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Tanja Gempe, Silke Stach, Kaspar Bienefeld, Marianne Otte, Martin Beye
BACKGROUND: Hygienic behavior (HB) enables honeybees to tolerate parasites, including infection with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, and it is a well-known example of a quantitative genetic trait. The understanding of the molecular processes underpinning the quantitative differences in this behavior remains limited. RESULTS: We performed gene expression studies in worker bees that displayed quantitative genetic differences in HB. We established a high and low genetic source of HB performance and studied the engagements into HB of single worker bees under the same environmental conditions...
October 21, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Jan Hubert, Martina Bicianova, Ondrej Ledvinka, Martin Kamler, Philip J Lester, Marta Nesvorna, Jan Kopecky, Tomas Erban
The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is a globally important species that suffers from a variety of pathogens and parasites. These parasites and pathogens may have sublethal effects on their bee hosts via an array of mechanisms, including through a change in symbiotic bacterial taxa. Our aim was to assess the influence of four globally widespread parasites and pathogens on the honey bee bacteriome. We examined the effects of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, the fungal pathogens Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and the trypanosome Lotmaria passim...
October 11, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Irene Asensio, Marina Vicente-Rubiano, María Jesús Muñoz, Eduardo Fernández-Carrión, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Matilde Carballo
We analyzed six apiaries in several natural environments with a Mediterranean ecosystem in Madrid, central Spain, in order to understand how landscape and management characteristics may influence apiary health and bee production in the long term. We focused on five criteria (habitat quality, landscape heterogeneity, climate, management and health), as well as 30 subcriteria, and we used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to rank them according to relevance. Habitat quality proved to have the highest relevance, followed by beehive management...
2016: PloS One
Gideon J Mordecai, Laura E Brettell, Purnima Pachori, Ethel M Villalobos, Stephen J Martin, Ian M Jones, Declan C Schroeder
There is an increasing global trend of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) affecting a wide range of species, including honey bees. The global epidemic of the single stranded RNA Deformed wing virus (DWV), driven by the spread of Varroa destructor has been well documented. However, DWV is just one of many insect RNA viruses which infect a wide range of hosts. Here we report the full genome sequence of a novel Iflavirus named Moku virus (MV), discovered in the social wasp Vespula pensylvanica collected in Hawaii...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
C S Hou, B B Li, S Deng, Q Y Diao
Varroa destructor mites pose an increasing global threat to the apicultural industry and agricultural ecology; however, the issue of whether certain environmental factors reflect the level of mite infection is far from resolved. Here, a wireless sensor network (WSN) system was used to examine how V. destructor, which has vital impacts on honeybee (Apis mellifera) health and survival, affects the temperature and humidity of honeybee hives in a field experiment. This approach may facilitate early identification of V...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Helge Schlüns, Helena Welling, Julian René Federici, Lars Lewejohann
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are prone to judge an ambiguous stimulus negatively if they had been agitated through shaking which simulates a predator attack. Such a cognitive bias has been suggested to reflect an internal emotional state analogous to humans who judge more pessimistically when they do not feel well. In order to test cognitive bias experimentally, an animal is conditioned to respond to two different stimuli, where one is punished while the other is rewarded. Subsequently a third, ambiguous stimulus is presented and it is measured whether the subject responds as if it expects a reward or a punishment...
October 3, 2016: Animal Cognition
Daniel Rolke, Stefan Fuchs, Bernd Grünewald, Zhenglei Gao, Wolfgang Blenau
Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops...
September 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Bojan Gajić, Jevrosima Stevanović, Željko Radulović, Zoran Kulišić, Branislav Vejnović, Uroš Glavinić, Zoran Stanimirović
In the present study, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for identification of recently described Serbia 1 (S1) and Peshter 1 (P1) mitochondrial haplotypes of Varroa destructor. Based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences, a total of 64 adult V. destructor females were analyzed from locations where the S1 and P1 haplotypes had been detected previously...
November 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Stephan Wolf, Elizabeth Nicholls, Andrew M Reynolds, Patricia Wells, Ka S Lim, Robert J Paxton, Juliet L Osborne
Lévy flights are scale-free (fractal) search patterns found in a wide range of animals. They can be an advantageous strategy promoting high encounter rates with rare cues that may indicate prey items, mating partners or navigational landmarks. The robustness of this behavioural strategy to ubiquitous threats to animal performance, such as pathogens, remains poorly understood. Using honeybees radar-tracked during their orientation flights in a novel landscape, we assess for the first time how two emerging infectious diseases (Nosema sp...
2016: Scientific Reports
Zheguang Lin, Paul Page, Li Li, Yao Qin, Yingying Zhang, Fuliang Hu, Peter Neumann, Huoqing Zheng, Vincent Dietemann
The poor health status of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, compared to its Eastern counterpart, Apis cerana, is remarkable. This has been attributed to lower pathogen prevalence in A. cerana colonies and to their ability to survive infestations with the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. These properties have been linked to an enhanced removal of dead or unhealthy immature bees by adult workers in this species. Although such hygienic behavior is known to contribute to honey bee colony health, comparative data of A...
