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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549565/transient-leg-deformations-during-eclosion-out-of-a-tight-confinement-a-comparative-study-on-seven-species-of-flies-moths-ants-and-bees
#1
Leonid Frantsevich, Iryna Kozeretska, Yuriy Dubrovsky, Tetyana Markina, Iryna Shumakova, Stanislav Stukalyuk
Legs in dipteran pupae are tightly packed in a zigzag configuration. Changes in the shape or configuration of long podomeres during eclosion have been overlooked because they occur rapidly (in a few minutes) and the legs are hidden inside a tight opaque confinement: the puparium in the Cyclorrhapha, the obtect pupa in mosquitoes. We fixed insects at different times during eclosion and obtained a temporal description of changes in leg shape. At the start of eclosion in Calliphora vicina and Drosophila melanogaster, femora are buckled in between the joints...
May 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544438/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-evolution-of-cuticular-protein-genes-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae
#2
Bai-Qi Liu, Liang Qiao, Qi-Yi He, Yong Zhou, Shuang Ren, Bin Chen
Thirteen cuticular proteins (CPs) families have been recognized in arthropods. In this study, 250 Anopheles sinensis CP genes were identified and named based on genome and transcriptome sequences. They were classified into 10 families based on motifs and phylogenetic analyses. In 11 other insect species, 9 had CP numbers > 150 while Apis mellifera and Tribolium castaneum had CP numbers less than 52. The CPs of 8 species occupied > 1.4% of the total genomic gene number whereas in 3 species the CPs occupied < 1%...
May 24, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542566/proteomic-analysis-in-the-dufour-s-gland-of-africanized-apis-mellifera-workers-hymenoptera-apidae
#3
Aparecida das Dores Teixeira, Patricia D Games, Benjamin B Katz, John M Tomich, José C Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
The colony of eusocial bee Apis mellifera has a reproductive queen and sterile workers performing tasks such as brood care and foraging. Chemical communication plays a crucial role in the maintenance of sociability in bees with many compounds released by the exocrine glands. The Dufour's gland is a non-paired gland associated with the sting apparatus with important functions in the communication between members of the colony, releasing volatile chemicals that influence workers roles and tasks. However, the protein content in this gland is not well studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542163/two-extended-haplotype-blocks-are-associated-with-adaptation-to-high-altitude-habitats-in-east-african-honey-bees
#4
Andreas Wallberg, Caspar Schöning, Matthew T Webster, Martin Hasselmann
Understanding the genetic basis of adaption is a central task in biology. Populations of the honey bee Apis mellifera that inhabit the mountain forests of East Africa differ in behavior and morphology from those inhabiting the surrounding lowland savannahs, which likely reflects adaptation to these habitats. We performed whole genome sequencing on 39 samples of highland and lowland bees from two pairs of populations to determine their evolutionary affinities and identify the genetic basis of these putative adaptations...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540471/genetic-characterization-of-the-honeybee-ectoparasitic-mite-varroa-destructor-from-benin-west-africa-using-mitochondrial-and-microsatellite-markers
#5
Aude E Kelomey, Armand Paraiso, Haziz Sina, Hélène Legout, Lionel Garnery, Lamine Baba-Moussa
Varroa destructor is one of the scourges of global beekeeping. It was detected for the first time in Benin in 2011 on the honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii. The aim of this study was to identify the strain of Varroa sp. found and study its genetic diversity. In total 183 Varroa mites were sampled in 21 municipalities in Benin. The COI intergenic region of each mite mtDNA was amplified by PCR. The SacI restriction enzyme was used to determine the strains of Varroa sp. Only the Korean (K) haplotype, identical to the most prevalent strain in Africa, was detected...
