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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454455/brainstem-tuberculous-abscesses-successfully-treated-by-microsurgical-excision-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Baofeng Xu, Yandong Zhang, Jinlu Yu
In patients without systemic manifestations of tuberculosis, isolated brainstem tuberculous abscesses are infrequently observed. The present study reports a rare case of two cystic tuberculous abscesses involving the dorsal aspect of the medulla oblongata in an otherwise healthy 14-year-old Chinese girl, whose primary complaint was respiratory distress. These lesions were successfully treated using a microsurgical excision approach and anti-tuberculosis therapy. Although rare, tuberculous abscesses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated cystic brainstem lesions...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453346/outcomes-of-surface-replacement-proximal-interphalangeal-joint-arthroplasty-through-a-volar-approach-a-prospective-study
#2
Thomas E Trumble, Dennis J Heaton
BACKGROUND: The dorsal approach to the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint provides the advantage of improved visualization of the articular surface, while the disadvantage of a dorsal approach is the disruption of the central slip and extensor mechanism requiring a delay in range of motion exercises. A volar approach keeps the central slip and extensor mechanism intact, allowing for early range of motion. The goal of this study was to evaluate patient outcomes of surface replacement (SR) PIP joint arthroplasty performed through a volar approach...
May 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453343/acute-isolated-flexor-tendon-laceration-associated-with-a-distal-radius-fracture
#3
J Ryan Hill, Ram K Alluri, Alidad Ghiassi
BACKGROUND: Subacute rupture of the flexor tendons secondary to distal radius fractures is well documented. Recently, accounts of flexor tendon rupture following open reduction internal fixation have been associated with volar plate fixation. However, discovery of an occult traumatic flexor tendon laceration during fixation of an acute distal radius fracture is not well described. This case indicates the importance of careful preoperative and intraoperative examination of the flexor tendons in the setting of comminuted distal radius fractures...
May 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453337/venous-bridge-arterial-grafting-for-thumb-replantation
#4
Eric R Wagner, Allen T Bishop, Alexander Y Shin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to describe a novel technique using an interposition vein graft for thumb replantation in these severe avulsion injuries. METHODS: From 2002 to 2012, 8 patients underwent interposition venous bridge grafting from the dorsal radial artery at the anatomic snuffbox to the ulnar digital artery of the thumb. All patients had a traumatic thumb amputation with a severe injury to the ulnar digital artery. The technique began with bony stabilization; the radial artery at the anatomic snuffbox is exposed, vein graft harvested, and microsurgical end-to-side (proximally) and end-to-end (distally) anastomoses are carried out...
May 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449268/ventral-but-not-dorsal-hippocampus-inactivation-impairs-reward-memory-expression-and-retrieval-in-contexts-defined-by-proximal-cues
#5
Sadia Riaz, Anett Schumacher, Seyon Sivagurunathan, Matthijs Van Der Meer, Rutsuko Ito
The hippocampus (HPC) has been widely implicated in the contextual control of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, whole hippocampal lesions do not invariably impair all forms of contextual processing, as in the case of complex biconditional context discrimination, leading to contention over the exact nature of the contribution of the HPC in contextual processing. Moreover, the increasingly well-established functional dissociation between the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) subregions of the HPC has been largely overlooked in the existing literature on hippocampal-based contextual memory processing in appetitively-motivated tasks...
