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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637254/phylogeography-of-lionfishes-pterois-indicate-taxonomic-over-splitting-and-hybrid-origin-of-the-invasive-pterois-volitans
#1
Christie L Wilcox, Hiroyuki Motomura, Mizuki Matsunuma, Brian W Bowen
The lionfish is an iconic marine fish, and recently renowned for a disastrous introduction into the West Atlantic. Genetic surveys of the putative invaders (Pterois volitans and P. miles) in their natural Indo-Pacific range can illuminate both topics. Previous research indicated that P. volitans and P. miles are sister species that hybridize in the invasive range, but hybridization in the native range is unknown. Here we apply mtDNA COI and two nuclear introns (S7 RP1 and Gpd2) from 229 lionfish including the two invaders and two closely-related taxa (44 P...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636944/transduction-of-repetitive-mechanical-stimuli-by-piezo1-and-piezo2-ion-channels
#2
Amanda H Lewis, Alisa F Cui, Malcolm F McDonald, Jörg Grandl
Several cell types experience repetitive mechanical stimuli, including vein endothelial cells during pulsating blood flow, inner ear hair cells upon sound exposure, and skin cells and their innervating dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons when sweeping across a textured surface or touching a vibrating object. While mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels have been clearly implicated in sensing static touch, their roles in transducing repetitive stimulations are less clear. Here, we perform electrophysiological recordings of heterologously expressed mouse Piezo1 and Piezo2 responding to repetitive mechanical stimulations...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636929/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-alteration-of-dorsal-and-rostral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-resting-fmri-study
#3
Zongfeng Zhang, Qing Fan, Yajing Zhu, Ling Tan, Yongjun Chen, Rui Gao, Haiyin Zhang, Yao Li, Zeping Xiao
Cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit has been implicated in OCD pathophysiology by converging neuroimaging findings. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as an important part within CSTC circuit, plays a critical role in OCD etiology. The ACC can be divided into dorsal and rostral parts anatomically, which are involved in cognitive process and emotional function, respectively. However, the diverse function of intrinsic signals from dorsal and rostral ACC regions remains unclear in OCD study. In this work, we applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technology to investigate and differentiate the functional connectivity (FC) characteristics between dACC and rACC in unmedicated OCD patients...
June 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636927/noxious-but-not-innocuous-thermal-stimuli-evoke-perk-expression-in-dorsal-horn-neurons-after-spared-nerve-injury-in-adult-rats
#4
Mohamad S Samour, Sumaiya M Shaikh, David A Mahns, Peter J Shortland
Noxious stimulation of sensory afferents evokes phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) expression in spinal cord neurons. This study investigated the expression of pERK in the dorsal horn neurons in response to innocuous and noxious cold stimuli in naïve versus spared nerve injury (SNI) rats. Noxious cold or hot stimuli (0 or 45°C) elicited pERK expression in laminae I-II whereas cooling stimuli from 32°C to 25, 15 or 5°C produced no or little pERK expression in dorsal horn neurons...
June 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636697/role-of-positive-parenting-in-the-association-between-neighborhood-social-disadvantage-and-brain-development-across-adolescence
#6
Sarah Whittle, Nandita Vijayakumar, Julian G Simmons, Meg Dennison, Orli Schwartz, Christos Pantelis, Lisa Sheeber, Michelle L Byrne, Nicholas B Allen
Importance: The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. Objective: To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636600/hidden-morphological-diversity-among-early-tetrapods
#7
Jason D Pardo, Matt Szostakiwskyj, Per E Ahlberg, Jason S Anderson
Phylogenetic analysis of early tetrapod evolution has resulted in a consensus across diverse data sets in which the tetrapod stem group is a relatively homogenous collection of medium- to large-sized animals showing a progressive loss of 'fish' characters as they become increasingly terrestrial, whereas the crown group demonstrates marked morphological diversity and disparity. The oldest fossil attributed to the tetrapod crown group is the highly specialized aïstopod Lethiscus stocki, which shows a small size, extreme axial elongation, loss of limbs, spool-shaped vertebral centra, and a skull with reduced centres of ossification, in common with an otherwise disparate group of small animals known as lepospondyls...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635137/effect-of-body-position-eyelid-manipulation-and-manual-jugular-compression-on-intraocular-pressure-in-clinically-normal-cats
#8
Seyed Mehdi Rajaei, Faezeh Asadi, Mohammad Reza Rajabian, Hesam Ostadhassan, Manuela Crasta
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of body position, eyelid manipulation, and manual jugular compression on intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal cats. ANIMAL STUDIED: TWENTY-ONE ADULT CLIENT-OWNED DOMESTIC SHORTHAIR CATS: PROCEDURES: The IOP was measured by means of rebound tonometer. A baseline IOP was measured in all cats in ventral recumbency with normal head position (horizontal to the ground) with no pressure on the neck or eyelids. To measure the IOP in dorsal recumbency, each cat was held in the dorsal recumbency position for 5 min...
