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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334400/a-bio-economic-case-study-of-canadian-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-marker-assisted-selection-mas-in-queen-breeding-affects-beekeeper-profits
#1
Miriam Bixby, Kathy Baylis, Shelley E Hoover, Rob W Currie, Andony P Melathopoulos, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, M Marta Guarna
Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334279/population-growth-of-varroa-destructor-acari-varroidae-in-colonies-of-russian-and-unselected-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-stocks-as-related-to-numbers-of-foragers-with-mites
#2
Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Fabiana Ahumada, Robert Danka, Mona Chambers, Emily Watkins DeJong, Geoff Hidalgo
Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) is an external parasite of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite-resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. Russian honey bee and other mite-resistant stocks limit Varroa population growth by affecting factors that contribute to mite reproduction. However, mite population growth is not entirely due to reproduction. Numbers of foragers with mites (FWM) entering and leaving hives also affect the growth of mite populations...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334185/ecology-life-history-and-management-of-tropilaelaps-mites
#3
Lilia I de Guzman, Geoffrey R Williams, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Parasitic mites are the major threat to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L. For much of the world, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilaelaps. The life history of these two parasitic mites is very similar, and both have the same food requirements (i.e., hemolymph of developing brood). Hence, parasitism by Tropilaelaps spp., especially Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Tropilaelaps clareae, also results in death of immature brood or wing deformities in infested adult bees...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327890/draft-genome-of-the-honey-bee-ectoparasitic-mite-tropilaelaps-mercedesae-is-shaped-by-the-parasitic-life-history
#4
Xiaofeng Dong, Stuart D Armstrong, Dong Xia, Benjamin L Makepeace, Alistair C Darby, Tatsuhiko Kadowaki
Background: The number of managed honey bee colonies has considerably decreased in many developed countries in recent years and ectoparasitic mites are considered as major threats to honey bee colonies and health. However, their general biology remains poorly understood. Results: We sequenced the genome of Tropilaelaps mercedesae , the prevalent ectoparasitic mite infesting honey bees in Asia and predicted 15,190 protein-coding genes which were well supported by the mite transcriptomes and proteomic data...
February 22, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287445/bee-an-object-oriented-agent-based-simulator-for-honey-bee-colonies
#5
Matthew Betti, Josh LeClair, Lindi M Wahl, Mair Zamir
We present a model and associated simulation package (www.beeplusplus.ca) to capture the natural dynamics of a honey bee colony in a spatially-explicit landscape, with temporally-variable, weather-dependent parameters. The simulation tracks bees of different ages and castes, food stores within the colony, pollen and nectar sources and the spatial position of individual foragers outside the hive. We track explicitly the intake of pesticides in individual bees and their ability to metabolize these toxins, such that the impact of sub-lethal doses of pesticides can be explored...
March 10, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278255/a-pan-european-epidemiological-study-reveals-honey-bee-colony-survival-depends-on-beekeeper-education-and-disease-control
#6
Antoine Jacques, Marion Laurent, Magali Ribière-Chabert, Mathilde Saussac, Stéphanie Bougeard, Giles E Budge, Pascal Hendrikx, Marie-Pierre Chauzat
Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have often been overlooked, despite honey bees being a managed pollinator. Here, we established a standardised active monitoring network for 5 798 apiaries over two consecutive years to quantify honey bee colony mortality across 17 European countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272333/a-comparison-of-deformed-wing-virus-in-deformed-and-asymptomatic-honey-bees
#7
Laura E Brettell, Gideon J Mordecai, Declan C Schroeder, Ian M Jones, Jessica R da Silva, Marina Vicente-Rubiano, Stephen J Martin
Deformed wing virus (DWV) in association with Varroa destructor is currently attributed to being responsible for colony collapse in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The appearance of deformed individuals within an infested colony has long been associated with colony losses. However, it is unknown why only a fraction of DWV positive bees develop deformed wings. This study concerns two small studies comparing deformed and non-deformed bees. In Brazil, asymptomatic bees (no wing deformity) that had been parasitised by Varroa as pupae had higher DWV loads than non-parasitised bees...