April 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449227/apremilast-for-a-psoriasis-patient-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-c
#6
Shivani P Reddy, Vidhi V Shah, Jashin J Wu
A 46-year old male with HIV, hepatitis C, and moderate psoriasis was resistant to starting ultra violet B phototherapy due to scheduling issues. The patient had 8% body surface area (BSA) affected on the dorsal hands, elbows, and legs, did not have associated psoriatic arthritis, and had not tried any systemic therapy in the past. He was initiated on an apremilast starter pack (dosages titrated up from 10 mg to 30 mg over the course of one week) and maintained on 30 mg twice a day after one week. This article is protected by copyright...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448862/the-first-case-report-of-failed-single-anastomosis-duodeno-ileal-bypass-converted-to-one-anastomosis-gastric-bypass-mini-gastric-bypass
#7
Sonja Chiappetta, Christine Stier, Oliver Scheffel, Sophia Theodoridou, Rudolf Weiner
INTRODUCTION: The established single-anastomosis-duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) is based on a sleeve gastrectomy (SG) as the restrictive part of the procedure. Due to preserved pylorus, SG has the disadvantage of a high-pressure system with de novo or worsening of existing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). CASE PRESENTATION: A female patient presented herself due to protracted GERD and weight regain after multiple bariatric surgeries...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448515/chronic-cocaine-induces-hif-vegf-pathway-activation-along-with-angiogenesis-in-the-brain
#8
Wei Yin, Kevin Clare, Qiujia Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Congwu Du
Cocaine induces vasoconstriction in cerebral vessels, which with repeated use can result in transient ischemic attacks and cerebral strokes. However, the neuroadaptations that follow cocaine's vasoconstricting effects are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic cocaine exposure (2 and 4 weeks) on markers of vascular function and morphology in the rat brain. For this purpose we measured nitric oxide (NO) concentration in plasma, brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1), HIF-1α, and VEGF expression in different brain regions, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448428/therapeutic-ultrasound-in-navicular-stress-injuries-in-elite-track-and-field-athletes
#9
Nikolaos Malliaropoulos, Dimosthenis Alaseirlis, George Konstantinidis, Agapi Papalada, Ioannis Tsifountoudis, Kosmas Petras, Nicola Maffulli
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) can be used to assess the progression of conservative management in navicular stress injuries. DESIGN: This is a prospective, clinical case series. Level of evidence IV. SETTING: All participants were examined and followed up in a private Sports Injury Clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Ten elite track and field athletes with severe dorsal midfoot pain over the navicular bone participated in this study...
May 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448016/zebrafish-in-situ-spinal-cord-preparation-for-electrophysiological-recordings-from-spinal-sensory-and-motor-neurons
#10
Rosa L Moreno, Megan Josey, Angeles B Ribera
Zebrafish, first introduced as a developmental model, have gained popularity in many other fields. The ease of rearing large numbers of rapidly developing organisms, combined with the embryonic optical clarity, served as initial compelling attributes of this model. Over the past two decades, the success of this model has been further propelled by its amenability to large-scale mutagenesis screens and by the ease of transgenesis. More recently, gene-editing approaches have extended the power of the model. For neurodevelopmental studies, the zebrafish embryo and larva provide a model to which multiple methods can be applied...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447612/distinct-molecular-cues-ensure-a-robust-microtubule-dependent-nuclear-positioning-in-the-drosophila-oocyte
#11
Nicolas Tissot, Jean-Antoine Lepesant, Fred Bernard, Kevin Legent, Floris Bosveld, Charlotte Martin, Orestis Faklaris, Yohanns Bellaïche, Maïté Coppey, Antoine Guichet
Controlling nucleus localization is crucial for a variety of cellular functions. In the Drosophila oocyte, nuclear asymmetric positioning is essential for the reorganization of the microtubule (MT) network that controls the polarized transport of axis determinants. A combination of quantitative three-dimensional live imaging and laser ablation-mediated force analysis reveal that nuclear positioning is ensured with an unexpected level of robustness. We show that the nucleus is pushed to the oocyte antero-dorsal cortex by MTs and that its migration can proceed through distinct tracks...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447150/anatomical-status-of-the-human-palatopharyngeal-sphincter-and-its-functional-implications
#12
Kaori Sumida, Yoshinori Ando, Shinichiro Seki, Kikuji Yamashita, Akira Fujimura, Otto Baba, Seiichiro Kitamura
PURPOSE: The transition muscle between the palatopharyngeus (PP) and the superior constrictor of the pharynx (SCP) encircles the pharyngeal isthmus from behind and is designated as the palatopharyngeal sphincter (PPS). The PPS is inferred to play important roles for velopharyngeal closure, but its existence remains controversial and its roles have been regarded as being played by the SCP. The present study aimed to clarify the anatomical status and functional implications of the PPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed on 39 and 4 cadavers, respectively...
