Read by QxMD icon Read


Adriana Schatton, Ezequiel Mendoza, Kathrin Grube, Constance Scharff
Mutations in the transcription factors FOXP1, FOXP2 and FOXP4 affect human cognition, including language. The FoxP gene locus is evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved in its DNA-binding domain. In Drosophila melanogaster FoxP has been implicated in courtship behavior, decision making and specific types of motor-learning. Because honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) excel at navigation and symbolic dance communication, they are a particularly suitable insect species to investigate a potential link between neural FoxP expression and cognition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Antoine Lecocq, Amelia A Green, Érika Cristina Pinheiro De Castro, Carl Erik Olsen, Annette B Jensen, Mika Zagrobelny
Honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) pollinate flowers and collect nectar from many important crops. White clover ( Trifolium repens ) is widely grown as a temperate forage crop, and requires honeybee pollination for seed set. In this study, using a quantitative LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) assay, we show that the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are present in the leaves, sepals, petals, anthers, and nectar of T. repens . Cyanogenic glucosides are generally thought to be defense compounds, releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide upon degradation...
March 13, 2018: Insects
Yuki Henselek, Elisabeth J Eilers, Claire Kremen, Stephen D Hendrix, Alexandra-Maria Klein
Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb; Rosales: Rosaceae) is a cash crop with an estimated global value of over seven billion U.S. dollars annually and commercial varieties are highly dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, the understanding of basic pollination requirements of the main varieties including pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, Hymenoptera: Apidae) and wild pollinators is essential for almond production. We first conducted two lab experiments to examine the threshold number of pollen grains needed for successful pollination and to determine if varietal identity or diversity promotes fruit set and weight...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jiangong Jiang, Dicheng Ma, Nan Zou, Xin Yu, Zhengqun Zhang, Feng Liu, Wei Mu
Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) have recently been recognized as co-factors in the decline of honeybee colonies because most neonicotinoids are systemic and can transfer into the pollen and nectar of many pollinated crops. In this study, we collected pollen, nectar and leaves from a cotton crop treated with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam to measure the residue levels of these two NIs at different application doses during the flowering period. Then, the residual data were used to assess the risk posed by the systemic insecticides to honeybees following mandated methods published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and a highly toxic risk to honeybees was highlighted...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Isamara Julia Camuri, Adriano Batista Costa, Amando Siuiti Ito, Wallance Moreira Pazin
The bioactivity of propolis against several pathogens is well established, leading to the extensive consumption of that bee product to prevent diseases. Brazilian green propolis, collected by the species Apis mellifera, is one of the most consumed in the world. The chemical composition of green propolis is complex and it has been shown that it displays antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, especially due to the high content of Artepillin C. The molecule is a derivative of cinnamic acid with two prenylated groups, responsible for the improvement of the affinity of the compound for lipophilic environment...
February 23, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Osama S Mahdi, Nathan A Fisher
Paenibacillus larvae is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium and the causative agent of American foulbrood disease (AFB), a highly contagious, fatal disease affecting managed honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies. As the etiological agent of American foulbrood disease, P. larvae is the most economically significant bacterial pathogen infecting honeybees. This unit includes protocols for the in vitro growth and laboratory maintenance of P. larvae. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Noble I Egekwu, Francisco Posada, Daniel E Sonenshine, Steven Cook
Varroa destructor mites (varroa) are ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees, and the damage they inflict on hosts is likely a causative factor of recent poor honey bee colony performance. Research has produced an arsenal of control agents against varroa mites, which have become resistant to many chemical means of their control, and other means have uncertain efficacy. Novel means of control will result from a thorough understanding of varroa physiology and behavior. However, robust knowledge of varroa biology is lacking; mites have very low survivability and reproduction away from their natural environment and host, and few tested protocols of maintaining mites in vitro are available as standardized methods for varroa research...
March 6, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Francis A Drummond, Elissa S Ballman, Brian D Eitzer, Brianne Du Clos, James Dill
In 2015, we conducted a statewide assessment of honey bee exposure to pesticides with assistance of volunteer beekeepers. Pollen trapping was conducted at 32 sites in the spring, summer, and early fall. Apiary locations ranged from unmanaged natural landscapes to managed agricultural or urban landscapes. Pollen samples at each site were aggregated over the collection dates and chemical residue analysis was conducted on each pollen sample for 190 pesticides and metabolites using HPLC/MS. Twenty-five different residues were detected for an average of 2...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Suvimol Somwongin, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Wantida Chaiyana
Pharmacological effects of bee venom has been reported, however, it has been restricted to the bee venom collected from European honey bee (Apis mellifera). The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activities and irritation properties of venoms collected from four different Apis species in Thailand, which includes Apis cerena (Asian cavity nesting honeybee), Apis florea (dwarf honeybee), Apis dorsata (giant honeybee), and A. mellifera. Melittin content of each bee venom extracts was investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 27, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Clare C Rittschof, Hemendra J Vekaria, Joseph H Palmer, Patrick G Sullivan
Neuronal function demands high-level energy production, and as such, a decline in mitochondrial respiration characterizes brain injury and disease. A growing number of studies, however, link brain mitochondrial function to behavioral modulation in non-diseased contexts. In the honey bee, we show for the first time that an acute social interaction, which invokes an aggressive response, may also cause a rapid decline in brain mitochondrial bioenergetics. The degree and speed of this decline has only been previously observed in the context of brain injury...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Vivek Pokhrel, Nicholas A DeLisi, Robert G Danka, Todd W Walker, James A Ottea, Kristen B Healy
Few studies have examined the impact of mosquito adulticides on honey bees under conditions that reflect actual field exposure. Whereas several studies have evaluated the toxicity of mosquito control products on honey bees, most have been laboratory based and have focused solely on acute mortality as a measure of impact. The goal of this study was to determine effects of routine applications of truck-based ultra-low volume (ULV) mosquito adulticides (i.e., Scourge, Duet, and Deltagard) on honey bees in a suburban setting...
