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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622341/hygienic-and-grooming-behaviors-in-african-and-european-honeybees-new-damage-categories-in-varroa-destructor
#1
Beatrice T Nganso, Ayuka T Fombong, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian W W Pirk, Charles Stuhl, Baldwyn Torto
Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595898/transcriptional-signatures-of-parasitization-and-markers-of-colony-decline-in-varroa-infested-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#2
Virginia Zanni, David A Galbraith, Desiderato Annoscia, Christina M Grozinger, Francesco Nazzi
Extensive annual losses of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) reported in the northern hemisphere represent a global problem for agriculture and biodiversity. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor, in association with deformed wing virus (DWV), plays a key role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. To elucidate these mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profile of uninfested and mite infested bees, under laboratory and field conditions, highlighting the effects of parasitization on the bee's transcriptome under a variety of conditions and scenarios...
June 5, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540471/genetic-characterization-of-the-honeybee-ectoparasitic-mite-varroa-destructor-from-benin-west-africa-using-mitochondrial-and-microsatellite-markers
#3
Aude E Kelomey, Armand Paraiso, Haziz Sina, Hélène Legout, Lionel Garnery, Lamine Baba-Moussa
Varroa destructor is one of the scourges of global beekeeping. It was detected for the first time in Benin in 2011 on the honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii. The aim of this study was to identify the strain of Varroa sp. found and study its genetic diversity. In total 183 Varroa mites were sampled in 21 municipalities in Benin. The COI intergenic region of each mite mtDNA was amplified by PCR. The SacI restriction enzyme was used to determine the strains of Varroa sp. Only the Korean (K) haplotype, identical to the most prevalent strain in Africa, was detected...
May 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515299/a-diverse-range-of-novel-rna-viruses-in-geographically-distinct-honey-bee-populations
#4
Emily J Remnant, Mang Shi, Gabriele Buchmann, Tjeerd Blacquière, Edward C Holmes, Madeleine Beekman, Alyson Ashe
Understanding the diversity and consequences of viruses present in honey bees is critical to maintain pollinator health and manage the spread of disease. The viral landscape of honey bees (Apis mellifera) has changed dramatically since the emergence of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, which increased the spread of virulent variants of viruses such as Deformed wing virus. Previous genomic studies have focused on colonies suffering from Varroa and virulent viruses, which could mask other viral species present in honey bees, resulting in a distorted view of viral diversity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486589/are-dispersal-mechanisms-changing-the-host-parasite-relationship-and-increasing-the-virulence-of-varroa-destructor-mesostigmata-varroidae-in-managed-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies
#5
Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Fabiana Ahumada, Henry Graham
Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) are a serious pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), and difficult to control in managed colonies. In our 11-mo longitudinal study, we applied multiple miticide treatments, yet mite numbers remained high and colony losses exceeded 55%. High mortality from varroa in managed apiaries is a departure from the effects of the mite in feral colonies where bees and varroa can coexist. Differences in mite survival strategies and dispersal mechanisms may be contributing factors...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468244/propolis-counteracts-some-threats-to-honey-bee-health
#6
REVIEW
Michael Simone-Finstrom, Renata S Borba, Michael Wilson, Marla Spivak
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees' natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis...
April 29, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460743/risk-factors-for-the-presence-of-deformed-wing-virus-and-acute-bee-paralysis-virus-under-temperate-and-subtropical-climate-in-argentinian-bee-colonies
#7
Ana Molineri, Agostina Giacobino, Adriana Pacini, Natalia Bulacio Cagnolo, Norberto Fondevila, Cecilia Ferrufino, Julieta Merke, Emanuel Orellano, Ezequiel Bertozzi, Germán Masciángelo, Hernán Pietronave, Marcelo Signorini
Beekeepers all across the world are suffering important losses of their colonies, and the parasitic mites Varroa destructor and Nosema sp, as well as several bee viruses, are being pointed out as the possible causes of these losses, generally associated with environmental and management factors. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of seven virus species (Deformed wing virus -DWV-, Acute bee paralysis virus -ABPV-, Chronic bee paralysis virus -CBPV-, Black queen cell virus -BQCV-, Kashmir bee virus -KBV-, Israeli acute bee paralysis virus -IAPV-, and Sacbrood bee virus -SBV), as well as the prevalence of Nosema sp...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449942/prevalence-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-viruses-in-temperate-and-subtropical-regions-from-argentina
#8
Ana I Molineri, Adriana Pacini, Agostina Giacobino, Natalia Bulacio-Cagnolo, Andrea Aignasse, Luis Zago, Norberto Fondevila, Cecilia Ferrufino, Julieta Merke, Emanuel Orellano, Ezequiel Bertozzi, Hernán Pietronave, Marcelo L Signorini
In Argentina, bee virus studies are still incipient, and there are no studies regarding the climatic effect. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the presence of honeybee viruses in different climatic regions from Argentina. A total of 385 colonies distributed in five Argentinean eco-regions were examined to evaluate the percentage of infestation with Varroa destructor and the presence of seven virus species (Deformed wing virus, DWV; Acute bee paralysis virus, ABPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus, CBPV; Black queen cell virus, BQCV; Kashmer bee virus, KBV; Israeli acute bee paralysis virus, IAPV; and Sacbrood bee virus, SBV) after honey yield...
