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Feng-Ming Zhou, Ruo-Xiao Cheng, Shuai Wang, Ya Huang, Yong-Jing Gao, Yan Zhou, Teng-Teng Liu, Xue-Long Wang, Li-Hua Chen, Tong Liu
Itch (pruritus) is one of the most disabling syndromes in patients suffering from skin, liver, or kidney diseases. Our previous study highlighted a key role of oxidative stress in acute itch. Here, we evaluated the effects of antioxidants in mouse models of acute and chronic itch and explored the potential mechanisms. The effects of systemic administration of the antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) were determined by behavioral tests in mouse models of acute itch induced by compound 48/80 or chloroquine, and chronic itch by treatment with a mixture of acetone-diethyl-ether-water...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Anita Balázs, Zoltán Mészár, Krisztina Hegedűs, Annamária Kenyeres, Zoltán Hegyi, Klaudia Dócs, Miklós Antal
The superficial spinal dorsal horn is the first relay station of pain processing. It is also widely accepted that spinal synaptic processing to control the modality and intensity of pain signals transmitted to higher brain centers is primarily defined by inhibitory neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. Earlier studies suggest that the construction of pain processing spinal neural circuits including the GABAergic components should be completed by birth, although major chemical refinements may occur postnatally...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Nick A van Alphen, Mohamed Morsy, Alexis T Laungani, Assaf Kadar, Andrew J Vercnocke, Nirusha Lachman, Erik L Ritman, Steven L Moran
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to use micro-computed tomography to demonstrate the intraosseous vascularity of the lunate within a three-dimensional orientation to identify areas of greatest perfusion and define vascular "safe zones" for surgical intervention. METHODS: Fourteen upper extremities were injected with a lead-based contrast agent. The lunates were harvested and scanned using a micro-computed tomography scanner. The intraosseous vascularity was incorporated into a three-dimensional image...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Leslie E Cohen, Thomas A Imahiyerobo, Jeffrey R Scott, Jason A Spector
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial performance of a rifampin/minocycline-coated, non-cross-linked, acellular porcine dermal matrix (XenMatrix AB) compared to an uncoated, non-cross-linked, acellular porcine dermal matrix (Strattice) after implantation/inoculation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli in a dorsal rabbit model. METHODS: Forty male New Zealand White rabbits were bilaterally implanted with XenMatrix AB or Strattice grafts and inoculated with clinically isolated methicillin-resistant S...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
J Roger, L Mathieu, F Mottier, F Vigouroux, F Chauvin, F Rongiéras
The authors report and discuss the management of a 25-year-old male patient with a trapeziometacarpal joint dislocation complicated by a trapezium fracture. This injury combination is rare with only reported 15 cases. After closed reduction resulted in dorsal instability, anatomical reduction of the trapezium fracture and internal screw fixation were performed using an open approach. This fixation stabilized the joint but was fragile due to the small fragment size. For this reason, ligament reconstruction using half of the flexor carpi radialis tendon was added...
September 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
S Honecker, J J Hidalgo Diaz, K Naito, E Pire, G Prunières, S Facca, P Liverneaux
As an alternative to amputation of the little finger, we report here seven cases of shortening arthrodesis carried out by resecting the middle phalanx and proximodistal interphalangeal (PDIP) arthrodesis. Our cohort consisted of 6 males and 1 female (58years average age), with a stiff little finger secondary to Dupuytren's disease or trauma. All fingers were approached dorsally; after resection of the middle phalanx and decortication of the subchondral bone, fusion of the remaining phalanges was performed using an intramedullary self-breaking screw-pin...
September 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Y-Q He, X-Q Lang, L Lin, L Ji, X-Y Yuan, Q Chen, Y-M Ran, H-S Chen, L Li, J-M Wang, Z-G Wang, H Gregersen, D-W Zou, H-P Liang, M Yang
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often share co-morbidity with chronic pain conditions. Recent studies suggest a role of P2X3 receptors and ATP signaling in pain conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms of visceral hyperalgesia following exposure to PTSD-like stress conditions remain unclarified. METHODS: The behavior and hormones relevant for PTSD were studied. Visceromotor responses (VMR) and the abdominal withdrawal reflexes (AWR) to colorectal distention (CRD) were recorded to determine P2X3-receptor-mediated alteration of hyperalgesia following single-prolonged stress (SPS) exposure...
October 25, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Blair W McPhee, Paul Upchurch, Philip D Mannion, Corwin Sullivan, Richard J Butler, Paul M Barrett
The Early Jurassic of China has long been recognized for its diverse array of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. However, the contribution of this record to our understanding of early sauropod evolution is complicated by a dearth of information on important transitional taxa. We present a revision of the poorly known taxon Sanpasaurus yaoi Young, 1944 from the late Early Jurassic Ziliujing Formation of Sichuan Province, southwest China. Initially described as the remains of an ornithopod ornithischian, we demonstrate that the material catalogued as IVPP V156 is unambiguously referable to Sauropoda...
2016: PeerJ
Salvatore Torrisi, Camilla L Nord, Nicholas L Balderston, Jonathan P Roiser, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The habenula, a portion of the epithalamus, is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety and addiction disorders. Its small size and connection to other small regions prevent standard human imaging from delineating its structure and connectivity with confidence. Resting state functional connectivity is an established method for mapping connections across the brain from a seed region of interest. The present study takes advantage of 7 T fMRI to map, for the first time, the habenula resting state network with very high spatial resolution in 32 healthy human participants...
