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Air pollution and birth weight

Ebba Malmqvist, Zeyan Liew, Karin Källén, Anna Rignell-Hydbom, Ralf Rittner, Lars Rylander, Beate Ritz
Air pollution has been suggested to affect fetal growth, but more data is needed to assess the timing of exposure effects by using ultrasound measures. It is also important to study effects in low exposure areas to assess eventual thresholds of effects. The MAPSS (Maternal Air Pollution in Southern Sweden) cohort consists of linked registry data for around 48,000 pregnancies from an ultrasound database, birth registry and exposure data based on residential addresses. Measures of air pollution exposure were obtained through dispersion modelling with input data from an emissions database (NOx) with high resolution (100-500m grids)...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
Mariana Matera Veras, Nilmara de Oliveira Alves, Lais Fajersztajn, Paulo Saldiva
Various environmental contaminants are known to impair the growth trajectories of major organs, indirectly (gestational exposure) or directly (postnatal exposure). Evidence associates pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes (e.g., low birth weight, prematurity) and with a wide range of diseases in childhood and later in life. In this review, we explore the way that pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollution affects lung development. We present results in topics underlining epidemiological and toxicological evidence...
October 10, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Insa Korten, Kathryn Ramsey, Philipp Latzin
Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Shafquat Rozi, Zahid Ahmad Butt, Nida Zahid, Saba Wasim, Kashif Shafique
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to identify the effects of maternal tobacco consumption during pregnancy and other factors on birth outcomes and obstetric complications in Karachi, Pakistan. DESIGN: A multicentre hospital-based case-control study. SETTING: Four leading maternity hospitals of Karachi. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 1275 women coming to the gynaecology and obstetric department of selected hospitals for delivery was interviewed within 48 hours of delivery from wards...
2016: BMJ Open
Bram G Janssen, Nelly D Saenen, Harry A Roels, Narjes Madhloum, Wilfried Gyselaers, Wouter Lefebvre, Joris Penders, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Karen Vrijens, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are critical for fetal development and growth. Whether prenatal exposure to fine particle air pollution (PM2.5) affects fetal thyroid function and what the impact is on birth weight in normal healthy pregnancies is not studied yet. OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of third trimester PM2.5 exposure on fetal and maternal thyroid hormones and their mediating role on birth weight. METHODS: We measured the levels of free thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in cord blood (n = 499) and maternal blood (n = 431) collected after delivery from mother-child pairs enrolled between February 2010 and June 2014 in the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort with catchment area in the province of Limburg, Belgium...
September 13, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Hind Sbihi, Mieke Koehoorn, Lillian Tamburic, Michael Brauer
RATIONALE: The heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes may explain inconsistencies in observed associations with environmental exposures. AIM: To identify trajectories of childhood asthma and to characterize the potential impact of residential greenness and air pollution on asthma trajectory sub-groups. DATA AND METHODS: Linked administrative databases of medical visits were used to define the occurrence and recurrence of asthma over a 10-year follow-up period within a population-based birth cohort of over 65,000 children...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Virginia Arroyo, Julio Díaz, Rocío Carmona, Cristina Ortiz, Cristina Linares
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low birth weight (<2500 g) (LBW), premature birth (<37 weeks of gestation) (PB), and late foetal death (<24 h of life) (LFD) are causes of perinatal morbi-mortality, with short- and long-term social and economic health impacts. This study sought to identify gestational windows of susceptibility during pregnancy and to analyse and quantify the impact of different air pollutants, noise and temperature on the adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: Time-series study to assess the impact of mean daily PM2...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Tom Clemens, Chris Dibben
BACKGROUND: Patterns of adverse birth outcomes vary spatially and there is evidence that this may relate to features of the physical environment such as air pollution. However, other social characteristics of the environment such as levels of crime are relatively understudied. This study examines the association between crime rates and birth weight and prematurity. METHODS: Maternity inpatient data recorded at birth, including residential postcode, was linked to a representative 5% sample of Scottish Census data and small area crime rates from Scottish Police forces...
August 29, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Dorrit Hjortebjerg, Anne Marie Nybo Andersen, Matthias Ketzel, Marie Pedersen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mette Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth. METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...
October 2016: Environment International
Sarah A Valentino, Anne Tarrade, Josiane Aioun, Eve Mourier, Christophe Richard, Michèle Dahirel, Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard, Natalie Fournier, Marie-Christine Aubrière, Marie-Sylvie Lallemand, Sylvaine Camous, Marine Guinot, Madia Charlier, Etienne Aujean, Hala Al Adhami, Paul H Fokkens, Lydiane Agier, John A Boere, Flemming R Cassee, Rémy Slama, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
BACKGROUND: Airborne pollution is a rising concern in urban areas. Epidemiological studies in humans and animal experiments using rodent models indicate that gestational exposure to airborne pollution, in particular diesel engine exhaust (DE), reduces birth weight, but effects depend on exposure duration, gestational window and nanoparticle (NP) concentration. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of gestational exposure to diluted DE on feto-placental development in a rabbit model. Pregnant females were exposed to diluted (1 mg/m(3)), filtered DE (NP diameter ≈ 69 nm) or clean air (controls) for 2 h/day, 5 days/week by nose-only exposure (total exposure: 20 days in a 31-day gestation)...