June 20, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634743/comminuted-olecranon-fractures-biomechanical-testing-of-locked-versus-minifragment-non-locked-plate-fixation
#9
David S Wellman, Scott M Tucker, Josh R Baxter, Nadine C Pardee, Lionel E Lazaro, Christopher S Smith, Dean G Lorich, David L Helfet
INTRODUCTION: Open reduction and internal fixation has long been accepted as optimal treatment for displaced olecranon fractures based on poor results seen with conservative management. With the presence of comminution, tension-band wiring constructs are contraindicated due to tendency to compress through fragments, thereby shortening the articular segment. Therefore, plate fixation is typically employed. Our hypothesis was that in a comminuted fracture model, 2.7 mm reconstruction plating without locking screws will perform equally to 3...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634448/from-behavioral-facilitation-to-inhibition-the-neuronal-correlates-of-the-orienting-and-reorienting-of-auditory-attention
#10
Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Juan R Bustillo, Christopher C Abbott, Andrew R Mayer
Successful adaptive behavior relies on the ability to automatically (bottom-up) orient attention to different locations in the environment. This results in a biphasic pattern in which reaction times (RT) are faster for stimuli that occur in the same spatial location (valid) for the first few hundred milliseconds, which is termed facilitation. This is followed by faster RT for stimuli that appear in novel locations (invalid) after longer delays, termed inhibition of return. The neuronal areas and networks involved in the transition between states of facilitation and inhibition remain poorly understood, especially for auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634406/enhancing-kcc2-function-counteracts-morphine-induced-hyperalgesia
#11
Francesco Ferrini, Louis-Etienne Lorenzo, Antoine G Godin, Miorie Le Quang, Yves De Koninck
Morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) is a severe adverse effect accompanying repeated morphine treatment, causing a paradoxical decrease in nociceptive threshold. Previous reports associated MIH with a decreased expression of the Cl(-) extruder KCC2 in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, weakening spinal GABAA/glycine-mediated postsynaptic inhibition. Here, we tested whether the administration of small molecules enhancing KCC2, CLP257 and its pro-drug CLP290, may counteract MIH. MIH was typically expressed within 6-8 days of morphine treatment...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634350/a-subset-of-cerebrovascular-pericytes-originates-from-mature-macrophages-in-the-very-early-phase-of-vascular-development-in-cns
#12
Seiji Yamamoto, Masashi Muramatsu, Erika Azuma, Masashi Ikutani, Yoshinori Nagai, Hiroshi Sagara, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Satomi Kita, Erin O'Donnell, Tsuyoshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Takano, Mitsuko Dohmoto, Michiya Sugimori, Isao Usui, Yasuhide Watanabe, Noboru Hatakeyama, Takahiro Iwamoto, Issei Komuro, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Kazuyuki Tobe, Shumpei Niida, Naoyuki Matsuda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masakiyo Sasahara
Pericytes are believed to originate from either mesenchymal or neural crest cells. It has recently been reported that pericytes play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating blood-brain barrier homeostasis and blood flow at the capillary level. However, the origin of CNS microvascular pericytes and the mechanism of their recruitment remain unknown. Here, we show a new source of cerebrovascular pericytes during neurogenesis. In the CNS of embryonic day 10.5 mouse embryos, CD31(+)F4/80(+) hematopoietic lineage cells were observed in the avascular region around the dorsal midline of the developing midbrain...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634208/ligand-and-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-differentially-regulate-the-mode-of-vesicular-neuropeptide-release-in-mammalian-sensory-neurons
#13
Yeshi Wang, Qihui Wu, Meiqin Hu, Bin Liu, Zuying Chai, Rong Huang, Yuan Wang, Huadong Xu, Li Zhou, Lianghong Zheng, Changhe Wang, Zhuan Zhou
Neuropeptides released from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons play essential roles in the neurotransmission of sensory inputs, including those underlying nociception and pathological pain. Neuropeptides are released from intracellular vesicles through two modes: a partial release mode called "kiss-and-run" (KAR) and a full release mode called "full fusion-like" (FFL). Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we traced the release of pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein-tagged neuropeptide Y (pHluorin-NPY) from individual dense-core vesicles in the soma and axon of single DRG neurons after Ca(2+) influx through either voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) or ligand-gated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634107/chronic-pramipexole-treatment-induces-compulsive-behavior-in-rats-with-6-ohda-lesions-of-the-substantia-nigra-and-ventral-tegmental-area
#14