2018: PloS One
Emily J Bailes, Kaitlin R Deutsch, Judit Bagi, Lucila Rondissone, Mark J F Brown, Owen T Lewis
Global declines of insect pollinators jeopardize the delivery of pollination services in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. The importance of infectious diseases has been documented in honeybees, but there is little information on the extent to which these diseases are shared with other pollinator orders. Here, we establish for the first time the presence of three important bee viruses in hoverfly pollinators (Diptera: Syrphidae): black queen cell virus (BQCV), sacbrood virus (SBV) and deformed wing virus strain B (DWV-B)...
February 2018: Biology Letters
A M Twidle, D Barker, A G Seal, B Fedrizzi, D M Suckling
Volatiles emitted from unpollinated in situ flowers were collected from two male cultivars, 'M33', 'M91', and one female cultivar 'Zesy002' (Gold3) of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis). The samples were found to contain 48 compounds across the three cultivars with terpenes and straight chain alkenes dominating the headspace. Electrophysiological responses of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) to the headspace of the kiwifruit flowers were recorded. Honey bees consistently responded to 11 floral volatiles from Gold3 pistillate flowers while bumble bees consistently responded to only five compounds from the pistillate flowers...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Sonia M de Figueiredo, Marcia Christina Dornelas de Freitas, Daiana Teixeira de Oliveira, Marina Barcelos de Miranda, Sidney Augusto Vieira-Filho, Rachel Basques Caligiorne
• Background: The red propolis (RdProp) is a resin produced by Apis mellifera bees, which collect the reddish exudate on the surface of its botanic source, the species Dalbergiae castophyllum, popularly known in Brazil as "rabo de bugio". Considered as the 13th type of Brazilian propolis, this resin has been gaining prominence due to its natural composition, rich in bioactive substances not found in other types of propolis. • Objective: This review aims to address the most important characteristics of PV, its botanical origin, the main constituents, its biological properties and the patents related to this natural product...
February 23, 2018: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Abdul Haleem Shah, Muhammad Aurongzeb, Junaid Kori, M Kamran Azim, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Li Bin
Gut microbiota has been recognized to play a beneficial role in honey bees ( Apis mellifera ). Present study was designed to characterize the gut bacterial flora of honey bees in north-west Pakistan. Total 150 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from guts of 45 worker bees were characterized using biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis. The gut isolates were classified into three bacterial phyla of Firmicutes (60%), Proteobacteria (26%) and Actinobacteria (14%)...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ahmad Al-Ghamdi, Khalid Ali Khan, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Saad B Almasaudi, Saad Al-Kahtani
The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1), Proteus mirabilis (T2), Bacillus licheniformis (T3), Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4), Bacillus subtilis (T5), Enterobacter kobei (T6), and Morganella morganii (T7) on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet) and positive control (normal diet spiked with P...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Brenna E Traver, Haley K Feazel-Orr, Katelyn M Catalfamo, Carlyle C Brewster, Richard D Fell
Honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), populations are in decline and their losses pose a serious threat for crop pollination and food production. The specific causes of these losses are believed to be multifactorial. Pesticides, parasites and pathogens, and nutritional deficiencies have been implicated in the losses due to their ability to exert energetic stress on bees. While our understanding of the role of these factors in honey bee colony losses has improved, there is still a lack of knowledge of how they impact the immune system of the honey bee...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Theresa L Pitts-Singer, Derek R Artz, Stephen S Peterson, Natalie K Boyle, Gordon I Wardell
Pollination services provided by managed bees are essential for California almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.; Rosales: Rosaceae) production. Currently, pollination needs are met by rented or owned Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae; honey bee) colonies. Excessive demand on a challenged A. mellifera industry to provide strong colonies in early spring has caused sharp increases in rental prices over the past decade, inviting the consideration of alternative pollinators in addition to, or in place of, A. mellifera...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Zheguang Lin, Yao Qin, Paul Page, Shuai Wang, Li Li, Zhengsheng Wen, Fuliang Hu, Peter Neumann, Huoqing Zheng, Vincent Dietemann
The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor , shifted host from the eastern honeybee, Apis cerana , to the western honeybee, Apis mellifera . Whereas the original host survives infestations by this parasite, they are lethal to colonies of its new host. Here, we investigated a population of A. cerana naturally infested by the V. destructor Korea haplotype that gave rise to the globally invasive mite lineage. Our aim was to better characterize traits that allow for the survival of the original host to infestations by this particular mite haplotype...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yi Zhang, Richou Han
Varroa destructor mites express strong avoidance of the Apis cerana worker brood in the field. The molecular mechanism for this phenomenon remains unknown. We identified a Varroa toxic protein (VTP), which exhibited toxic activity toward A. cerana worker larvae, in the saliva of these mites, and expressed VTP in an Escherichia coli system. We further demonstrated that recombinant VTP killed A. cerana worker larvae and pupae in the absence of deformed-wing virus (DWV) but was not toxic to A. cerana worker adults and drones...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"