2016: PloS One
Joyce de Figueiró Santos, Flávio Codeço Coelho, Pierre-Alexandre Bliman
Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America...
2016: PloS One
Agostina Giacobino, Ana Molineri, Natalia Bulacio Cagnolo, Julieta Merke, Emanuel Orellano, Ezequiel Bertozzi, Germán Masciangelo, Hernán Pietronave, Adriana Pacini, Cesar Salto, Marcelo Signorini
Varroa destructor is considered one of the main threats to worldwide apiculture causing a variety of physiological effects at individual and colony level. Also, Varroa mites are often associated with several honey bee viruses presence. Relatively low levels of Varroa during the spring, at the beginning of the honey yield season, can have a significant economic impact on honey production and colony health. Winter treatments against Varroa and certain management practices may delay mite population growth during following spring and summer improving colonies performance during the honey yield season...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Sonia Herrera López, Ana Lozano, Alexis Sosa, M Dolores Hernando, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
A developed multi-residue method using microflow-LC-ESI-QqQ-MS provided a wide-scope analysis for medium-polar and polar pesticide residues (120 compounds including breakdown products). Honeybee wax comb samples were extracted using a generic QuEChERS based procedure. Acceptable recoveries at concentration levels of 5 and 50 μg kg(-1) were within the 70-120% range with an associated precision RSD <20%. The LOQ values were mostly 5 μg kg(-1) for almost all pesticides. Aprox. 31 of 120 LC-amenable pesticides tested (25...
November 2016: Chemosphere
Suresh D Desai, Robert W Currie
Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors) and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter...
2016: PloS One
Sara Bernardi, Ezio Venturino
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has become one of the major worldwide threats for apiculture. Varroa destructor attacks the honey bee Apis mellifera weakening its host by sucking hemolymph. However, the damage to bee colonies is not strictly related to the parasitic action of the mite but it derives, above all, from its action as vector increasing the transmission of many viral diseases such as acute paralysis (ABPV) and deformed wing viruses (DWV), that are considered among the main causes of CCD (Colony Collapse Disorder)...
May 2016: Heliyon
Han Hu, Kaspar Bienefeld, Jakob Wegener, Fred Zautke, Yue Hao, Mao Feng, Bin Han, Yu Fang, Abebe Jenberie Wubie, Jianke Li
Varroa destructor has been identified as a major culprit responsible for the losses of millions of honeybee colonies. Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is a suite of behaviors from adult bees to suppress mite reproduction by uncapping and/or removing mite infested pupae from a sealed brood. Despite the efforts to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of VSH, they remain largely unknown. We investigated the proteome of mushroom bodies (MBs) and antennae of adult bees with and without VSH from a stock selected for VSH based on their response to artificially Varroa-infected brood cells by near-infrared camera observation...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Xiaofeng Dong, Makiko Kashio, Guangda Peng, Xinyue Wang, Makoto Tominaga, Tatsuhiko Kadowaki
We identified and characterized the TRPA1 channel of Tropilaelaps mercedesae (TmTRPA1), one of two major species of honeybee ectoparasitic mite. Three TmTRPA1 isoforms with unique N-terminal sequences were activated by heat, and the isoform highly expressed in the mite's front legs, TmTRPA1b, was also activated by 27 plant-derived compounds including electrophiles. This suggests that the heat- and electrophile-dependent gating mechanisms as nocisensitive TRPA1 channel are well conserved between arthropod species...
June 2016: Open Biology
Elsa Bonnafé, Julie Alayrangues, Lucie Hotier, Isabelle Massou, Allan Renom, Guillaume Souesme, Pierre Marty, Marion Allaoua, Michel Treilhou, Catherine Armengaud
Bees are exposed in their environment to contaminants that can weaken the colony and contribute to bee declines. Monoterpenoid-based preparations can be introduced into hives to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. The long-term effects of monoterpenoids are poorly investigated. Olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) has been used to evaluate the impact of stressors on cognitive functions of the honeybee such as learning and memory. We tested PER to odorants on bees after exposure to monoterpenoids in hives...
June 16, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Xianbing Xie, Zachary Y Huang, Zhijiang Zeng
The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting...
2016: Scientific Reports
J Wegener, H Ruhnke, K Scheller, S Mispagel, U Knollmann, G Kamp, K Bienefeld
The parasitic mite Varroa destructor, in interaction with different viruses, is the main cause of honey bee colony mortality in most parts of the world. Here we studied how effects of individual-level parasitization are reflected by the bee colony as a whole. We measured disease progression in an apiary of 24 hives with differing degree of mite infestation, and investigated its relationship to 28 biometrical, physiological and biochemical indicators. In early summer, when the most heavily infested colonies already showed reduced growth, an elevated ratio of brood to bees, as well as a strong presence of phenoloxidase/prophenoloxidase in hive bees were found to be predictors of the time of colony collapse...
August 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
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