March 7, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270616/structure-of-deformed-wing-virus-a-major-honey-bee-pathogen
#8
Karel Škubník, Jiří Nováček, Tibor Füzik, Antonín Přidal, Robert J Paxton, Pavel Plevka
The worldwide population of western honey bees (Apis mellifera) is under pressure from habitat loss, environmental stress, and pathogens, particularly viruses that cause lethal epidemics. Deformed wing virus (DWV) from the family Iflaviridae, together with its vector, the mite Varroa destructor, is likely the major threat to the world's honey bees. However, lack of knowledge of the atomic structures of iflaviruses has hindered the development of effective treatments against them. Here, we present the virion structures of DWV determined to a resolution of 3...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249569/unity-in-defence-honeybee-workers-exhibit-conserved-molecular-responses-to-diverse-pathogens
#9
Vincent Doublet, Yvonne Poeschl, Andreas Gogol-Döring, Cédric Alaux, Desiderato Annoscia, Christian Aurori, Seth M Barribeau, Oscar C Bedoya-Reina, Mark J F Brown, James C Bull, Michelle L Flenniken, David A Galbraith, Elke Genersch, Sebastian Gisder, Ivo Grosse, Holly L Holt, Dan Hultmark, H Michael G Lattorff, Yves Le Conte, Fabio Manfredini, Dino P McMahon, Robin F A Moritz, Francesco Nazzi, Elina L Niño, Katja Nowick, Ronald P van Rij, Robert J Paxton, Christina M Grozinger
BACKGROUND: Organisms typically face infection by diverse pathogens, and hosts are thought to have developed specific responses to each type of pathogen they encounter. The advent of transcriptomics now makes it possible to test this hypothesis and compare host gene expression responses to multiple pathogens at a genome-wide scale. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of multiple published and new transcriptomes using a newly developed bioinformatics approach that filters genes based on their expression profile across datasets...
March 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216419/seasonal-cycle-of-inbreeding-and-recombination-of-the-parasitic-mite-varroa-destructor-in-honeybee-colonies-and-its-implications-for-the-selection-of-acaricide-resistance
#10
Alexis L Beaurepaire, Klemens J Krieger, Robin F A Moritz
Varroa destructor is the most devastating parasite of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera. In the light of the arm race opposing the host and its parasite, the population dynamics and genetic diversity of these organisms are key parameters. However, the life cycle of V. destructor is characterized by extreme inbreeding due to full sibling mating in the host brood cells. We here present an equation reflecting the evolution of inbreeding in such a clonal system, and compare our predictions with empirical data based on the analysis of seven microsatellite markers...
February 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178181/inside-honeybee-hives-impact-of-natural-propolis-on-the-ectoparasitic-mite-varroa-destructor-and-viruses
#11
Nora Drescher, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Peter Neumann, Orlando Yañez, Sara D Leonhardt
Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera, globally...
February 6, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168846/performance-of-honey-bee-colonies-under-a-long-lasting-dietary-exposure-to-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiacloprid
#12
Reinhold Siede, Lena Faust, Marina D Meixner, Christian Maus, Bernd Grünewald, Ralph Büchler
BACKGROUND: Substantial honey bee colony losses have occurred periodically in the last decades. The drivers for these losses are not fully understood. The influence of pests and pathogens are beyond dispute, but in addition, chronic exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of pesticides has been suggested to affect the performance of honey bee colonies. This study aims to elucidate the potential effects of a chronic exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (one realistic worst-case concentration) of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid to honey bee colonies in a three-year replicated colony feeding study...
February 7, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158303/field-efficacy-of-acaricides-against-varroa-destructor
#13
María Jesús Gracia, Carlos Moreno, Montserrat Ferrer, Alfredo Sanz, Miguel Ángel Peribáñez, Rosa Estrada
Field trials were conducted in Northeast Spain (Aragón) to evaluate the effectiveness of two acaricides against Varroa destructor. These experiments took into account the season of the year, apiary, colony, and developmental state and strength of the colony. The acaricides used were a synthetic (amitraz, Apivar®) and a natural (formulated from Api Life Var®, thymol oil and thymol alcohol) product. The treatments used in the present study reduce high infestations of V. destructor, although they do not eliminate the infestation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154949/differential-gene-expression-associated-with-honey-bee-grooming-behavior-in-response-to-varroa-mites
#14
Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Berna Emsen, Greg J Hunt, Subhashree Subramanyam, Christie E Williams, Jennifer M Tsuruda, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-related genes. Individual bees tested in a laboratory assay for various levels of grooming behavior in response to V. destructor were also analyzed for gene expression. Intense groomers (IG) were most efficient in that they needed significantly less time to start grooming and fewer grooming attempts to successfully remove mites from their bodies than did light groomers (LG)...