April 24, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448606/a-feeding-protocol-for-delivery-of-agents-to-assess-development-in-varroa-mites
#9
Ana R Cabrera, Paul D Shirk, Peter E A Teal
A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403242/brain-metabolomic-profiling-of-eastern-honey-bee-apis-cerana-infested-with-the-mite-varroa-destructor
#10
Jiang-Li Wu, Chun-Xue Zhou, Peng-Jie Wu, Jin Xu, Yue-Qin Guo, Fei Xue, Awraris Getachew, Shu-Fa Xu
The mite Varroa destructor is currently the greatest threat to apiculture as it is causing a global decrease in honey bee colonies. However, it rarely causes serious damage to its native hosts, the eastern honey bees Apis cerana. To better understand the mechanism of resistance of A. cerana against the V. destructor mite, we profiled the metabolic changes that occur in the honey bee brain during V. destructor infestation. Brain samples were collected from infested and control honey bees and then measured using an untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based global metabolomics method, in which 7918 and 7462 ions in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively, were successfully identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401377/a-mathematical-model-of-forager-loss-in-honeybee-colonies-infested-with-varroa-destructor-and-the-acute-bee-paralysis-virus
#11
Vardayani Ratti, Peter G Kevan, Hermann J Eberl
We incorporate a mathematical model of Varroa destructor and the Acute Bee Paralysis Virus with an existing model for a honeybee colony, in which the bee population is divided into hive bees and forager bees based on tasks performed in the colony. The model is a system of five ordinary differential equations with dependent variables: uninfected hive bees, uninfected forager bees, infected hive bees, virus-free mites and virus-carrying mites. The interplay between forager loss and disease infestation is studied...
April 11, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393875/oldest-varroa-tolerant-honey-bee-population-provides-insight-into-the-origins-of-the-global-decline-of-honey-bees
#12
L E Brettell, S J Martin
The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor has transformed the previously inconsequential Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) into the most important honey bee viral pathogen responsible for the death of millions of colonies worldwide. Naturally, DWV persists as a low level covert infection transmitted between nest-mates. It has long been speculated that Varroa via immunosuppression of the bees, activate a covert infection into an overt one. Here we show that despite Varroa feeding on a population of 20-40 colonies for over 30 years on the remote island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil no such activation has occurred and DWV loads have remained at borderline levels of detection...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388479/effects-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-strains-virulent-to-varroa-destructor-on-larvae-and-adults-of-apis-mellifera
#13
Eva Vianey Alquisira-Ramírez, Guadalupe Peña-Chora, Víctor Manuel Hernández-Velázquez, Andrés Alvear-García, Iván Arenas-Sosa, Ramón Suarez-Rodríguez
The sublethal effects of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, which were virulent in vitro to Varroa destructor, were measured on Apis mellifera. The effects of five concentrations of total protein (1, 5, 25, 50 and 100μg/mL) from the EA3 and EA26.1 strains on larval and adult honey bees were evaluated for two and seven days under laboratory conditions. Based on the concentrations evaluated, total protein from the two strains did not affect the development of larvae, the syrup consumption, locomotor activity or proboscis extension response of adults...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387332/odorant-cues-linked-to-social-immunity-induce-lateralized-antenna-stimulation-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-l
#14
Alison McAfee, Troy F Collins, Lufiani L Madilao, Leonard J Foster
Hygienic behaviour (HB) is a social immunity trait in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) whereby workers detect, uncap and remove unhealthy brood, improving disease resistance in the colony. This is clearly economically valuable; however, the molecular mechanism behind it is not well understood. The freeze-killed brood (FKB) assay is the conventional method of HB selection, so we compared odour profiles of FKB and live brood to find candidate HB-inducing odours. Surprisingly, we found that significantly more brood pheromone (β-ocimene) was released from FKB...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361244/condition-dependent-virulence-of-slow-bee-paralysis-virus-in-bombus-terrestris-are-the-impacts-of-honeybee-viruses-in-wild-pollinators-underestimated
