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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334292/the-synergistic-effects-of-almond-protection-fungicides-on-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-forager-survival
#1
Adrian Fisher, Chet Coleman, Clint Hoffmann, Brad Fritz, Juliana Rangel
The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) contributes ∼$17 billion annually to the United States economy, primarily by pollinating major agricultural crops including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face constant challenges to crop productivity owing to pests and pathogens, which are often controlled with a multitude of agrochemicals. For example, fungicides are often applied in combination with other products to control fungal pathogens during almond bloom...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334279/population-growth-of-varroa-destructor-acari-varroidae-in-colonies-of-russian-and-unselected-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-stocks-as-related-to-numbers-of-foragers-with-mites
#2
Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Fabiana Ahumada, Robert Danka, Mona Chambers, Emily Watkins DeJong, Geoff Hidalgo
Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) is an external parasite of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite-resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. Russian honey bee and other mite-resistant stocks limit Varroa population growth by affecting factors that contribute to mite reproduction. However, mite population growth is not entirely due to reproduction. Numbers of foragers with mites (FWM) entering and leaving hives also affect the growth of mite populations...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334185/ecology-life-history-and-management-of-tropilaelaps-mites
#3
Lilia I de Guzman, Geoffrey R Williams, Kitiphong Khongphinitbunjong, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Parasitic mites are the major threat to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L. For much of the world, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilaelaps. The life history of these two parasitic mites is very similar, and both have the same food requirements (i.e., hemolymph of developing brood). Hence, parasitism by Tropilaelaps spp., especially Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Tropilaelaps clareae, also results in death of immature brood or wing deformities in infested adult bees...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334127/managed-bumble-bees-bombus-impatiens-hymenoptera-apidae-caged-with-blueberry-bushes-at-high-density-did-not-increase-fruit-set-or-fruit-weight-compared-to-open-pollination
#4
J W Campbell, J O'Brien, J H Irvin, C B Kimmel, J C Daniels, J D Ellis
Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334064/insecticide-susceptibility-in-asian-honey-bees-apis-cerana-hymenoptera-apidae-and-implications-for-wild-honey-bees-in-asia
#5
Mika Yasuda, Yoshiko Sakamoto, Koichi Goka, Teruyoshi Nagamitsu, Hisatomo Taki
To conserve local biodiversity and ensure the provision of pollination services, it is essential to understand the impact of pesticides on wild honey bees. Most studies that have investigated the effects of pesticides on honey bees have focused on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)), which is commonly domesticated worldwide. However, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) is widely distributed throughout Asia, and toxicity data are lacking for this species. This study aimed to fill this important knowledge gap...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332647/prevalence-of-honeybee-viruses-in-different-regions-of-china-and-argentina
#6
G Ding, N Fondevila, M A Palacio, J Merke, A Martinez, B Camacho, A Aignasse, E Figini, G Rodriguez, L Lv, Z Liu, W Shi
Honeybees are threatened by various pathogens and parasites. More than 18 viruses have been described in honeybees and many of them have been detected in China and Argentina. In China, both Apis cerana and Apis mellifera are raised. In Argentina, beekeepers raise different ecotypes of A. mellifera: European honeybees (in both temperate and subtropical regions) and Africanised honeybees (in subtropical areas only). A thorough study was carried out in both China and Argentina to analyse the current virus presence and distribution in different climatic zones and gather information on different bee species/subspecies...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331592/host-sharing-by-the-honey-bee-parasites-lotmaria-passim-and-nosema-ceranae
#7
Manuel Tritschler, Gina Retschnig, Orlando Yañez, Geoffrey R Williams, Peter Neumann
The trypanosome Lotmaria passim and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae are common parasites of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, intestine, but the nature of interactions between them is unknown. Here, we took advantage of naturally occurring infections and quantified infection loads of individual workers (N = 408) originating from three apiaries (four colonies per apiary) using PCR to test for interactions between these two parasites. For that purpose, we measured the frequency of single and double infections, estimated the parasite loads of single and double infections, and determined the type of correlation between both parasites in double infections...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331487/a-clinical-trial-protocol-to-treat-massive-africanized-honeybee-apis-mellifera-attack-with-a-new-apilic-antivenom
#8
Alexandre Naime Barbosa, Leslie Boyer, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Natalia Bronzatto Medolago, Carlos Antonio Caramori, Ariane Gomes Paixão, João Paulo Vasconcelos Poli, Mônica Bannwart Mendes, Lucilene Delazari Dos Santos, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera
