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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916302/modelling-seasonal-effects-of-temperature-and-precipitation-on-honey-bee-winter-mortality-in-a-temperate-climate
#1
Matthew Switanek, Karl Crailsheim, Heimo Truhetz, Robert Brodschneider
Insect pollinators are essential to global food production. For this reason, it is alarming that honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations across the world have recently seen increased rates of mortality. These changes in colony mortality are often ascribed to one or more factors including parasites, diseases, pesticides, nutrition, habitat dynamics, weather and/or climate. However, the effect of climate on colony mortality has never been demonstrated. Therefore, in this study, we focus on longer-term weather conditions and/or climate's influence on honey bee winter mortality rates across Austria...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907116/rnai-mediated-functional-analysis-of-bursicon-genes-related-to-adult-cuticle-formation-and-tanning-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#2
Claudinéia Pereira Costa, Moysés Elias-Neto, Tiago Falcon, Rodrigo Pires Dallacqua, Juliana Ramos Martins, Marcia Maria Gentile Bitondi
Bursicon is a heterodimeric neurohormone that acts through a G protein-coupled receptor named rickets (rk), thus inducing an increase in cAMP and the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cuticular tanning pathway. In insects, the role of bursicon in the post-ecdysial tanning of the adult cuticle and wing expansion is well characterized. Here we investigated the roles of the genes encoding the bursicon subunits during the adult cuticle development in the honeybee, Apis mellifera...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905515/neonicotinoid-induced-impairment-of-odour-coding-in-the-honeybee
#3
Mara Andrione, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides is considered one of the possible causes of honeybee (Apis mellifera) population decline. At sublethal doses, these chemicals have been shown to negatively affect a number of behaviours, including performance of olfactory learning and memory, due to their interference with acetylcholine signalling in the mushroom bodies. Here we provide evidence that neonicotinoids can affect odour coding upstream of the mushroom bodies, in the first odour processing centres of the honeybee brain, i...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896027/assessing-pollinators-use-of-floral-resource-subsidies-in-agri-environment-schemes-an-illustration-using-phacelia-tanacetifolia-and-honeybees
#4
Rowan Sprague, Stéphane Boyer, Georgia M Stevenson, Steve D Wratten
BACKGROUND: Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) are frequently used in agriculture for pollination services because of their abundance, generalist floral preferences, ease of management and hive transport. However, their populations are declining in many countries. Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) are being implemented in agricultural systems to combat the decline in populations of pollinators and other insects. Despite AES being increasingly embedded in policy and budgets, scientific assessments of many of these schemes still are lacking, and only a few studies have examined the extent to which insect pollinators use the floral enhancements that are part of AES and on which floral components they feed (i...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895050/social-signals-and-aversive-learning-in-honey-bee-drones-and-workers
#5
Arian Avalos, Eddie Pérez, Lianna Vallejo, María E Pérez, Charles I Abramson, Tugrul Giray
The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must tradeoff between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA)...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894973/is-there-nothing-new-under-the-sun-the-influence-of-herbals-and-pharmacopoeias-on-ethnobotanical-traditions-in-albacete-spain
#6
Diego Rivera, Alonso Verde, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Candelaria Moreno, Teresa Egea, José Fajardo, José Antonio Palazón, Arturo Valdés, Maria Adele Signorini, Piero Bruschi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This paper has two overarching aims: (1) presenting the results of studying the Albacete tariff of medicines of 1526 and (2) broadly analyzing the origin and influences of medicinal traditional knowledge in the region of Albacete, Spain. We use historical and modern literature that may have influenced this knowledge. Our primary goal was to determine the ingredients used in the pharmacy in the 16th century CE in Albacete through the analysis of the tariff, and our secondary goal was to investigate until when ingredients and uses present in pharmacy and herbals persisted in later periods...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890584/a-sedge-plant-as-the-source-of-kangaroo-island-propolis-rich-in-prenylated-p-coumarate-ester-and-stilbenes
#7
Colin C Duke, Van H Tran, Rujee K Duke, Abdallah Abu-Mellal, George T Plunkett, Douglas I King, Kaiser Hamid, Karen L Wilson, Russell L Barrett, Jeremy J Bruhl
Propolis samples from Kangaroo Island, South Australia, were investigated for chemical constituents using high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectral profiling. A type of propolis was found containing a high proportion of prenylated hydroxystilbenes. Subsequently, the botanical origin of this type of propolis was identified using a beehive propolis depletion method and analysis of flora. Ligurian honey bees, Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, were found to produce propolis from resin exuded by the Australian native sedge plant Lepidosperma sp...