February 3, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122251/early-life-stress-affects-mortality-rate-more-than-social-behavior-gene-expression-or-oxidative-damage-in-honey-bee-workers
#15
Olav Rueppell, Babak Yousefi, Juan Collazo, Daniel Smith
Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life...
April 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120868/evidence-for-positive-selection-and-recombination-hotspots-in-deformed-wing-virus-dwv
#16
A Dalmon, C Desbiez, M Coulon, M Thomasson, Y Le Conte, C Alaux, J Vallon, B Moury
Deformed wing virus (DWV) is considered one of the most damaging pests in honey bees since the spread of its vector, Varroa destructor. In this study, we sequenced the whole genomes of two virus isolates and studied the evolutionary forces that act on DWV genomes. The isolate from a Varroa-tolerant bee colony was characterized by three recombination breakpoints between DWV and the closely related Varroa destructor virus-1 (VDV-1), whereas the variant from the colony using conventional Varroa management was similar to the originally described DWV...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095337/environment-or-beekeeping-management-what-explains-better-the-prevalence-of-honey-bee-colonies-with-high-levels-of-varroa-destructor
#17
Agostina Giacobino, Adriana Pacini, Ana Molineri, N Bulacio Cagnolo, J Merke, E Orellano, E Bertozzi, G Masciangelo, H Pietronave, M Signorini
Varroa destructor is one of the major threats to honey bee colonies. The mite abundance in the colonies is affected by environmental conditions as well as by beekeeping management. The aim of this study was to recognize the main drivers associated with autumn V. destructor infestation in honey bee colonies when different regions from Argentina are compared. A total of 361 colonies distributed in five Argentinean eco-regions were examined to evaluate Varroa mite infestation rate during autumn and Nosema sp. presence...
January 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081188/effect-of-varroa-destructor-wounding-and-varroa-homogenate-on-gene-expression-in-brood-and-adult-honey-bees
#18
Gun Koleoglu, Paul H Goodwin, Mariana Reyes-Quintana, Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) gene expression related to immunity for hymenoptaecin (AmHym) and defensin-1 (AmDef-1), longevity for vitellogenin (AmVit2) and stem cell proliferation for poly U binding factor 68 kDa (AmPuf68) was compared following Varroa destructor parasitism, buffer injection and injection of V. destructor compounds in its homogenate. In adults, V. destructor parasitism decreased expression of all four genes, while buffer injection decreased expression of AmHym, AmPuf68 and AmVit2, and homogenate injection decreased expression of AmPuf68 and AmVit2 but increased expression of AmDef-1 relative to their respective controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032102/evaluation-of-oxalic-acid-treatments-against-the-mite-varroa-destructor-and-secondary-effects-on-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#19
Noureddine Adjlane, El-Ounass Tarek, Nizar Haddad
BACKGROUND: The Varroa destructor varroasis is a very serious parasite of honeybee Apis mellifera. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Varroa treatment using organic acid (oxalic acid) in Algeria identifying its side effects on bee colonies. METHODS: Treatment was conducted in one apiary consisting 30 colonies kept in Langstroth hives kind. Oxalic acid dripped directly on bees 5ml of this solution of oxalic acid per lane occupied by a syringe...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028168/acute-exposure-to-worst-case-concentrations-of-amitraz-does-not-affect-honey-bee-learning-short-term-memory-or-hemolymph-octopamine-levels
#20
Rachel R Rix, G Christopher Cutler
Amitraz, an acaricide used to treat Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, is one of the most commonly detected pesticides in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives. Acaricides sometimes negatively impact honey bee cognition, but potential effects of amitraz on honey bee learning have been rarely studied. We topically exposed foragers to 95th percentile field-relevant levels of amitraz and, 24 h later, tested the ability of bees to associate a sucrose reward with a conditioned odor (learning response) using the proboscis extension response (PER)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
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