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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091518/insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-long-term-storage-and-survival-of-sperm-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#1
Ellen Paynter, A Harvey Millar, Mat Welch, Barbara Baer-Imhoof, Danyang Cao, Boris Baer
Honeybee males produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Because queens never re-mate after a single mating episode early in life, sperm are stored in a specialised organ for years but the proximate mechanisms underlying this key physiological adaptation are unknown. We quantified energy metabolism in honeybee sperm and show that the glycolytic metabolite glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P) is a key substrate for honeybee sperm survival and energy production. This reliance on non-aerobic energy metabolism in stored sperm was further supported by our findings of very low levels of oxygen inside the spermatheca...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090787/carbonic-anhydrase-from-apis-mellifera-purification-and-inhibition-by-pesticides
#2
Ercan Soydan, Ahmet Güler, Selim Bıyık, Murat Şentürk, Claudiu T Supuran, Deniz Ekinci
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081188/effect-of-varroa-destructor-wounding-and-varroa-homogenate-on-gene-expression-in-brood-and-adult-honey-bees
#3
Gun Koleoglu, Paul H Goodwin, Mariana Reyes-Quintana, Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) gene expression related to immunity for hymenoptaecin (AmHym) and defensin-1 (AmDef-1), longevity for vitellogenin (AmVit2) and stem cell proliferation for poly U binding factor 68 kDa (AmPuf68) was compared following Varroa destructor parasitism, buffer injection and injection of V. destructor compounds in its homogenate. In adults, V. destructor parasitism decreased expression of all four genes, while buffer injection decreased expression of AmHym, AmPuf68 and AmVit2, and homogenate injection decreased expression of AmPuf68 and AmVit2 but increased expression of AmDef-1 relative to their respective controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077635/virion-structure-of-black-queen-cell-virus-a-common-honeybee-pathogen
#4
Radovan Spurny, Antonín Přidal, Lenka Pálková, Hoa Khanh Tran Kiem, Joachim R de Miranda, Pavel Plevka
: Viral diseases are a major threat to honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations world-wide and therefore an important factor in reliable crop pollination and food security. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) is the etiological agent of a fatal disease of honeybee queen larvae and pupae. The virus belongs to the genus Triatovirus from the family Dicistroviridae that is part of the order Picornavirales Here we present a crystal structure of BQCV determined to a resolution of 3.4 Å. The virion is formed by sixty copies of each of the major capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3, however there is no density corresponding to a 75-residue-long minor capsid protein VP4 encoded by the BQCV genome...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060305/dissection-and-observation-of-honey-bee-dorsal-vessel-for-studies-of-cardiac-function
#5
Scott T O'Neal, Troy D Anderson
The European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is a valuable agricultural and commercial resource noted for producing honey and providing crop pollination services, as well as an important model social insect used to study memory and learning, aging, and more. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the dissection of the dorsal abdominal wall of a bee in order to visualize its dorsal vessel, which serves the role of the heart in the insect. A successful dissection will expose a functional heart that, under the proper conditions, can maintain a steady heartbeat for an extended period of time...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053207/dynamics-of-weight-change-and-temperature-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-in-a-wintering-building-with-controlled-temperature
#6
E Stalidzans, A Zacepins, A Kviesis, V Brusbardis, J Meitalovs, L Paura, N Bulipopa, M Liepniece
Honey bee wintering in a wintering building (indoors) with controlled microclimate is used in some cold regions to minimize colony losses due to the hard weather conditions. The behavior and possible state of bee colonies in a dark room, isolated from natural environment during winter season, was studied by indirect temperature measurements to analyze the expression of their annual rhythm when it is not affected by ambient temperature, rain, snow, wind, and daylight. Thus, the observed behavior in the wintering building is initiated solely by bee colony internal processes...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051308/a-review-of-the-analytical-methods-used-in-the-quality-control-of-honey
#7
Consuelo Pita-Calvo, María Esther Guerra-Rodriguez, Manuel Vazquez
Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by bees (Apis mellifera). In this work, the main parameters used in routine quality control of honey and the most commonly used analytical methods for their determination were reviewed. Honey can be adulterated with cheaper sweeteners or in an indirect way feeding the bees with sugars. Therefore, methods for detecting and quantifying adulteration are necessary. Chromatographic techniques are widely used in honey analysis. More recently, techniques such as Raman, near-infrared, mid-infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with chemometric data processing have been proposed...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045085/expression-of-acetylcholinesterase-1-is-associated-with-brood-rearing-status-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#8