November 24, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883064/the-microrna-toolkit-of-insects
#8
Guillem Ylla, Bastian Fromm, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Xavier Belles
Is there a correlation between miRNA diversity and levels of organismic complexity? Exhibiting extraordinary levels of morphological and developmental complexity, insects are the most diverse animal class on earth. Their evolutionary success was in particular shaped by the innovation of holometabolan metamorphosis in endopterygotes. Previously, miRNA evolution had been linked to morphological complexity, but astonishing variation in the currently available miRNA complements of insects made this link unclear...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883042/two-novel-viruses-associated-with-the-apis-mellifera-pathogenic-mite-varroa-destructor
#9
Sofia Levin, Noa Sela, Nor Chejanovsky
Varroa destructor infestation of Apis mellifera colonies carries and/or promotes replication of honey bee viruses like the Deformed wing virus, the Varroa destructor virus-1, the Acute bee paralysis virus, the Israeli acute bee paralysis virus and the Kashmir bee virus that have been well described and characterized; but viruses exclusively associated with Varroa were not found. To look for viruses that may associate with- or infect V. destructor we performed deep sequencing (RNA-seq) of RNA extracted from honey bees and mites in Varroa-infested untreated colonies...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882358/monofloral-honeys-by-sicilian-black-honeybee-apis-mellifera-ssp-sicula-have-high-reducing-power-and-antioxidant-capacity
#10
Alessandro Attanzio, Luisa Tesoriere, Mario Allegra, Maria A Livrea
Thirty samples from thirteen Sicilian monofloral honeys by the local black honeybee, and two honeydew honeys, were studied to assess phenol content, reducing power and antioxidant capacity as well as correlations among these parameters. Honeys from Apiaceae showed the highest phenol amount and capacity to reduce ferric ion and stable chemical radicals, whereas honeys from Leguminosae the lowest. All honeys were active against myoglobin-derived radicals usually formed in red meat after storage and/or heating and significant correlation (p = 0...
November 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881750/experimental-evidence-that-honeybees-depress-wild-insect-densities-in-a-flowering-crop
#11
Sandra A M Lindström, Lina Herbertsson, Maj Rundlöf, Riccardo Bommarco, Henrik G Smith
While addition of managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) improves pollination of many entomophilous crops, it is unknown if it simultaneously suppresses the densities of wild insects through competition. To investigate this, we added 624 honeybee hives to 23 fields of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) over 2 years and made sure that the areas around 21 other fields were free from honeybee hives. We demonstrate that honeybee addition depresses the densities of wild insects (bumblebees, solitary bees, hoverflies, marchflies, other flies, and other flying and flower-visiting insects) even in a massive flower resource such as oilseed rape...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865886/social-regulation-of-ageing-by-young-workers-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#12
Michael Eyer, Benjamin Dainat, Peter Neumann, Vincent Dietemann
Organisms' lifespans are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. The lifespan of eusocial insects is determined by features of the division of labor, which itself is influenced by social regulatory mechanisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, the presence of brood and of old workers carrying out foraging tasks are important social drivers of ageing, but the influence of young adult workers is unknown, as it has not been experimentally teased apart from that of brood. In this study, we test the role of young workers in the ageing of their nestmates...
November 16, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864738/biochemical-and-histological-biomarkers-in-the-midgut-of-apis-mellifera-from-polluted-environment-at-beheira-governorate-egypt
#13
Ahmed M Abu El-Saad, Dalia A Kheirallah, Lamia M El-Samad
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of organophosphorus (OP) pollutants on oxidative stress and ultrastructural biomarkers in the midgut of the honeybee Apis mellifera collected from three locations that differ in their extent of spraying load with OP insecticides: a weakly anthropised rural site, Bolin which is considered as a reference site; moderately spraying site, El Kaza; and a strongly anthropised urban site, Tiba with a long history of pesticide use. Results showed that high concentrations of chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in midgut at locations with extensive pesticide spraying...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863055/snps-selected-by-information-content-outperform-randomly-selected-microsatellite-loci-for-delineating-genetic-identification-and-introgression-in-the-endangered-dark-european-honeybee-apis-mellifera-mellifera
#14
Irene Muñoz, Dora Henriques, Laura Jara, J Spencer Johnston, Julio Chávez-Galarza, Pilar De La Rúa, M Alice Pinto
The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides, and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify purebred A. m. mellifera colonies...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858995/establishing-very-long-chain-fatty-alcohol-and-wax-ester-biosynthesis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Leonie Wenning, Tao Yu, Florian David, Jens Nielsen, Verena Siewers
Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products were restricted to C28-C36 WEs...
