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Pengju Li, Yang Gui, Daniel John Blackwood
Toxic metal ions, such as Ni2+ and Mn2+, in industrial waste streams are non-biodegradable and can cause damage to the human body. Electrochemical cleaning techniques are attractive as they offer more control and produce less sludge than chemical / biological approaches without the high pressures needed for membranes. Here nanoneedle structured α-MnO2/carbon fiber paper (CFP) composites were synthesized by a hydrothermal approach and used as electrodes for combined electro-adsorption and capacitive deionization removal of nickel and manganese ions from pseudo industrial waste streams...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Patrizia Monti, Gaia Rocchitta, Salvatore Marceddu, Maria A Dettori, Davide Fabbri, Samir Jaoua, Quirico Migheli, Giovanna Delogu, Pier A Serra
Interference rejection in amperometric biosensors can be more effective introducing some modifiers during electro-deposition of permselective film. Addition of β-cyclodextrin (βCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide composed of seven glucose units, to the ortho-phenylendiamine (oPD) monomer were already demonstrated to provide an enhancement in ascorbic acid (AA) rejection. Here we evaluated the improvement in permselectivity of poly-eugenol and poly-magnolol films electro-polymerized in presence of different amounts of βCD or eugenol-βCD inclusion complex for amperometric biosensor application...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Marwa R El-Zahry
A comparative study of two types of silver nanoparticles was investigated. The effect of the surface chemistry of the studied silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on their localized surface plasmon resonance was utilized for the quantitative determination of muscle relaxant tizanidine drug. The studied AgNPs are classified according to the type of stabilizing agent used in their synthesis into electrostatically and sterically stabilized AgNPs. The electrostatically-stabilized AgNPs (AA AgNPs) were prepared using ascorbic acid as both reducing and protective agents in alkaline medium...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Ganggang Huang, Zhenwei Zhong, Shane Miersch, Sachdev S Sidhu, Shin-Chen Hou, Donghui Wu
Demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in basic research and medicine is increasing yearly. Hybridoma technology has been the dominant method for mAb development since its first report in 1975. As an alternative technology, phage display methods for mAb development are increasingly attractive since Humira, the first phage-derived antibody and one of the best-selling mAbs, was approved for clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in 2002. As a non-animal based mAb development technology, phage display bypasses antigen immunogenicity, humanization, and animal maintenance that are required from traditional hybridoma technology based antibody development...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lukasz Poltorak, Irene Eggink, Marnix Hoitink, Ernst J R Sudholter, Marcel de Puit
A straightforward, direct and selective method is presented for electrochemical cocaine identification in street samples. The sensing mechanism is based on a simple ion transfer reaction across the polarized liquid-liquid interface. The interfacial behavior of a number of cutting agents is also reported. Interfacial miniaturization has lead to improved electro-analytical properties of the liquid-liquid interface based sensor as compared with the macroscopic analogue. The reported method holds great potential to replace colorimetric tests with poor selectivity for on-site street sample analysis...
May 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Purbarun Dhar, Lakshmi Sirisha Maganti, A R Harikrishnan
Electrorheological (ER) fluids are known to exhibit enhanced viscous effects under an electric field stimulus. The present article reports the hitherto unreported phenomenon of greatly enhanced thermal conductivity in such electro-active colloidal dispersions in the presence of an externally applied electric field. Typical ER fluids are synthesized employing dielectric fluids and nanoparticles and experiments are performed employing an in-house designed setup. Greatly augmented thermal conductivity under a field's influence was observed...
May 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Paul A Constable, David Ngo
BACKGROUND: The standing potential of the eye exhibits a slow damped oscillation under light and dark conditions that continues for at least 80 minutes. However, our understanding of the relationship between the slow dark and light oscillation has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to explore through regression analysis a model of these oscillations in order to establish if they may have the same underlying cellular generators. METHODS: Healthy participants undertook recordings of the standing potential using the electro-oculogram for 100 minutes...