Young Ho Kim, Ju Hyeon Kim, Kyungmun Kim, Si Hyeock Lee
Acetylcholinesterase 1 (AmAChE1) of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been suggested to have non-neuronal functions. A systematic expression profiling of AmAChE1 over a year-long cycle on a monthly basis revealed that AmAChE1 was predominantly expressed in both head and abdomen during the winter months and was moderately expressed during the rainy summer months. Interestingly, AmAChE1 expression was inhibited when bees were stimulated for brood rearing by placing overwintering beehives in strawberry greenhouses with a pollen diet, whereas it resumed when the beehives were moved back to the cold field, thereby suppressing brood rearing...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043325/exploring-poisonous-mechanism-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-ligustica-spinola-caused-by-pyrethroids
#9
Qiang Wang, Qingyun Diao, Pingli Dai, Yanna Chu, Yanyan Wu, Ting Zhou, Qingnian Cai
As the important intracellular secondary messengers, calcium channel is the target of many neurotoxic pesticides as calcium homeostasis in the neuroplasm play important role in neuronal functions and behavior in insects. This study investigated the effect of deltamethrin (DM) on calcium channel in the brain nerve cells of adult workers of Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola that were cultured in vitro. The results showed that the intracellular calcium concentration was significantly elevated even with a very low concentration of the DM (3...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032102/evaluation-of-oxalic-acid-treatments-against-the-mite-varroa-destructor-and-secondary-effects-on-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#10
Noureddine Adjlane, El-Ounass Tarek, Nizar Haddad
BACKGROUND: The Varroa destructor varroasis is a very serious parasite of honeybee Apis mellifera. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Varroa treatment using organic acid (oxalic acid) in Algeria identifying its side effects on bee colonies. METHODS: Treatment was conducted in one apiary consisting 30 colonies kept in Langstroth hives kind. Oxalic acid dripped directly on bees 5ml of this solution of oxalic acid per lane occupied by a syringe...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028168/acute-exposure-to-worst-case-concentrations-of-amitraz-does-not-affect-honey-bee-learning-short-term-memory-or-hemolymph-octopamine-levels
#11
Rachel R Rix, G Christopher Cutler
Amitraz, an acaricide used to treat Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, is one of the most commonly detected pesticides in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives. Acaricides sometimes negatively impact honey bee cognition, but potential effects of amitraz on honey bee learning have been rarely studied. We topically exposed foragers to 95th percentile field-relevant levels of amitraz and, 24 h later, tested the ability of bees to associate a sucrose reward with a conditioned odor (learning response) using the proboscis extension response (PER)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026884/making-a-queen-an-epigenetic-analysis-of-the-robustness-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-queen-developmental-pathway
#12
Xu Jiang He, Lin Bin Zhou, Qi Zhong Pan, Andrew B Barron, Wei Yu Yan, Zhi Jiang Zeng
Specialised castes are considered a key reason for the evolutionary and ecological success of the social insect lifestyle. The most essential caste distinction is between the fertile queen and the sterile workers. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers and queens are not genetically distinct, rather these different phenotypes are the result of epigenetically regulated divergent developmental pathways. This is an important phenomenon in understanding the evolution of social insect societies. Here we studied the genomic regulation of the worker and queen developmental pathways, and the robustness of the pathways by transplanting eggs or young larvae to queen cells...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013383/long-term-effect-of-temperature-on-honey-yield-and-honeybee-phenology
#13
Aleksandra Langowska, Michał Zawilak, Tim H Sparks, Adam Glazaczow, Peter W Tomkins, Piotr Tryjanowski
There is growing concern about declines in pollinator species, and more recently reservations have been expressed about mismatch in plant-pollinator synchrony as a consequence of phenological change caused by rising temperatures. Long-term changes in honeybee Apis mellifera phenology may have major consequences for agriculture, especially the pollinator market, as well as for honey production. To date, these aspects have received only modest attention. In the current study, we examine honeybee and beekeeping activity in southern Poland for the period 1965-2010, supplemented by hive yields from a beekeeper in southern UK in the same period...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006002/unbiased-rna-shotgun-metagenomics-in-social-and-solitary-wild-bees-detects-associations-with-eukaryote-parasites-and-new-viruses
#14
Karel Schoonvaere, Lina De Smet, Guy Smagghe, Andy Vierstraete, Bart P Braeckman, Dirk C de Graaf
The diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Using a deliberate RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-)organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, Osmia cornuta and Andrena vaga. Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing generated approximately 3...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002470/sepsis-and-hemocyte-loss-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-infected-with-serratia-marcescens-strain-sicaria