November 14, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852760/the-defensive-response-of-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#16
REVIEW
Morgane Nouvian, Judith Reinhard, Martin Giurfa
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are insects living in colonies with a complex social organization. Their nest contains food stores in the form of honey and pollen, as well as the brood, the queen and the bees themselves. These resources have to be defended against a wide range of predators and parasites, a task that is performed by specialized workers, called guard bees. Guards tune their response to both the nature of the threat and the environmental conditions, in order to achieve an efficient trade-off between defence and loss of foraging workforce...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852693/migratory-bee-hive-transportation-contributes-insignificantly-to-transgenic-pollen-movement-between-spatially-isolated-alfalfa-seed-fields
#17
Natalie K Boyle, Sandya R Kesoju, Stephanie L Greene, Ruth C Martin, Douglas B Walsh
Contracted commercial beekeeping operations provide an essential pollination service to many agricultural systems worldwide. Increased use of genetically engineered crops in agriculture has raised concerns over pollinator-mediated gene flow between transgenic and conventional agricultural varieties. This study evaluated whether contracted migratory beekeeping practices influence transgenic pollen flow among spatially isolated alfalfa fields. Twelve honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were permitted to forage on transgenic alfalfa blossoms for 1 wk in Touchet, WA...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852222/differential-gene-expression-in-varroa-jacobsoni-mites-following-a-host-shift-to-european-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#18
Gladys K Andino, Michael Gribskov, Denis L Anderson, Jay D Evans, Greg J Hunt
BACKGROUND: Varroa mites are widely considered the biggest honey bee health problem worldwide. Until recently, Varroa jacobsoni has been found to live and reproduce only in Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) colonies, while V. destructor successfully reproduces in both A. cerana and A. mellifera colonies. However, we have identified an island population of V. jacobsoni that is highly destructive to A. mellifera, the primary species used for pollination and honey production. The ability of these populations of mites to cross the host species boundary potentially represents an enormous threat to apiculture, and is presumably due to genetic variation that exists among populations of V...
November 16, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847468/synaptic-organization-of-microglomerular-clusters-in-the-lateral-and-medial-bulbs-of-the-honeybee-brain
#19
Theo Mota, Sabine Kreissl, Ana Carrasco Durán, Damien Lefer, Giovanni Galizia, Martin Giurfa
The honeybee Apis mellifera is an established model for the study of visual orientation. Yet, research on this topic has focused on behavioral aspects and has neglected the investigation of the underlying neural architectures in the bee brain. In other insects, the anterior optic tubercle (AOTU), the lateral (LX) and the central complex (CX) are important brain regions for visuospatial performances. In the central brain of the honeybee, a prominent group of neurons connecting the AOTU with conspicuous microglomerular synaptic structures in the LX has been recently identified, but their neural organization and ultrastructure have not been investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847190/comparative-toxicity-of-pesticides-and-environmental-contaminants-in-bees-are-honey-bees-a-useful-proxy-for-wild-bee-species
#20
Matthew S Heard, Jan Baas, Jean-Lou Dorne, Elma Lahive, Alexander G Robinson, Agnes Rortais, David J Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen, Helen Hesketh
Threats to wild and managed insect pollinators in Europe are cause for both ecological and socio-economic concern. Multiple anthropogenic pressures may be exacerbating pollinator declines. One key pressure is exposure to chemicals including pesticides and other contaminants. Historically the honey bee (Apis mellifera spp.) has been used as an 'indicator' species for 'standard' ecotoxicological testing but it has been suggested that it is not always a good proxy for other types of eusocial and solitary bees because of species differences in autecology and sensitivity to various stressors...
November 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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