October 22, 2016: NeuroImage
Prajakta A Dhage, Lekha K Kamble, Shobha Y Bhargava
Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD- 1) is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates the levels of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen. ROS are known to play a significant role in various cellular processes, via redox modification of a variety of molecules that participate in signaling pathways involved in this processes. As the levels of ROS in cells are controlled by the levels of antioxidant enzymes, thus SOD-1 may be indirectly involved in regulating different cellular processes by maintaining the required levels of H2O2...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Florian P Fischmeister, Mauricio J D Martins, Roland Beisteiner, W Tecumseh Fitch
Humans generate recursive hierarchies in a variety of domains, including linguistic, social and visuo-spatial modalities. The ability to represent recursive structures has been hypothesized to increase the efficiency of hierarchical processing. Theoretical work together with recent empirical findings suggests that the ability to represent the self-similar structure of hierarchical recursive stimuli may be supported by internal neural representations that compress raw external information and increase efficiency...
September 23, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Man-Yi Cui, Hui Shen
This paper describes a new technique in the repair of the hand defect with digital extensor tendon injury. The anterolateral thigh flap with the thick femoral fascia has been used in the reconstruction of the composite defect of the dorsal hand, especially the defect of tendon. This technique requires short period of treatment and hence causes less damage to the donor site but shows a better recovery of the hand function. A favorable curative effect has been obtained in this patient.
October 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
En-Qi Guo, Qing-Ping Xie
Management of defects on the hand and foot with exposed tendons remains a major challenge for plastic surgeons. Here, we present a case of hand reconstruction with a totally laparoscopic peritoneal flap. The anterior rectus sheath was preserved in situ. The peritoneal free flap supplied by peritoneal branches of the deep inferior epigastric artery was retrieved by laparoscopy to cover the soft tissue defect of the hand. The defect of the dorsal hand was 17 cm ×12 cm. The peritoneal flap measuring 22 cm × 15 cm survived completely without any complications...
October 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Se Hyeon Jang, Hae Jin Jeong, Øjvind Moestrup, Nam Seon Kang, Sung Yeon Lee, Kyung Ha Lee, Kyeong Ah Seong
A small (7-11 μm long), dinoflagellate with thin amphiesmal plates was isolated into culture from a water sample collected in coastal waters off Yeosu, southern Korea, and examined by LM, SEM, and TEM, and molecular analyses. The hemispheric episome was smaller than the hyposome. The nucleus was oval and situated from the central to the episomal region of the cell. A large yellowish-brown chloroplast was located at the end of the hyposome, and some small chloroplasts extended into the periphery of the episome...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Hilmi Şen, Melike Oruç, Veysel Murat Işik, Murat Sadiç, Hamide Sayar, Rana Çitil, Meliha Korkmaz, Uğur Koçer
BACKGROUND: Necrosis of random pattern flaps caused by inadequate blood flow, especially in the distal part of the flap is one of the biggest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Various agents have been used to prevent flap ischemia. In this study, we used omeprazole, which is a potent inhibitor of gastric acidity to increase flap viability. METHODS: In this study, 35 Wistar-Albino type rats which were divided into 5 equal groups were used. Random-pattern dorsal skin flaps were raised in all groups at seventh day of the study...
October 24, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Elise M Bragg, Elizabeth A Fairless, Shiyuan Liu, Farran Briggs
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Naoki Wada, Takahiro Shimizu, Shun Takai, Nobutaka Shimizu, Anthony J Kanai, Pradeep Tyagi, Hidehiro Kakizaki, Naoki Yoshimura
AIMS: To examine the effects of a different number of daily bladder squeezes on bladder dysfunction in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Spinal cord was transected at the Th8/9 in female C57BL/6N mice. Their bladders were manually squeezed to eliminate urine inside every day for 4 weeks. The mice were divided into three groups depending on the number of bladder squeezes; A: once daily, B: twice daily, C: three times daily. Four weeks after transection, single-filling cystometry were performed under an awake condition...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Utsav Bansal, Thomas W Fuller, Xuewen Jiang, Jathin Bandari, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
AIMS: To determine the spinal segmental afferent contributions to tibial and pudendal inhibition of bladder overactivity. METHODS: Intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity in anesthetized cats. Tibial or pudendal nerve stimulation was used to suppress the bladder overactivity and increase bladder capacity during cystometry. L5-S3 dorsal roots ipsilateral to the stimulation were exposed by a laminectomy and transected sequentially during the experiments to determine the role of individual dorsal roots in tibial or pudendal neuromodulation...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Becky D Clarkson, Shachi Tyagi, Derek J Griffiths, Neil M Resnick
OBJECTIVE: To assess short-term repeatability of an fMRI protocol widely used to assess brain control of the bladder. fMRI offers the potential to discern incontinence phenotypes as well as the mechanisms mediating therapeutic response. If so, this could enable more targeted efforts to enhance therapy. Such data, however, require excellent test-retest repeatability. METHODS: Fifty-nine older women (age ≥60 years) with urgency incontinence underwent two fMRI scans within 5-10 min with a concurrent bladder infusion/withdrawal protocol...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Carsten R Bjarkam, Andreas N Glud, Dariusz Orlowski, Jens Christian H Sørensen, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
During the last 20 years pigs have become increasingly popular in large animal translational neuroscience research as an economical and ethical feasible substitute to non-human primates. The anatomy of the pig telencephalon is, however, not well known. We present, accordingly, a detailed description of the surface anatomy and cytoarchitecture of the Göttingen minipig telencephalon based on macrophotos and consecutive high-power microphotographs of 15 μm thick paraffin embedded Nissl-stained coronal sections...
October 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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