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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437454/age-associated-increase-of-the-active-zone-protein-bruchpilot-within-the-honeybee-mushroom-body
#1
Katrin B Gehring, Karin Heufelder, Harald Depner, Isabella Kersting, Stephan J Sigrist, Dorothea Eisenhardt
In honeybees, age-associated structural modifications can be observed in the mushroom bodies. Prominent examples are the synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the mushroom body calyces, which were shown to alter their size and density with age. It is not known whether the amount of intracellular synaptic proteins in the MG is altered as well. The presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP) is localized at active zones and is involved in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430801/honey-bees-preferentially-consume-freshly-stored-pollen
#2
Mark J Carroll, Nicholas Brown, Craig Goodall, Alexandra M Downs, Timothy H Sheenan, Kirk E Anderson
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) collect and store both honey and pollen in preserved forms. Pollen storage involves the addition of honey or nectar and oral secretions to pollen granules. It is controversial whether the duration of pollen storage alters the palatability or nutritive value of the pollen storage medium. We examined how bees utilize different-aged stored pollen during an extended pollen flow. The deposition of pollen into wax cells and subsequent consumption were monitored daily on 18 brood frames from 6 colonies over an 8d observation period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429131/the-first-comprehensive-molecular-detection-of-six-honey-bee-viruses-in-iran-in-2015-2016
#3
Mohammadreza Ghorani, Omid Madadgar, Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Mohammadreza Rezapanah, Sedigheh Nabian, Hesameddin Akbarein, Reza Kh Farahani, Hossein Maghsoudloo, Hamed Abdollahi, Mohammad Forsi
At least 18 viruses have been reported in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). However, severe diseases in honey bees are mainly caused by six viruses, and these are the most important in beekeeping. These viruses include: deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), sacbrood virus (SBV), kashmir bee virus (KBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV). In this study, we evaluated 89 Iranian honey bee apiaries (during the period 2015-2016) suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring, by employing reverse transcription-PCR...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427951/uncovering-the-immune-responses-of-apis-mellifera-ligustica-larval-gut-to-ascosphaera-apis-infection-utilizing-transcriptome-sequencing
#4
Dafu Chen, Rui Guo, Xijian Xu, Cuiling Xiong, Qin Liang, Yanzhen Zheng, Qun Luo, Zhaonan Zhang, Zhijian Huang, Dhiraj Kumar, Weijun Xi, Xuan Zou, Min Liu
Honeybees are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including chalkbrood, which is capable of causing huge losses of both the number of bees and colony productivity. This research is designed to characterize the transcriptome profiles of Ascosphaera apis-treated and un-treated larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica in an attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the immune responses of western honeybee larval guts to mycosis. In this study, 24, 296 and 2157 genes were observed to be differentially expressed in A...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424101/limited-impacts-of-truck-based-ultra-low-volume-applications-of-mosquito-adulticides-on-mortality-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#5
F D Rinkevich, J W Margotta, V Pokhrel, T W Walker, R H Vaeth, W C Hoffman, B K Fritz, R G Danka, T E Rinderer, R L Aldridge, K J Linthicum, J A Ottea, K B Healy
Adulticides applied against mosquitoes can reduce vector populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impacts of these insecticides on pollinators and other non-target organisms are of concern to mosquito control professionals, beekeepers and others. We evaluated mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Apis mellifera when caged insects were exposed to low and high label rates of four common adulticides (Aqua-Pursuit™ [permethrin], Duet® [prallethrin + sumithrin], Fyfanon® [malathion] and Scourge® [resmethrin]) at six distances up to 91...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423045/characterization-of-antennal-sensilla-larvae-morphology-and-olfactory-genes-of-melipona-scutellaris-stingless-bee
#6
Washington João de Carvalho, Patrícia Tieme Fujimura, Ana Maria Bonetti, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Kevin Cloonan, Neide Maria da Silva, Ester Cristina Borges Araújo, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Walter S Leal
There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that caste differentiation in the stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris, and other bees in the genus Melipona, is triggered by environmental signals, particularly a primer pheromone. With the proper amount of food and a chemical stimulus, 25% of females emerge as queens, in agreement with a long-standing "two loci/two alleles model" proposed in the 1950s. We surmised that these larvae must be equipped with an olfactory system for reception of these chemical signals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412203/atp-sensitive-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-modulators-alter-cardiac-function-in-honey-bees
#7
Scott T O'Neal, Daniel R Swale, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Troy D Anderson
ATP-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium (KATP) channels couple cellular metabolism to the membrane potential of the cell and play an important role in a variety of tissue types, including the insect dorsal vessel, making them a subject of interest not only for understanding invertebrate physiology, but also as a potential target for novel insecticides. Most of what is known about these ion channels is the result of work performed in mammalian systems, with insect studies being limited to only a few species and physiological systems...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409431/formetanate-toxicity-and-changes-in-antioxidant-enzyme-system-of-apis-mellifera-larvae
#8
Martin Staroň, Rastislav Sabo, Anna Sobeková, Lucia Sabová, Jaroslav Legáth, Ľuboslava Lohajová, Peter Javorský