May 24, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539589/uneven-distribution-of-complementary-sex-determiner-csd-alleles-in-apis-mellifera-population
#6
Joanna Zareba, Pawel Blazej, Agnieszka Laszkiewicz, Lukasz Sniezewski, Michal Majkowski, Sylwia Janik, Malgorzata Cebrat
The complementary sex determiner (csd) gene determines the sex of the western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Bees that are heterozygous at the csd locus develop into females; whereas hemizygous bees develop into males. The co-occurrence of two identical csd alleles in a single diploid genome leads to the genetic death of the bee. Thus, the maintenance of csd diversity in the population is favoured. The number and distribution of csd alleles is particularly interesting in light of the recent decline in the honey bee population...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535305/preservation-of-domesticated-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-drone-semen
#7
M Paillard, A Rousseau, P Giovenazzo, J L Bailey
Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528634/3d-subcellular-localization-with-superresolution-array-tomography-on-ultrathin-sections-of-various-species
#8
Sebastian M Markert, Vivien Bauer, Thomas S Muenz, Nicola G Jones, Frederik Helmprobst, Sebastian Britz, Markus Sauer, Wolfgang Rössler, Markus Engstler, Christian Stigloher
Array Tomography (AT) is a relatively easy-to-use and yet powerful method to put molecular identity in its full ultrastructural context. Ultrathin sections are stained with fluorophores and then imaged by light and afterward by electron microscopy to obtain a correlated view of a region of interest: its ultrastructure and specific staining. By combining AT with high-pressure freezing for superior structural preservation and superresolution light microscopy, even small subcellular structures can be mapped in 3D...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515299/a-diverse-range-of-novel-rna-viruses-in-geographically-distinct-honey-bee-populations
#9
Emily J Remnant, Mang Shi, Gabriele Buchmann, Tjeerd Blacquière, Edward C Holmes, Madeleine Beekman, Alyson Ashe
Understanding the diversity and consequences of viruses present in honey bees is critical to maintain pollinator health and manage the spread of disease. The viral landscape of honey bees (Apis mellifera) has changed dramatically since the emergence of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, which increased the spread of virulent variants of viruses such as Deformed wing virus. Previous genomic studies have focused on colonies suffering from Varroa and virulent viruses, which could mask other viral species present in honey bees, resulting in a distorted view of viral diversity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515236/resonance-frequencies-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-wings
#10
Christopher J Clark, Andrew M Mountcastle, Emily Mistick, Damian O Elias
During flight, insect wings bend and twist under the influence of aerodynamic and inertial forces. We tested whether wing resonance of honeybees (Apis mellifera) matches the wingbeat frequency, against the 'stiff element' hypothesis that the wing's first longitudinal mode exceeds the wingbeat frequency. Six bees were immobilized with their right wing pair outspread, and stimulated with a shaker while the normal modes were recorded with a Scanning Doppler Laser Vibrometer. The lowest normal mode of the wings was the first longitudinal bending mode, and at 602±145 Hz, greater than the wingbeat frequency of 234 Hz±13...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512345/phosphoproteome-analysis-reveals-phosphorylation-underpinnings-in-the-brains-of-nurse-and-forager-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#11
Gebreamlak Bezabih, Han Cheng, Bin Han, Mao Feng, Yu Xue, Han Hu, Jianke Li
The honeybee brain is a central organ in regulating wide ranges of honeybee biology, including life transition from nurse to forager bees. Knowledge is still lacking on how protein phosphorylation governs the neural activity to drive the age-specific labor division. The cerebral phosphoproteome of nurse and forager honeybees was characterized using Ti(4+)-IMAC phosphopeptide enrichment mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and protein kinases (PKs) were predicted. There were 3,077 phosphosites residing on 3,234 phosphopeptides from 1004 phosphoproteins in the nurse bees...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510462/anti-plasmodial-assessment-of-four-different-iranian-propolis-extracts
#12
Houshang Afrouzan, Sedigheh Zakeri, Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Sara Molasalehi, Azar Tahghighi, Mohamad Ali Shokrgozar, Ali Es-Haghi, Navid Dinparast Djadid
BACKGROUND: Eradication of malaria will depend on discovery of new intervention tools such as anti-malarial drugs. Due to the increasing interest in the application of propolis against significant clinical pathogenic agents, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the anti-plasmodial effect of Iranian propolis extracts against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). METHODS: Crude samples of honeybee (Apis mellifera) propolis were collected from four provinces in northern (Kalaleh, Golestan), northeastern (Chenaran, Razavi Khorasan), central (Taleghan, Alborz) and western (Morad Beyg, Hamedan) areas of Iran with different types of flora...