2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Achille Cernigliaro, Elisa Tavormina, Gabriella Dardanoni, Salvatore Scondotto
BACKGROUND: Augusta-Priolo (SR), Gela (CL), and Milazzo (ME) cities, located in Sicily Region (Southern Italy), are included among the areas at high environmental risk in Italy and the national legislation classifies them among the polluted sites of national interest for environmental remediation. In the past, these areas had high contamination from industrial complexes. OBJECTIVES: assessment of reproductive health through the analysis of data from the birth reports of all hospital of Sicily Region in 2007-2013...
March 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Maayan Yitshak-Sade, Lena Novack, Daniella Landau, Itai Kloog, Batia Sarov, Reli Hershkovitz, Isabella Karakis
BACKGROUND: Air pollution and meteorology exposures during pregnancy have been suggested to be associated with Birth Weight (BW). Yet, the individual medical background and close household environment is rarely addressed. We aimed to evaluate the independent association of BW with meteorological and air pollution exposures during pregnancy, in addition to individual, parental and household risk factors, among the Bedouin-Arab population in Southern Israel; a semi nomadic population, featured by low socio-economic levels and poor housing and household environment...
October 2016: Chemosphere
Chao-Bin Liu, Xin-Ru Hong, Miao Shi, Xiao-Qiu Chen, Hui-Juan Huang, Jin-Hua Chen, Kai Yang, Su-Qing Chen, Han-Qiang Chen, Hai-Dong Kan, Qing-Hua Sun
BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with increased risk of congenital heart defects in offspring, however the results are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We estimated whether there is an association between prenatal exposure to PM10 during early pregnancy and fetal cardiovascular malformations. METHODS: The gravidae from a hospital-based case-control study in Fuzhou, China during 2007-2013 were assigned 10-day or 1-month averages of daily particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) using an air monitor-based inverse distance weighting method during early pregnancy...
July 6, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Laura A McGuinn, Robert W Voss, Cecile A Laurent, Louise C Greenspan, Lawrence H Kushi, Gayle C Windham
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been linked with several adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight, which are both related to onset of puberty. No studies to date have investigated the association between TRAP and altered pubertal timing. OBJECTIVE: Determine the association between residential proximity to traffic, as a marker of long-term TRAP exposure, and age at pubertal onset in a longitudinal study of girls...
September 2016: Environment International
Sviatlana Panasevich, Siri Eldevik Håberg, Geir Aamodt, Stephanie J London, Hein Stigum, Wenche Nystad, Per Nafstad
BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution has adverse effects on cardiopulmonary health of adults. Exposure to air pollution in pregnancy may affect foetal development. However, the evidence of such effect remains inconsistent. We investigated the effects of exposure to air pollution during pregnancy on birth outcomes. METHODS: This study, based within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), includes 17,533 participants living in the two largest cities in Norway: Oslo and Bergen, and their two surrounding counties: Akershus and Hordaland...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Jennifer Saxton, Shibanand Rath, Nirmala Nair, Rajkumar Gope, Rajendra Mahapatra, Prasanta Tripathy, Audrey Prost
The World Health Organisation has called for global action to reduce child stunting by 40% by 2025. One third of the world's stunted children live in India, and children belonging to rural indigenous communities are the worst affected. We sought to identify the strongest determinants of stunting among indigenous children in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, India, to highlight key areas for intervention. We analysed data from 1227 children aged 6-23.99 months and their mothers, collected in 2010 from 18 clusters of villages with a high proportion of people from indigenous groups in three districts...
October 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Eunjeong Kim, Hyesook Park, Eun Ae Park, Yun-Chul Hong, Mina Ha, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Eun-Hee Ha
Concerns over adverse effects of air pollution on children's health have been rapidly rising. However, the effects of air pollution on childhood growth remain to be poorly studied. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight from birth to 60months of age. This birth cohort study evaluated 1129 mother-child pairs in South Korea. Children's weight was measured at birth and at six, 12, 24, 36, and 60months. The average levels of children's exposure to particulate matter up to 10μm in diameter (PM10) were estimated during pregnancy and during the period between each visit until 60months of age...
September 2016: Environment International
Steffen Andreas Schüle, Hermann Fromme, Gabriele Bolte
BACKGROUND: Structural factors of neighbourhood environments in which children live have attracted increasing attention in epidemiological research. This study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP), public playground and park space, and perceived environmental exposures were independently associated with overweight in preschool aged children while simultaneously considering individual child and family factors. METHODS: Body-Mass-Index (BMI) data from 3499 children (53% boys and 47% girls) from three surveys between 2004 and 2007 from 18 school enrolment zones in the city of Munich, Germany, were analysed with hierarchical logistic regression models...
October 2016: Environmental Research
Carmen I R Froes Asmus, Volney M Camara, Philip J Landrigan, Luz Claudio
In the region of the Americas, approximately 100,000 children under the age of 5 years die each year due to environmental hazards. Brazil, due to its large size and wide range of environmental challenges, presents numerous hazards to children's health. The aim of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature that describes children's exposures to environmental pollutants in Brazil and their effects on Brazilian children's health. A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed without language restrictions and time of publication (years)...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo, Matlou Ingrid Mokgobu, Murembiwa Stanley Mukhola, Raymond Paul Hunter
Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or) keywords was done...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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