#15
Robyn Manley, Mike Boots, Lena Wilfert
Slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV)-previously considered an obligate honeybee disease-is now known to be prevalent in bumblebee species. SBPV is highly virulent in honeybees in association with Varroa mites, but has been considered relatively benign otherwise. However, condition-dependent pathogens can appear asymptomatic under good, resource abundant conditions, and negative impacts on host fitness may only become apparent when under stressful or resource-limited conditions. We tested whether SBPV expresses condition-dependent virulence in its bumblebee host, Bombus terrestris, by orally inoculating bees with SBPV and recording longevity under satiated and starvation conditions...
June 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356346/biophysical-characterization-of-the-varroa-destructor-nav1-sodium-channel-and-its-affinity-for-%C3%AF-fluvalinate-insecticide
#16
Pascal Gosselin-Badaroudine, Mohamed Chahine
The decline of the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been reported to be due to parasitism by Varroa destructor mites and to colony collapse disorder in which these mites may be involved. In-hive chemicals such as τ-fluvalinate are being used to control Vdestructor populations. This approach may lead to the chronic exposure of bees to this liposoluble chemical, which tends to accumulate in hives. We cloned a variant of the V. destructor sodium channel (VdNav1) and studied its biophysical characteristics and sensitivity to τ-fluvalinate using the Xenopus oocyte expression system and the 2-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique...
March 29, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334400/a-bio-economic-case-study-of-canadian-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-marker-assisted-selection-mas-in-queen-breeding-affects-beekeeper-profits
#17
Miriam Bixby, Kathy Baylis, Shelley E Hoover, Rob W Currie, Andony P Melathopoulos, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, M Marta Guarna
Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334279/population-growth-of-varroa-destructor-acari-varroidae-in-colonies-of-russian-and-unselected-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-stocks-as-related-to-numbers-of-foragers-with-mites
#18
Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Fabiana Ahumada, Robert Danka, Mona Chambers, Emily Watkins DeJong, Geoff Hidalgo
Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) is an external parasite of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite-resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. Russian honey bee and other mite-resistant stocks limit Varroa population growth by affecting factors that contribute to mite reproduction. However, mite population growth is not entirely due to reproduction. Numbers of foragers with mites (FWM) entering and leaving hives also affect the growth of mite populations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334185/ecology-life-history-and-management-of-tropilaelaps-mites
#19
Lilia I de Guzman, Geoffrey R Williams, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Parasitic mites are the major threat to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L. For much of the world, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilaelaps. The life history of these two parasitic mites is very similar, and both have the same food requirements (i.e., hemolymph of developing brood). Hence, parasitism by Tropilaelaps spp., especially Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Tropilaelaps clareae, also results in death of immature brood or wing deformities in infested adult bees...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327890/draft-genome-of-the-honey-bee-ectoparasitic-mite-tropilaelaps-mercedesae-is-shaped-by-the-parasitic-life-history
#20
Xiaofeng Dong, Stuart D Armstrong, Dong Xia, Benjamin L Makepeace, Alistair C Darby, Tatsuhiko Kadowaki
The number of managed honey bee colonies has considerably decreased in many developed countries in recent years and ectoparasitic mites are considered as major threats to honey bee colonies and health. However, their general biology remains poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of Tropilaelaps mercedesae, the prevalent ectoparasitic mite infesting honey bees in Asia, and predicted 15 190 protein-coding genes that were well supported by the mite transcriptomes and proteomic data. Although amino acid substitutions have been accelerated within the conserved core genes of two mites, T...
March 1, 2017: GigaScience
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