BACKGROUND: Envenomation caused by multiple stings from Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera constitutes a public health problem in the Americas. In 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported 13,597 accidents (incidence of seven cases per 100,000 inhabitants) with 39 deaths (lethality of 0.25%). The toxins present in the venom, which include melittin and phospholipase A2, cause lesions in diverse organs and systems that may be fatal. As there has been no specific treatment to date, management has been symptomatic and supportive only...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330921/linking-magnetite-in-the-abdomen-of-honey-bees-to-a-magnetoreceptive-function
#9
Veronika Lambinet, Michael E Hayden, Katharina Reigl, Surath Gomis, Gerhard Gries
Previous studies of magnetoreception in honey bees, Apis mellifera, focused on the identification of magnetic material, its formation, the location of the receptor and potential underlying sensory mechanisms, but never directly linked magnetic material to a magnetoreceptive function. In our study, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic material consistent with magnetite plays an integral role in the bees' magnetoreceptor. Subjecting lyophilized and pelletized bee tagmata to analyses by a superconducting quantum interference device generated a distinct hysteresis loop for the abdomen but not for the thorax or the head of bees, indicating the presence of ferromagnetic material in the bee abdomen...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326846/stonebrood-and-chalkbrood-in-apis-mellifera-causing-fungi-in-vitro-sensitivity-to-some-essential-oils
#10
Simona Nardoni, Carlo D'Ascenzi, Guido Rocchigiani, Roberto Amerigo Papini, Luisa Pistelli, Giovanni Formato, Basma Najar, Francesca Mancianti
Aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antimycotic activity of 17 chemically defined essential oils (EOs) both alone and as a mixture, against agents responsible for stonebrood caused by Aspergillus flavus, and chalkbrood caused by Ascosphaera apis in European honeybees. Cinnamomum zeylanicum yielded the lowest MIC value against A. flavus, but was not effective against A. apis, while Litsea cubeba and Pelargonium graveolens appeared to be effective against all checked fungi. Aspergillus niger showed the lower sensitivity...
March 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323874/c-type-allatostatins-mimic-stress-related-effects-of-alarm-pheromone-on-honey-bee-learning-and-memory-recall
#11
Elodie Urlacher, Jean-Marc Devaud, Alison R Mercer
As honey bee populations worldwide are declining there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of stress reactivity in these important insects. Our data indicate that stress responses in bees (Apis mellifera L.) may be mediated by neuropeptides identified, on the basis of sequence similarities, as allatostatins (ASTA, ASTC and ASTCC). Effects of allatostatin injection are compared with stress-related changes in learning performance induced by the honeybee alarm pheromone, isopentylacetate (IPA). We find that bees can exhibit two markedly different responses to IPA, with opposing effects on learning behaviour and memory generalisation, and that strikingly similar responses can be elicited by allatostatins, in particular ASTCC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321369/developmental-and-loco-like-effects-of-a-swainsonine-induced-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-mannosidase-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#12
Laura Wedd, Regan Ashby, Sylvain Foret, Ryszard Maleszka
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies in lysosomal a-mannosidase (LAM) activity in animals, caused either by mutations or by consuming toxic alkaloids, lead to severe phenotypic and behavioural consequences. Yet, epialleles adversely affecting LAM expression exist in the honey bee population suggesting that they might be beneficial in certain contexts and cannot be eliminated by natural selection. METHODS: We have used a combination of enzymology, molecular biology and metabolomics to characterise the catalytic properties of honey bee LAM (AmLAM) and then used an indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine to inhibit its activity in vitro and in vivo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314750/octopamine-and-tyramine-modulate-the-thermoregulatory-fanning-response-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-l
#13
Chelsea N Cook, Colin S Brent, Michael D Breed
Biogenic amines regulate the proximate mechanisms underlying most behavior, including those that contribute to the overall success of complex societies. For honey bees, one critical set of behaviors contributing to the welfare of a colony is involved with nest thermoregulation. Worker honeybees cool the colony by performing a fanning behavior, the expression of which is largely influenced by response thresholds modulated by the social environment. Here, we examined how changes in biogenic amines affect this group-performed thermoregulatory fanning behavior in honeybees...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297945/multifractality-in-individual-honeybee-behavior-hints-at-colony-specific-social-cascades-reanalysis-of-radio-frequency-identification-data-from-five-different-colonies
#14