May 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509378/evaluation-of-the-skin-phototoxicity-and-photosensitivity-of-honeybee-venom
#13
Sang Mi Han, In Phyo Hong, Soon Ok Woo, Se Gun Kim, He Rye Jang, Kwan Kyu Park
OBJECTIVE: Bee (Apis mellifera L.) venom (BV) has been used as a cosmetic ingredient owing to its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was to assess the skin safety of BV. METHODS: For this purpose, skin phototoxicity and sensitization tests were conducted in healthy male Hartley guinea pigs. The animals were divided into three groups (n=5) for the phototoxicity test: G1 (negative control), G2 (BV gel treatment), and G3 (positive control)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505483/the-effects-of-ingested-aqueous-aluminum-on-floral-fidelity-and-foraging-strategy-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#14
Ana M Chicas-Mosier, Bree A Cooper, Alexander M Melendez, Melina Pérez, Devrim Oskay, Charles I Abramson
Pollinator decline is of international concern because of the economic services these organisms provide. Commonly cited sources of decline are toxicants, habitat fragmentation, and parasites. Toxicant exposure can occur through uptake and distribution from plant tissues and resources such as pollen and nectar. Metals such as aluminum can be distributed to pollinators and other herbivores through this route especially in acidified or mined areas. A free-flying artificial flower patch apparatus was used to understand how two concentrations of aluminum (2mg/L and 20mg/L) may affect the learning, orientation, and foraging behaviors of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Turkey...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486589/are-dispersal-mechanisms-changing-the-host-parasite-relationship-and-increasing-the-virulence-of-varroa-destructor-mesostigmata-varroidae-in-managed-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies
#15
Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Fabiana Ahumada, Henry Graham
Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) are a serious pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), and difficult to control in managed colonies. In our 11-mo longitudinal study, we applied multiple miticide treatments, yet mite numbers remained high and colony losses exceeded 55%. High mortality from varroa in managed apiaries is a departure from the effects of the mite in feral colonies where bees and varroa can coexist. Differences in mite survival strategies and dispersal mechanisms may be contributing factors...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485079/acute-toxicity-of-five-pesticides-to-apis-mellifera-larvae-reared-in-vitro
#16
Pingli Dai, Cameron J Jack, Ashley N Mortensen, James D Ellis
BACKGROUND: The reported high loss rates of managed honey bee colonies has been attributed to diverse stressors including pesticides. Honey bee larvae can be exposed to pesticides in contaminated nectar, pollen and wax. Due to the difficulties of rearing larvae in vitro, research focusing on adult bee exposure to pesticides is more common than that on larvae exposure to pesticides. Herein, we aimed to assess the acute toxicity of five insecticides to honey bee larvae using an improved in vitro rearing method...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481294/queen-quality-and-the-impact-of-honey-bee-diseases-on-queen-health-potential-for-interactions-between-two-major-threats-to-colony-health
#17
REVIEW
Esmaeil Amiri, Micheline K Strand, Olav Rueppell, David R Tarpy
Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, live in highly eusocial colonies that are each typically headed by a single queen. The queen is the sole reproductive female in a healthy colony, and because long-term colony survival depends on her ability to produce a large number of offspring, queen health is essential for colony success. Honey bees have recently been experiencing considerable declines in colony health. Among a number of biotic and abiotic factors known to impact colony health, disease and queen failure are repeatedly reported as important factors underlying colony losses...
May 8, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472369/using-publicly-available-data-to-quantify-plant-pollinator-interactions-and-evaluate-conservation-seeding-mixes-in-the-northern-great-plains
#18
C R V Otto, S O'Dell, R B Bryant, N H Euliss, R M Bush, M D Smart
Concern over declining pollinators has led to multiple conservation initiatives for improving forage for bees in agroecosystems. Using data available through the Pollinator Library (npwrc.usgs.gov/pollinator/), we summarize plant-pollinator interaction data collected from 2012-2015 on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and private lands enrolled in U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in eastern North Dakota (ND). Furthermore, we demonstrate how plant-pollinator interaction data from the Pollinator Library and seed cost information can be used to evaluate hypothetical seeding mixes for pollinator habitat enhancements...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472327/contrasting-sex-and-caste-dependent-pirna-profiles-in-the-transposon-depleted-haplodiploid-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#19
Wei-Wen Wang, Regan Ashby, Hua Ying, Ryszard Maleszka, Sylvain Forêt
Protecting genome integrity against transposable elements is achieved by intricate molecular mechanisms involving PIWI proteins, their associated small RNAs (piRNAs), and epigenetic modifiers such as DNA methylation. Eusocial bees, in particular the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, have one of the lowest contents of transposable elements in the animal kingdom, and, unlike other animals with a functional DNA methylation system, do not methylate their transposons. This raises the question of whether the PIWI machinery has been retained in this species...
May 4, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472083/gene-expression-and-immunohistochemical-analyses-of-mkast-suggest-its-late-pupal-and-adult-specific-functions-in-the-honeybee-brain
#20
Atsuhiro Yamane, Hiroki Kohno, Tsubomi Ikeda, Kumi Kaneko, Atsushi Ugajin, Toshiyuki Fujita, Takekazu Kunieda, Takeo Kubo
In insect brains, the mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center) comprise intrinsic neurons, termed Kenyon cells (KCs). We previously showed that the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) MBs comprise four types of KCs, in addition to the previously known three types of KCs: class I large-type KCs (lKCs), class I small-type KCs (sKCs) and class II KCs, novel class I 'middle-type' KCs (mKCs), which are characterized by the preferential expression of a gene, termed mKast. Although mKast was originally discovered during the search for genes whose expression is enriched in the optic lobes (OLs) in the worker brain, subsequent analysis revealed that the gene is expressed in an mKC-preferential manner in the MBs...
2017: PloS One
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