April 26, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446581/cl-channel-is-required-for-cxcl10-induced-neuronal-activation-and-itch-response-in-a-murine-model-of-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#13
Lintao Qu, Kai Fu, Steven G Shimada, Robert H LaMotte
Persistent itch often accompanies allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. We previously demonstrated that CXCL10/ CXCR3 signaling activated a subpopulation of cutaneous primary sensory neurons and mediated itch response after contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a murine model of ACD, induced by squaric acid dibutylester. The purpose of this study was to determine the ionic mechanisms underlying CXCL10-induced neuronal activation and allergic itch. In whole-cell recordings, CXCL10 triggered a current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the area of CHS...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446254/functional-neuroimaging-of-sex-differences-in-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-depression
#14
K D Young, J Bodurka, W C Drevets
BACKGROUND: Females are more likely than males to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of autobiographical memory (AM) recall between males and females diagnosed with MDD. AM overgenerality is a persistent cognitive deficit in MDD, the magnitude of which is correlated with depressive severity only in females. Delineating the neurobiological correlates of this deficit may elucidate the nature of sex-differences in the diathesis for developing MDD...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446211/spontaneous-migraine-attack-causes-alterations-in-default-mode-network-connectivity-a-resting-state-fmri-case-report
#15
Andrea Edit Edes, Lajos Rudolf Kozak, Mate Magyar, Terezia Zsombok, Gyongyi Kokonyei, Gyorgy Bagdy, Gabriella Juhasz
BACKGROUND: Although migraine is one of the most investigated neurologic disorders, we do not have a perfect neuroimaging biomarker for its pathophysiology. One option to improve our knowledge is to study resting-state functional connectivity in and out of headache pain. However, our understanding of the functional connectivity changes during spontaneous migraine attack is partial and incomplete. CASE PRESENTATION: Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging we assessed a 24-year old woman affected by migraine without aura at two different times: during a spontaneous migraine attack and in interictal phase...
April 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445782/the-immunohistochemical-distribution-of-the-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-2-3-and-%C3%AE-2-subunits-in-the-human-thalamus
#16
H J Waldvogel, M Munkle, W van Roon-Mom, H Mohler, R L M Faull
The GABAA receptor is the most abundant inhibitory receptor in the human brain and is assembled from a variety of different subunit subtypes which determines their pharmacology and physiology. To determine which GABAA receptor subunit proteins are found in the human thalamus we investigated the distribution of five major GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, β2,3 and γ2 using immunohistochemical techniques. The α1-, β2,3- and γ2- subunits which combine to form a benzodiazepine sensitive GABAA receptor showed the most intense levels of staining and were the most common subunits found throughout the human thalamus especially in the ventral and posterior nuclear groups...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445756/membrane-mechanics-of-primary-afferent-neurons-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-of-rats
#17
Hirosato Kanda, Jianguo G Gu
Membrane mechanics is an important biological factor regulating many cellular functions including cell motility, intercellular and intracellular signaling, gene expression, and membrane ion channel activity. Primary afferent neurons transduce sensory information about temperature, touch, and pain. These sensory functions may be profoundly affected by the states of primary afferent neuron mechanics. However, membrane mechanics of primary afferent neurons is largely unknown. In this study, we established the optical trapping technique for determining membrane mechanics of cultured primary afferent neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445708/flow-cytometry-analysis-of-inflammatory-cells-isolated-from-the-sciatic-nerve-and-drg-after-chronic-constriction-injury-in-mice
#18
Liping Liu, Yan Yin, Fei Li, Charvi Malhotra, Jianguo Cheng
BACKGROUND: Cellular responses to nerve injury play a central role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, the analysis of site specific cellular responses to nerve injury and neuropathic pain is limited to immunohistochemistry staining with numerous limitations. NEW METHODS: We proposed to apply flow cytometry to overcome some of the limitations and developed two protocols for isolation of cells from small specimens of the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in mice...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#19
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in Western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445595/ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-produces-a-chronic-striatal-hyperdopaminergic-state-that-is-worsened-by-methylphenidate-treatment
#20
Gerald J Nora, Rashed Harun, David F Fine, Daniel Hutchison, Adam C Grobart, Jason P Stezoski, Miranda Munoz, Patrick M Kochanek, Rehana K Leak, Tomas Drabek, Amy K Wagner
Cardiac arrest survival rates have improved with modern resuscitation techniques, but many survivors experience impairments associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Currently, little is understood about chronic changes in striatal dopamine (DA) systems after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Given the common empiric clinical use of DA enhancing agents in neurorehabilitation, investigation evaluating dopaminergic alterations after cardiac arrest (CA) is necessary to optimize rehabilitation approaches. We hypothesized that striatal DA neurotransmission would be altered chronically after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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