Nicole S Carver, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) exhibit complex coordination and interaction across multiple behaviors such as swarming. This coordination among honeybees in the same colony is remarkably similar to the concept of informational cascades. The multifractal geometry of cascades suggests that multifractal measures of individual honeybee activity might carry signatures of these colony-wide coordinations. The present work reanalyzes time stamps of entrances to and exits from the hive captured by radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors reading RFID tags on individual bees...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294146/resisting-majesty-apis-cerana-has-lower-antennal-sensitivity-and-decreased-attraction-to-queen-mandibular-pheromone-than-apis-mellifera
#15
Shihao Dong, Ping Wen, Qi Zhang, Xinyu Li, Ken Tan, James Nieh
In highly social bees, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is vital for colony life. Both Apis cerana (Ac) and Apis mellifera (Am) share an evolutionarily conserved set of QMP compounds: (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), (E)-9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9-HDA), (E)-10-hydroxy-dec-2-enoic acid (10-HDA), 10-hydroxy-decanoic acid (10-HDAA), and methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB) found at similar levels. However, evidence suggests there may be species-specific sensitivity differences to QMP compounds because Ac workers have higher levels of ovarian activation than Am workers...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289772/firewalls-in-bee-nests-survival-value-of-propolis-walls-of-wild-cape-honeybee-apis-mellifera-capensis
#16
Geoff Tribe, Jürgen Tautz, Karin Sternberg, Jenny Cullinan
The Cape bee is endemic to the winter rainfall region of South Africa where fires are an integral part of the ecology of the fynbos (heathland) vegetation. Of the 37 wild nests in pristine Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos in the Cape Point section of Table Mountain National Park that have been analyzed so far, only 22 could be accessed sufficiently to determine the existence of a propolis wall of which 68% had propolis walls which entirely enclosed their openings. The analysis of the 37 wild nests revealed that 78% occurred under boulders or in clefts within rocks, 11% in the ground, 8% in tree cavities, and 3% within shrubs...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280585/agrochemical-synergism-imposes-higher-risk-to-neotropical-bees-than-to%C3%A2-honeybees
#17
Hudson V V Tomé, Gabryele S Ramos, Micaele F Araújo, Weyder C Santana, Gil R Santos, Raul Narciso C Guedes, Carlos D Maciel, Philip L Newland, Eugênio E Oliveira
Bees are key pollinators whose population numbers are declining, in part, owing to the effects of different stressors such as insecticides and fungicides. We have analysed the susceptibility of the Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee, Partamona helleri, to commercial formulations of the insecticides deltamethrin and imidacloprid. The toxicity of fungicides based on thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were investigated individually and in combination, and with the insecticides. Results showed that stingless bees were more susceptible to insecticides than honeybees...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272333/a-comparison-of-deformed-wing-virus-in-deformed-and-asymptomatic-honey-bees
#18
Laura E Brettell, Gideon J Mordecai, Declan C Schroeder, Ian M Jones, Jessica R da Silva, Marina Vicente-Rubiano, Stephen J Martin
Deformed wing virus (DWV) in association with Varroa destructor is currently attributed to being responsible for colony collapse in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The appearance of deformed individuals within an infested colony has long been associated with colony losses. However, it is unknown why only a fraction of DWV positive bees develop deformed wings. This study concerns two small studies comparing deformed and non-deformed bees. In Brazil, asymptomatic bees (no wing deformity) that had been parasitised by Varroa as pupae had higher DWV loads than non-parasitised bees...
March 7, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271210/feeding-preference-and-sub-chronic-effects-of-zno-nanomaterials-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-carnica
#19
Gordana Glavan, Tamara Milivojević, Janko Božič, Kristina Sepčić, Damjana Drobne
The extensive production of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials (NMs) may result in high environmental zinc burdens. Honeybees need to have special concern due to their crucial role in pollination. Our previous study indicated that low concentrations of ZnO NMs, corresponding to 0.8 mg Zn/mL, have a neurotoxic potential for honeybees after a 10-day oral exposure. Present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short, dietary exposure of honeybees to ZnO NMs at concentrations 0.8-8 mg Zn/mL on consumption rate, food preference, and two enzymatic biomarkers-a stress-related glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
March 7, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270855/sequential-social-experiences-interact-to-modulate-aggression-but-not-brain-gene-expression-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#20
Clare C Rittschof
BACKGROUND: In highly structured societies, individuals behave flexibly and cooperatively in order to achieve a particular group-level outcome. However, even in social species, environmental inputs can have long lasting effects on individual behavior, and variable experiences can even result in consistent individual differences and constrained behavioral flexibility. Despite the fact that such constraints on behavior could have implications for behavioral optimization at the social group level, few studies have explored how social experiences accumulate over time, and the mechanistic basis of these effects...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
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