#15
Nancy L Burritt, Nicole J Foss, Eric C Neeno-Eckwall, James O Church, Anna M Hilger, Jacob A Hildebrand, David M Warshauer, Nicole T Perna, James B Burritt
Global loss of honey bee colonies is threatening the human food supply. Diverse pathogens reduce honey bee hardiness needed to sustain colonies, especially in winter. We isolated a free-living Gram negative bacillus from hemolymph of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) found separated from winter clusters. In some hives, greater than 90% of the dying bees detached from the winter cluster were found to contain this bacterium in their hemolymph. Throughout the year, the same organism was rarely found in bees engaged in normal hive activities, but was detected in about half of Varroa destructor mites obtained from colonies that housed the septic bees...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995934/extending-standard-testing-period-in-honeybees-to-predict-lifespan-impacts-of-pesticides-and-heavy-metals-using-dynamic-energy-budget-modelling
#16
H Hesketh, E Lahive, A A Horton, A G Robinson, C Svendsen, A Rortais, J-L Dorne, J Baas, D J Spurgeon, M S Heard
Concern over reported honeybee (Apis mellifera spp.) losses has highlighted chemical exposure as a risk. Current laboratory oral toxicity tests in A. mellifera spp. use short-term, maximum 96 hour, exposures which may not necessarily account for chronic and cumulative toxicity. Here, we use extended 240 hour (10 day) exposures to examine seven agrochemicals and trace environmental pollutant toxicities for adult honeybees. Data were used to parameterise a dynamic energy budget model (DEBtox) to further examine potential survival effects up to 30 day and 90 day summer and winter worker lifespans...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977389/gel-coated-tubes-extend-above-freezing-storage-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-semen-to-439-days-with-production-of-fertilised-offspring
#17
Brandon K Hopkins, Susan W Cobey, Charles Herr, Walter S Sheppard
Honey bees are an important agricultural species; however, relatively little work has been done to improve artificial reproductive technologies for this animal. The collection and distribution of germplasm for breeding and conservation is critical for improving managed honey bee populations and conserving threatened subspecies. The most efficient method of controlling breeding in honey bees is by artificial insemination. The collection of semen for insemination requires the use of antibiotics, which is especially critical if semen is to be stored for any length of time...
December 16, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943550/chemical-composition-antimicrobial-activity-and-mode-of-action-of-essential-oils-against-paenibacillus-larvae-etiological-agent-of-american-foulbrood-on-apis-mellifera
#18
María Celeste Pellegrini, Rosa María Alonso-Salces, María Laura Umpierrez, Carmen Rossini, Sandra Rosa Fuselli
This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of Aloysia polystachia, Acantholippia seriphioides, Schinus molle, Solidago chilensis, Lippia turbinata, Minthostachys mollis, Buddleja globosa and Baccharis latifolia essential oils (EOs), and evaluate their antibacterial activities and their capacity to provoke membrane disruption in Paenibacillus larvae, the bacteria that causes the American Foulbrood disease on honey bee larvae. The relationship between the composition of the EOs and these activities on P...
December 10, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933553/spontaneous-honeybee-behaviour-is-altered-by-persistent-organic-pollutants
#19
Jade Drummond, Sally M Williamson, Ann E Fitchett, Geraldine A Wright, Sarah J Judge
The effect of environmental pollutants on honeybee behaviour has focused mainly on currently used pesticides. However, honeybees are also exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The aim of this laboratory based study was to determine if exposure to sublethal field-relevant concentrations of POPs altered the spontaneous behaviour of foraging-age worker honeybees. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) were orally exposed to either a sublethal concentration of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 (100 ng/ml), the organochlorine insecticide lindane (2...
January 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930719/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-allergic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-ebv-a-newly-developed-derivative-of-bee-venom-through-modulation-of-irf3-signaling-pathway-in-a-carrageenan-induced-edema-model
#20
Hwa-Jin Chung, Jinho Lee, Joon-Shik Shin, Me-Riong Kim, Wonil Koh, Min-Jeong Kim, Jae-Woong Lee, Eun Jee Kim, In-Hee Lee, Won Kyung Kim, Yoon Jae Lee, Sang Kook Lee, In-Hyuk Ha
BACKGROUND: Bee venom (BV), a type of toxin extracted from honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been empirically and widely used to treat inflammatory diseases throughout Asia. Essential BV (eBV) was developed by removing phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and histamine to lower occurrence of allergic reaction. This study investigated the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of eBV in vitro and in vivo and its underlying mechanism of action. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory potential of eBV was assessed in vivo using a carrageenan-induced paw edema model...
2016: PloS One
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