May 20, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Juan Huang, Janice Chang, Fan-Gang Zeng
Objective: Electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is an effective method to enhance cochlear-implant performance in individuals who have residual low-frequency acoustic hearing. To help the majority of cochlear implant users who do not have any functional residual acoustic hearing, electro-tactile stimulation (ETS) may be used because tactile sensation has a frequency range and perceptual capabilities similar to that produced by acoustic stimulation in the EAS users. Methods: Following up the first ETS study showing enhanced English sentence recognition in noise,1 the present study evaluated the effect of ETS on Mandarin tone recognition in noise in two groups of adult Mandarin-speaking individuals...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Do Youn Kim, Yunseo Ku, Joong Woo Ahn, Chiheon Kwon, Hee Chan Kim
Background: One of the key issues in electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring is accurate signal acquisition with less cumbersome electrodes. In this study, the L2 phase electro-deposited nanoporous platinum (L2-ePt) electrode is introduced, which is a new type of electrode that utilizes a stable nanoporous platinum surface to reduce the skin-electrode impedance. Methods: L2-ePt electrodes were fabricated using electro-deposition technique. Then, the effect of the nanoporous surface on the surface roughness and the electrode impedance were observed from the L2-ePt electrodes and the flat platinum (FlatPt) electrode...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Wan-Cheol Cho, Kyung-Min Poo, Hend Omar Mohamed, Tae-Nam Kim, Yul-Seong Kim, Moon Hyun Hwang, Do-Won Jung, Kyu-Jung Chae
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are highly toxic contaminants commonly dissolved in industrial wastewater. Therefore, treatment of VOC-containing wastewater requires a robust and rapid reaction because liquid VOCs can become volatile secondary pollutants. In this study, electro-oxidation with catalytic composite dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs)-a promising process for degrading organic pollutants-was applied to remove various VOCs (chloroform, benzene, toluene, and trichloroethylene). Excellent treatment efficiency of VOCs was demonstrated...
May 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Thomas Meier, Saiana Khandarkhaeva, Sylvain Petitgirard, Thomas Körber, Alexander Lauerer, Ernst Rössler, Leonid Dubrovinsky
The past 15 years have seen an astonishing increase in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) sensitivity and accessible pressure range in high-pressure NMR experiments, owing to a series of new developments of NMR spectroscopy applied to the diamond anvil cell (DAC). Recently, with the application of electro-magnetic lenses, so-called Lenz lenses, in toroidal diamond indenter cells, pressures of up to 72 GPa with NMR spin sensitivities of about 1012  spin/Hz1/2 has been achieved. Here, we describe the implementation of a refined NMR resonator structure using a pair of double stage Lenz lenses driven by a Helmholtz coil within a standard DAC, allowing to measure sample volumes as small as 100 pl prior to compression...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Jasmin S Shaikh, Navajsharif S Shaikh, Rohini Kharade, Sonali A Beknalkar, Jyoti V Patil, Mahesh P Suryawanshi, Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos, Chang Kook Hong, Jin Hyeok Kim, Pramod S Patil
Symmetric supercapacitor is advanced over simple supercapacitor device due to their stability over a large potential window and high energy density. Graphene is a desired candidate for supercapacitor application since it has a high surface area, good electronic conductivity and high electro chemical stability. There is a pragmatic use of ionic liquid electrolyte for supercapacitor due to its stability over a large potential window, good ionic conductivity and eco-friendly nature. For high performance supercapacitor, the interaction between ionic liquid electrolyte and graphene are crucial for better charge transportation...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Nicole Proulx, Ali-Akbar Samadani, Tom Chau
Event-related potentials (ERPs) have previously been used to confirm the existence of the fast optical signal (FOS) but validation methods have mainly been limited to exploring the temporal correspondence of FOS peaks to those of ERPs. The purpose of this study was to systematically quantify the relationship between FOS and ERP responses to a visual oddball task in both time and frequency domains. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) sensors were co-located over the prefrontal cortex while participants performed a visual oddball task...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Ofer Bar-On, Philipp Brenner, Tobias Siegle, Raz Gvishi, Heinz Kalt, Uli Lemmer, Jacob Scheuer
