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Melissa Oddie, Ralph Büchler, Bjørn Dahle, Marin Kovacic, Yves Le Conte, Barbara Locke, Joachim R de Miranda, Fanny Mondet, Peter Neumann
In eusocial insect colonies nestmates cooperate to combat parasites, a trait called social immunity. However, social immunity failed for Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) when the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor switched hosts from Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana). This mite has since become the most severe threat to A. mellifera world-wide. Despite this, some isolated A. mellifera populations are known to survive infestations by means of natural selection, largely by supressing mite reproduction, but the underlying mechanisms of this are poorly understood...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Panuwan Chantawannakul, Samuel Ramsey, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Patcharin Phokasem
The risk of transmission of honey bee parasites has increased substantially as a result of trade globalization and technical developments in transportation efficacy. Great concern over honey bee decline has accelerated research on newly emerging bee pests and parasites. These organisms are likely to emerge from Asia as it is the only region where all 10 honey bee species co-occur. Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite, is a classic example of a pest that has shifted from A. cerana, a cavity nesting Asian honey bee to A...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Jay D Evans, Steven C Cook
Varroa destructor is the primary biological threat to domesticated honey bee colonies in much of the world, impacting host fitness both directly and by transmitting RNA viruses. Genomic, proteomic, and functional-genetic resources provide a framework for Varroa biology. When coupled with physiological analyses of development, host finding, and reproduction, these resources reveal general traits of arthropods and offer new strategies for mite control. Efforts to develop novel controls are focused on efficacy, efficient delivery, and the avoidance of both host impacts and the swift evolution of resistance by mites...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
John M K Roberts, Denis L Anderson, Peter A Durr
The viral landscape of the honey bee (Apismellifera) has changed as a consequence of the global spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and accompanying virulent strains of the iflavirus deformed wing virus (DWV), which the mite vectors. The presence of DWV in honey bee populations is known to influence the occurrence of other viruses, suggesting that the current known virome of A. mellifera may be undercharacterized. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the honey bee virome in Australia, which is uniquely free of parasitic mites or DWV...
May 11, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jinzhi Niu, Guangmao Shen, Olivier Christiaens, Guy Smagghe, Lin He, Jinjun Wang
Mites comprise a group of key agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. They cause harm through feeding on the plant and transferring dangerous pathogens, and the rapid evolution of pesticide resistance in mites highlights the need for novel control methods. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) shows a great potential for insect pest control. Here, we review the literature associated with RNAi in mite pests. We discuss different target genes and RNAi efficiency in various mite species, a promising Varroa control program through RNAi, the synergy of RNAi with plant defense mechanisms and microorganisms, and the current understandings of systemic movement of dsRNA...
May 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Aleš Gregorc, Mohamed Alburaki, Blair Sampson, Patricia R Knight, John Adamczyk
The efficacies of various acaricides in order to control a parasitic mite, the Varroa mite, Varroa destructor , of honey bees, were measured in two different settings, namely, in laboratory caged honey bees and in queen-right honey bee colonies. The Varroa infestation levels before, during, and after the acaricide treatments were determined in two ways, namely: (1) using the sugar shake protocol to count mites on bees and (2) directly counting the dead mites on the hive bottom inserts. The acaricides that were evaluated were coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, amitraz, thymol, and natural plant compounds (hop acids), which were the active ingredients...
May 10, 2018: Insects
Hao Hao Zhang, Zhen Guo Liu, You Hui Gong, Qing Yun Diao
Varroa destructor is a virulent ectoparasitic mite of western honeybee (Apis mellifera), and considered the greatest threat to apiculture around the world. Chemical method is widely used for the management of this mite. However, this method can easily induce the resistance of V. destructor to acaricides, toxicity of acaricides to honeybee and the residues in bee products. Therefore, many safe preventions and control techniques were developed to treat mite in recent years. Using pheromones of honeybee to control V...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Fanny Mondet, Andrea Rau, Christophe Klopp, Marine Rohmer, Dany Severac, Yves Le Conte, Cedric Alaux
BACKGROUND: The parasite Varroa destructor represents a significant threat to honeybee colonies. Indeed, development of Varroa infestation within colonies, if left untreated, often leads to the death of the colony. Although its impact on bees has been extensively studied, less is known about its biology and the functional processes governing its adult life cycle and adaptation to its host. We therefore developed a full life cycle transcriptomic catalogue in adult Varroa females and included pairwise comparisons with males, artificially-reared and non-reproducing females (10 life cycle stages and conditions in total)...