D Dardou, L Reyrolle, C Chassain, F Durif
Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) reduces motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but also induces impulsive-compulsive behavior (ICB) in up to 25% of PD patients. These non-motor side effects of DRT generally follow a gradual transition from impulsive to compulsive-like-i.e. repetitive, compelled, and non-pleasurable-behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic pramipexole (PPX) treatment on the onset of compulsive-like behavior, measured via the post-training signal attenuation (PTSA) procedure, in rats with dopaminergic lesions...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#15
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633957/displacement-patterns-of-stranded-i-125-seeds-after-permanent-brachytherapy-of-the-prostate-dosimetry-in-the-operating-room-put-into-perspective
#16
Marcel J Steggerda, Ferrie van den Boom, Thelma Witteveen, Luc M F Moonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The reliability of post-implant dosimetry in the OR depends on the geometrical variability of implant and anatomy after the procedure. The purpose was to gain detailed information on seed displacement patterns in different sectors of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 33 patients with stranded seed implants the seed geometry and the dose distribution were compared between the situation in the OR just after the procedure, based on ultrasound images, and the situation after 1month, based on registered CT and MR images...
June 17, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633797/sponge-rubber-revealed-two-years-after-penetrating-injury-a%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-report
#17
Sandor Roth, Maja Zaninovic, Aron Roth
The present report illustrates a very rare case report of a foreign body granuloma of the foot associated with a 2-year period of a retained spongeous rubber foreign body after a penetrating injury. Because it appeared almost 2 years after the injury, the history of trauma was minimized, the foreign body had migrated from the plantar to the dorsal side of the foot, and the radiographic appearance resembled a malignant process, it was difficult to rule out the possibility of a malignant tumor. This case shows the weakness of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting spongeous rubber in the body...
July 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633796/cotton-osteotomy-in-flatfoot-reconstruction-a-case-report-highlighting-surgical-technique-and-modified-incision-to-protect-the%C3%A2-medial-dorsal-cutaneous-nerve
#18
Troy J Boffeli, Katherine R Schnell
The Cotton osteotomy or opening wedge medial cuneiform osteotomy is a useful adjunctive flatfoot reconstructive procedure that is rarely performed in isolation. The Cotton procedure is relatively quick to perform and effectively corrects forefoot varus deformity after rearfoot fusion or osteotomy to achieve a rectus forefoot to rearfoot relationship. Proper patient selection is critical, because preoperative findings of medial column joint instability, concomitant hallux valgus deformity, or degenerative joint disease of the medial column might be better treated with arthrodesis of the naviculocuneiform or first tarsometatarsal joints...
July 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633076/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampus-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#19
Amit Lazarov, Xi Zhu, Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Bret R Rutherford, Yuval Neria
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of several brain regions within the salience (SN) and default-mode (DMN) networks, including the hippocampus. However, most rs-FC studies have not focused primarily on the hippocampus, nor have they appreciated its structural heterogeneity, despite clear evidence for a dissociation between posterior and anterior hippocampal connectivity. Here, we examine rs-FC of anterior and posterior hippocampus with key regions in the SN (amygdala, insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area) and DMN (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus) previously implicated in PTSD, using a seed-based approach...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632750/renal-sodium-handling-and-blood-pressure-changes-in-gestational-protein-restricted-offspring-role-of-renal-nerves-and-ganglia-neurokinin-expression
#20
Augusto H Custódio, Marcelo C de Lima, Bárbara Vaccari, Patrícia A Boer, José A R Gontijo
BACKGROUND: Considering long-term changes in renal sodium handling and blood pressure in maternal protein-restricted (LP) offspring, we assumed that the development of LP hypertension results from abnormal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurokinin expression associated with impaired responsiveness of renal sensory receptors, promoting a reduced urinary excretion of sodium. The present study investigates whether increased blood pressure in protein-restricted offspring would be associated with changes in the DRG cells and in renal pelvic wall expression of NK1R, SP and CGRP when compared to NP offspring...
2017: PloS One
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