A method for the realization of low-loss integrated optical components is proposed and demonstrated. This approach is simple, fast, inexpensive, scalable for mass production, and compatible with both 2D and 3D geometries. The process is based on a novel dual-step soft nano imprint lithography process for producing devices with smooth surfaces, combined with fast sol-gel technology providing highly transparent materials. As a concrete example, this approach is demonstrated on a micro ring resonator made by direct laser writing (DLW) to achieve a quality factor improvement from one hundred thousand to more than 3 million...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Harshad Sanjay Gaikwad, Pranab Kumar Mondal, Somchai Wongwises
In this article, we describe the electro-hydrodynamics of non-Newtonian fluid in narrow fluidic channel with solvent permeable and ion-penetrable polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) grafted on channel surface with an interaction of non-overlapping electric double layer (EDL) phenomenon. In this analysis, we integrate power-law model in the momentum equation for describing the non-Newtonian rheology. The complex interplay between the non-Newtonian rheology and interfacial electrochemistry in presence of PEL on the walls leads to non-intuitive variations in the underlying flow dynamics in the channels...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marc D Harjung, Frank Giesselmann
In thermotropic chiral Sm-A^{*} phases, an electric field along the smectic layers breaks the D_{∞} symmetry of the Sm-A^{*} phase and induces a tilt of the liquid crystal director. This so-called electroclinic effect (ECE) was first reported by Garoff and Meyer in 1977 and attracted substantial scientific and technological interest due to its linear and submicrosecond electro-optic response [S. Garoff and R. B. Meyer, Phys. Rev. A 19, 338 (1979)0556-279110.1103/PhysRevA.19.338]. We now report the observation of an ECE in the pretransitional regime from a lyotropic chiral lamellar L_{α}^{*} phase into a lyo-Sm-C^{*} phase, the lyotropic analog to the thermotropic Sm-C^{*} phase which was recently discovered by Bruckner et al...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Seyed Alireza Shahamirifard, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Zahra Razmi, Shaaker Hajati
The determination of gallic acid (GA) and uric acid (UA) is essential due to their biological properties. Numerous methods have been reported for the analysis of GA and UA in various real samples. However, the development of a simple, rapid and practical sensor still remains a great challenge. Here, a carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by nanocomposite containing zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs), Choline chloride (ChCl) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to construct ZrO2 -ChCl-AuNPs/CPE as electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous electro-oxidation of GA and UA...
May 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mohammad Aref Khalily, Hakan Usta, Mehmet Ozdemir, Gokhan Bakan, F Begum Dikecoglu, Charlotte Edwards-Gayle, Jessica A Hutchinson, Ian W Hamley, Aykutlu Dana, Mustafa O Guler
π-Conjugated small molecules based on a [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) unit are of great research interest in the development of solution-processable semiconducting materials owing to their excellent charge-transport characteristics. However, the BTBT π-core has yet to be demonstrated in the form of electro-active one-dimensional (1D) nanowires that are self-assembled in aqueous media for potential use in bioelectronics and tissue engineering. Here we report the design, synthesis, and self-assembly of benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT)-peptide conjugates, the BTBT-peptide (BTBT-C3-COHN-Ahx-VVAGKK-Am) and the C8-BTBT-peptide (C8-BTBT-C3-COHN-Ahx-VVAGKK-Am), as β-sheet forming amphiphilic molecules, which self-assemble into highly uniform nanofibers in water with diameters of 11-13(±1) nm and micron-size lengths...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Sebile Işık Büyükekşi, Ahmet Karatay, Nursel Acar, Betül Küçüköz, Ayhan Elmali, Abdurrahman Şengül
Perylene diimides (PDIs) are among the most versatile and functional dyes for supramolecular structures displaying characteristic high absorptions and photo-luminescence properties as the prerequisite for optoelectronic thin film devices. Despite intense investigations into these semi-conducting and electro-active materials, details of their electronic structure are still under examination. In particular, non-planar twisted PDIs as an electron acceptor is a promising model system for efficient charge generation and transport processes...
May 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jorge Vidal, Cesar Huiliñir, Rocío Santander, Javier Silva-Agredo, Ricardo A Torres-Palma, Ricardo Salazar
Ampicillin (AMP) is an antibiotic widely used in hospitals and veterinary clinics around the world for treating infections caused by bacteria. Therefore, it is common to find traces of this antibiotic in wastewater from these entities. In this work, we studied the mineralization of this antibiotic in solution as well as the elimination of its antimicrobial activity by comparing different electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), namely electro-oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (EO-H2 O2 ), electro-Fenton (EF), and photo electro-Fenton (PEF)...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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