May 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
Reinhold Siede, Marina D Meixner, Maria T Almanza, Ralf Schöning, Christian Maus, Ralph Büchler
Clothianidin is a commonly used systemic insecticide in seed treatments. Residues of clothianidin can occur in nectar and pollen as a result of within-plant-translocation. Foraging bees can collect contaminated nectar or pollen. Concerns have been brought forward that exposure to pesticide residues might affect colonies especially if they are weakened by varroosis. However, there are few scientific studies investigating such multiple-stressor scenarios in the context of the entire colony. To close this gapa field trial with 24 colonies was set up...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Beatrice T Nganso, Ayuka T Fombong, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Christian W W Pirk, Charles Stuhl, Baldwyn Torto
Although Varroa destructor is the most serious ecto-parasite to the honeybee, Apis mellifera L., some honeybee populations such as Apis mellifera scutellata in Kenya can survive mite infestations without treatment. Previously, we reported that grooming behaviour could be a potential tolerant mechanism expressed by this honeybee subspecies towards mite infestation. However, both hygienic and grooming behaviours could not explain the lower mite-infestation levels recorded in these colonies. Here, we investigated the involvement of other potential resistant mechanisms including suppression of mite reproduction in worker brood cells of A...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology
Immacolata Iovinella, Alison McAfee, Guido Mastrobuoni, Stefan Kempa, Leonard J Foster, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
We have performed a proteomic analysis on chemosensory organs of Varroa destructor, the honey bee mite, in order to identify putative soluble carriers for pheromones and other olfactory cues emitted by the host. In particular, we have analysed forelegs, mouthparts (palps, chelicera and hypostome) and the second pair of legs (as control tissue) in reproductive and phoretic stages of the Varroa life cycle. We identified 958 Varroa proteins, most of them common to the different organs and stages. Sequence analysis shows that four proteins can be assigned to the odorant-binding protein (OBP)-like class, which bear some similarity to insect OBPs, but so far have only been reported in some Chelicerata...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Esmaeil Amiri, Per Kryger, Marina D Meixner, Micheline K Strand, David R Tarpy, Olav Rueppell
Deformed wing virus (DWV) is an important pathogen in a broad range of insects, including honey bees. Concordant with the spread of Varroa, DWV is present in the majority of honey bee colonies and can result in either low-level infections with asymptomatic bees that nonetheless exhibit increased colony loss under stress, or high-level infections with acute effects on bee health and viability. DWV can be transmitted vertically or horizontally and evidence suggests that horizontal transmission via Varroa is associated with acute symptomatic infections...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin H Conlon, Eva Frey, Peter Rosenkranz, Barbara Locke, Robin F A Moritz, Jarkko Routtu
The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts that host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics can select for host resistance through increased genetic diversity, recombination and evolutionary rates. However, in haplodiploid organisms such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera), models suggest the selective pressure is weaker than in diploids. Haplodiploid sex-determination, found in A. mellifera, can allow deleterious recessive alleles to persist in the population through the diploid sex with negative effects predominantly expressed in the haploid sex...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jessika Santamaria
The data presented in this article relates to the research article, "Evidence of Varroa -mediated Deformed Wing virus spillover in Hawaii" (Santamaria et al., 2017) [3]. The article presents data collected throughout August 2014 to November 2015, on the two Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Maui. Apis and non- Apis specimens - a total of four species - were collected and tested for Deformed Wing virus (DWV) absence or presence, only. Specific island locations are noted. This data is made publicly available to be analyzed or used in future relevant research...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Noble I Egekwu, Francisco Posada, Daniel E Sonenshine, Steven Cook
Varroa destructor mites (varroa) are ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees, and the damage they inflict on hosts is likely a causative factor of recent poor honey bee colony performance. Research has produced an arsenal of control agents against varroa mites, which have become resistant to many chemical means of their control, and other means have uncertain efficacy. Novel means of control will result from a thorough understanding of varroa physiology and behavior. However, robust knowledge of varroa biology is lacking; mites have very low survivability and reproduction away from their natural environment and host, and few tested protocols of maintaining mites in vitro are available as standardized methods for varroa research...
March 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Bettina Ziegelmann, Elisabeth Abele, Stefan Hannus, Michaela Beitzinger, Stefan Berg, Peter Rosenkranz
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simona Kraberger, Gabriel A Visnovsky, Ron F van Toor, Maketalena F Male, Kara Waits, Rafaela S Fontenele, Arvind Varsani
Varroa destructor is a ubiquitous and parasitic mite of honey bees, infecting them with pathogenic viruses having a major impact on apiculture. We identified two novel circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses from V. destructor sampled from a honey bee hive near Christchurch in New Zealand.
March 1, 2018: Genome Announcements
Brenna E Traver, Haley K Feazel-Orr, Katelyn M Catalfamo, Carlyle C Brewster, Richard D Fell
Honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), populations are in decline and their losses pose a serious threat for crop pollination and food production. The specific causes of these losses are believed to be multifactorial. Pesticides, parasites and pathogens, and nutritional deficiencies have been implicated in the losses due to their ability to exert energetic stress on bees. While our understanding of the role of these factors in honey bee colony losses has improved, there is still a lack of knowledge of how they impact the immune system of the honey bee...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Zheguang Lin, Yao Qin, Paul Page, Shuai Wang, Li Li, Zhengsheng Wen, Fuliang Hu, Peter Neumann, Huoqing Zheng, Vincent Dietemann
The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor , shifted host from the eastern honeybee, Apis cerana , to the western honeybee, Apis mellifera . Whereas the original host survives infestations by this parasite, they are lethal to colonies of its new host. Here, we investigated a population of A. cerana naturally infested by the V. destructor Korea haplotype that gave rise to the globally invasive mite lineage. Our aim was to better characterize traits that allow for the survival of the original host to infestations by this particular mite haplotype...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yi Zhang, Richou Han
Varroa destructor mites express strong avoidance of the Apis cerana worker brood in the field. The molecular mechanism for this phenomenon remains unknown. We identified a Varroa toxic protein (VTP), which exhibited toxic activity toward A. cerana worker larvae, in the saliva of these mites, and expressed VTP in an Escherichia coli system. We further demonstrated that recombinant VTP killed A. cerana worker larvae and pupae in the absence of deformed-wing virus (DWV) but was not toxic to A. cerana worker adults and drones...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
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