mechanism-Merge-assembling words into hierarchies. Neuroscience has explored Merge by comparing syntax to word-lists. Here, we first review potential issues with the word-lists materials. We then perform an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) on the reported foci, to reveal functional convergence for Merge at whole-brain level. Finally, we run probabilistic tractography on an independent population to observe how these convergent activations anatomically connect...
July 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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