Substantial percentage of world food production depends on pollinating service of honeybees that directly depends on their health status. Among other factors, the success of bee colonies depends on health of developed larvae. The crucial phase of larval development is the first 6 days after hatching when a worker larva grows exponentially and larvae are potentially exposed to xenobiotics via diet. In the present study, we determined the lethal concentration LC50 (72 h) following single dietary exposure of honeybee larvae to formetanate under laboratory conditions, being also the first report available in scientific literature...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404729/wings-as-impellers-honey-bees-co-opt-flight-system-to-induce-nest-ventilation-and-disperse-pheromones
#9
Jacob M Peters, Nick Gravish, Stacey A Combes
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are remarkable fliers that regularly carry heavy loads of nectar and pollen, supported by a flight system - the wings, thorax and flight muscles - that one might assume is optimized for aerial locomotion. However, honey bees also use this system to perform other crucial tasks that are unrelated to flight. When ventilating the nest, bees grip the surface of the comb or nest entrance and fan their wings to drive airflow through the nest, and a similar wing-fanning behavior is used to disperse volatile pheromones from the Nasonov gland...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403157/effects-of-age-and-nutritional-state-on-the-expression-of-gustatory-receptors-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#10
Nicola K Simcock, Luisa A Wakeling, Dianne Ford, Geraldine A Wright
Gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in insect taste neurons signal the presence of carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, CO2, bitter compounds and oviposition stimulants. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has one of the smallest Gr gene sets (12 Gr genes) of any insect whose genome has been sequenced. Honeybees live in eusocial colonies with a division of labour and perform age-dependent behavioural tasks, primarily food collection. Here, we used RT-qPCR to quantify Gr mRNA in honeybees at two ages (newly-emerged and foraging-age adults) to examine the relationship between age-related physiology and expression of Gr genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402838/exposure-of-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-to-different-classes-of-insecticides-exhibit-distinct-molecular-effect-patterns-at-concentrations-that-mimic-environmental-contamination
#11
Verena Christen, Karl Fent
Pesticides are implicated in the decline of honey bee populations. Many insecticides are neurotoxic and act by different modes of actions. Although a link between insecticide exposure and changed behaviour has been made, molecular effects underlying these effects are poorly understood. Here we elucidated molecular effects at environmental realistic concentrations of two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and malathion, the pyrethroid cypermethrin, and the ryanodine receptor activator, chlorantraniliprole. We assessed transcriptional alterations of selected genes at three exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) in caged honey bees exposed to different concentrations of these compounds...
April 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400199/viruses-of-managed-alfalfa-leafcutting-bees-megachille-rotundata-fabricus-and-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-l-in-western-canada-incidence-impacts-and-prospects-of-cross-species-viral-transmission
#12
Andony Melathopoulos, Lynae Ovinge, Patricia Wolf Veiga, Carlos Castillo, David Ostermann, Shelley Hoover
We examined whether alfalfa leafcutting bees (ALCB, Megachille rotundata) experienced a higher incidence of seven viruses commonly found honey bees (Apis mellifera) when placed alongside honey bees for hybrid canola seed pollination. Although two viruses - sacbrood virus (SBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) - were detected in ALCB adults, their presence appeared independent of whether honey bees were present in the same field or not. A further survey of viruses among ALCB adults in three different alfalfa seed growing regions in Western Canada confirmed the ubiquity of sacbrood virus (SBV) as well as the infrequent presence of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), both of which had not been previously reported on ALCB...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398581/agricultural-landscape-and-pesticide-effects-on-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-biological-traits
#13
Mohamed Alburaki, Sandra J Steckel, Matthew T Williams, John A Skinner, David R Tarpy, William G Meikle, John Adamczyk, Scott D Stewart
Sixteen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes to study the effects of agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas) and one nonagricultural area (NAG area). Colonies were monitored for their performance and productivity for one year by measuring colony weight changes, brood production, and colony thermoregulation...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396492/the-geometric-framework-for-nutrition-reveals-interactions-between-protein-and-carbohydrate-during-larval-growth-in-honey-bees
#14
Bryan R Helm, Garett Slater, Arun Rajamohan, George D Yocum, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes nutritional studies challenging, because diet components cannot be systematically manipulated in the hive...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393274/chronic-n-enrichment-and-drought-alter-plant-cover-and-community-composition-in-a-mediterranean-type-semi-arid-shrubland
#15
George L Vourlitis
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has caused a decline in native plant species and an increase in exotic plant species in many terrestrial ecosystems; however, vegetation change depends on the rate and/or duration of N input, individual species responses, interactions with other resources, and ecosystem properties such as species richness and canopy cover, soil texture, pH, and/or disturbance regime. Native shrub and exotic forb responses to N enrichment were evaluated over a 13-year field experiment in a mature coastal sage scrub (CSS) shrubland of southern California to test the hypothesis that dry-season N input will cause a decline in native shrubs and an increase in exotic annuals...
April 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392285/replication-of-honey-bee-associated-rna-viruses-across-multiple-bee-species-in-apple-orchards-of-georgia-germany-and-kyrgyzstan
#16
Rita Radzevičiūtė, Panagiotis Theodorou, Martin Husemann, George Japoshvili, Giorgi Kirkitadze, Aigul Zhusupbaeva, Robert J Paxton
The essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. RNA viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (Apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. Yet despite their potential role in global bee decline, the prevalence of honey bee-associated RNA viruses in wild bees is poorly known from both geographic and taxonomic perspectives...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390783/phylogenetic-analysis-and-survey-of-apis-cerana-strain-of-sacbrood-virus-acsbv-in-taiwan-suggests-a-recent-introduction
#17
Wei-Fone Huang, Shahid Mehmood, Shaokang Huang, Yue-Wen Chen, Chong-Yu Ko, Songkun Su
The Sacbrood virus (SBV) is widely distributed in European honey bees, Apis mellifera. AcSBV, a distinct SBV strain in Asian honey bees (A. cerana) causes larva death before pupation and often depopulates colonies, leading to collapse. It is the most severe disease in A. cerana beekeeping. AcSBV infects A. cerana in most natural habitats, yet occurrences were not reported in Taiwan before 2015 and were not a concern for local beekeepers. However, in 2016, A. cerana beekeepers in central Taiwan reported SBV-like symptoms...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389730/nosema-ceranae-in-south-american-native-stingless-bees-and-social-wasp
#18
Martín Pablo Porrini, Leonardo Pablo Porrini, Paula Melisa Garrido, Carlos de Melo E Silva Neto, Darío Pablo Porrini, Fernando Muller, Laura Alejandra Nuñez, Leopoldo Alvarez, Pedro Fernandez Iriarte, Martín Javier Eguaras
Besides the incipient research effort, the role of parasites as drivers of the reduction affecting pollinator populations is mostly unknown. Given the worldwide extension of the beekeeping practice and the diversity of pathogens affecting Apis mellifera populations, honey bee colonies are a certain source of parasite dispersion to other species. Here, we communicate the detection of the microsporidium Nosema ceranae, a relatively new parasite of honey bees, in stingless bees (Meliponini) and the social wasp Polybia scutellaris (Vespidae) samples from Argentina and Brazil by means of duplex PCR...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388479/effects-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-strains-virulent-to-varroa-destructor-on-larvae-and-adults-of-apis-mellifera
#19
Eva Vianey Alquisira-Ramírez, Guadalupe Peña-Chora, Víctor Manuel Hernández-Velázquez, Andrés Alvear-García, Iván Arenas-Sosa, Ramón Suarez-Rodríguez
The sublethal effects of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, which were virulent in vitro to Varroa destructor, were measured on Apis mellifera. The effects of five concentrations of total protein (1, 5, 25, 50 and 100μg/mL) from the EA3 and EA26.1 strains on larval and adult honey bees were evaluated for two and seven days under laboratory conditions. Based on the concentrations evaluated, total protein from the two strains did not affect the development of larvae, the syrup consumption, locomotor activity or proboscis extension response of adults...
April 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387332/odorant-cues-linked-to-social-immunity-induce-lateralized-antenna-stimulation-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-l
#20
Alison McAfee, Troy F Collins, Lufiani L Madilao, Leonard J Foster
Hygienic behaviour (HB) is a social immunity trait in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) whereby workers detect, uncap and remove unhealthy brood, improving disease resistance in the colony. This is clearly economically valuable; however, the molecular mechanism behind it is not well understood. The freeze-killed brood (FKB) assay is the conventional method of HB selection, so we compared odour profiles of FKB and live brood to find candidate HB-inducing odours. Surprisingly, we found that significantly more brood pheromone (β-ocimene) was released from FKB...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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