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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762125/anomalous-mobility-of-a-driven-active-particle-in-a-steady-laminar-flow
#1
Fabio Cecconi, Andrea Puglisi, Alessandro Sarracino, Angelo Vulpiani
We study, via extensive numerical simulations, the force-velocity
 curve of an active particle advected by a steady laminar flow, in the
 nonlinear response regime. Our model for an active particle relies on
 a colored noise term that mimics its persistent motion over a time
 scale τ<sub>Α</sub>. We find that the active particle dynamics shows
 non-trivial effects, such as negative differential and absolute
 mobility (NDM and ANM, respectively)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758744/load-response-of-shape-changing-microswimmers-scales-with-their-swimming-efficiency
#2
Benjamin M Friedrich
External forces acting on a microswimmer can feed back on its self-propulsion mechanism. We discuss this load response for a generic microswimmer that swims by cyclic shape changes. We show that the change in cycle frequency is proportional to the Lighthill efficiency of self-propulsion. As a specific example, we consider Najafi's three-sphere swimmer. The force-velocity relation of a microswimmer implies a correction for a formal superposition principle for active and passive motion.
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741443/the-effect-of-individualised-sprint-training-in-elite-female-team-sport-athletes-a-pilot-study
#3
Elvir Rakovic, Gøran Paulsen, Christian Helland, Ola Eriksrud, Thomas Haugen
This study aimed to evaluate whether an individualised sprint-training program was more effective in improving sprint performance in elite team-sport players compared to a generalised sprint-training program. Seventeen elite female handball players (23 ± 3 y, 177 ± 7 cm, 73 ± 6 kg) performed two weekly sprint training sessions over eight weeks in addition to their regular handball practice. An individualised training group (ITG, n = 9) performed a targeted sprint-training program based on their horizontal force-velocity profile from the pre-training test...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730804/model-based-analysis-of-fatigued-human-knee-extensors-effects-of-isometrically-induced-fatigue-on-hill-type-model-parameters-and-ballistic-contractions
#4
Harald Penasso, Sigrid Thaller
This study investigated the effect of isometrically induced fatigue on Hill-type muscle model parameters and related task-dependent effects. Parameter identification methods were used to extract fatigue-related parameter trends from isometric and ballistic dynamic maximum voluntary knee extensions. Nine subjects, who completed ten fatiguing sets, each consisting of nine 3 s isometric maximum voluntary contractions with 3 s rest plus two ballistic contractions with different loads, were analyzed. Only at the isometric task, the identified optimized model parameter values of muscle activation rate and maximum force generating capacity of the contractile element decreased from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] Hz and from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] N, respectively...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726732/the-prevalence-distribution-and-functional-importance-of-lower-limb-somatosensory-impairments-in-chronic-stroke-survivors-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#5
Terry Gorst, Alison Rogers, Stewart C Morrison, Mary Cramp, Joanne Paton, Jenny Freeman, Jon Marsden
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of lower limb somatosensory impairments in community dwelling chronic stroke survivors and examine the association between somatosensory impairments and walking, balance, and falls. METHODS: Using a cross sectional observational design, measures of somatosensation (Erasmus MC modifications to the (revised) Nottingham Sensory Assessment), walking ability (10 m walk test, Walking Impact Scale, Timed "Get up and go"), balance (Functional Reach Test and Centre of Force velocity), and falls (reported incidence and Falls Efficacy Scale-International), were obtained...
May 4, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702519/new-tool-to-control-and-monitor-weighted-vest-training-load-for-sprinting-and-jumping-in-soccer
#6
Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Tomás T Freitas, Miguel Cuesta, Jorge Perez-Gomez, Moisés De Hoyo, Pedro E Alcaraz
Carlos-Vivas, J, Freitas, TT, Cuesta, M, Perez-Gomez, J, De Hoyo, M, and Alcaraz, PE. New tool to control and monitor weighted vest training load for sprinting and jumping in soccer. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to develop 2 regression equations that accurately describe the relationship between weighted vest loads and performance indicators in sprinting (i.e., maximum velocity, Vmax) and jumping (i.e., maximum height, Hmax). Also, this study aimed to investigate the effects of increasing the load on spatio-temporal variables and power development in soccer players and to determine the "optimal load" for sprinting and jumping...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700237/the-principles-of-cascading-power-limits-in-small-fast-biological-and-engineered-systems
#7
Mark Ilton, M Saad Bhamla, Xiaotian Ma, Suzanne M Cox, Leah L Fitchett, Yongjin Kim, Je-Sung Koh, Deepak Krishnamurthy, Chi-Yun Kuo, Fatma Zeynep Temel, Alfred J Crosby, Manu Prakash, Gregory P Sutton, Robert J Wood, Emanuel Azizi, Sarah Bergbreiter, S N Patek
Mechanical power limitations emerge from the physical trade-off between force and velocity. Many biological systems incorporate power-enhancing mechanisms enabling extraordinary accelerations at small sizes. We establish how power enhancement emerges through the dynamic coupling of motors, springs, and latches and reveal how each displays its own force-velocity behavior. We mathematically demonstrate a tunable performance space for spring-actuated movement that is applicable to biological and synthetic systems...
April 27, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669825/single-cardiac-ventricular-myosins-are-autonomous-motors
#8
Yihua Wang, Chen-Ching Yuan, Katarzyna Kazmierczak, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary, Thomas P Burghardt
Myosin transduces ATP free energy into mechanical work in muscle. Cardiac muscle has dynamically wide-ranging power demands on the motor as the muscle changes modes in a heartbeat from relaxation, via auxotonic shortening, to isometric contraction. The cardiac power output modulation mechanism is explored in vitro by assessing single cardiac myosin step-size selection versus load. Transgenic mice express human ventricular essential light chain (ELC) in wild- type (WT), or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutant forms, A57G or E143K, in a background of mouse α-cardiac myosin heavy chain...
April 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659583/a-modelling-approach-for-exploring-muscle-dynamics-during-cyclic-contractions
#9
Stephanie A Ross, Nilima Nigam, James M Wakeling
Hill-type muscle models are widely used within the field of biomechanics to predict and understand muscle behaviour, and are often essential where muscle forces cannot be directly measured. However, these models have limited accuracy, particularly during cyclic contractions at the submaximal levels of activation that typically occur during locomotion. To address this issue, recent studies have incorporated effects into Hill-type models that are oftentimes neglected, such as size-dependent, history-dependent, and activation-dependent effects...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570595/influence-of-a-cluster-set-configuration-on-the-adaptations-to-short-term-power-training
#10
Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Paulino Padial, Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Belén Feriche
Morales-Artacho, AJ, Padial, P, García-Ramos, A, Pérez-Castilla, A, and Feriche, B. Influence of a cluster set configuration on the adaptations to short-term power training. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 930-937, 2018-This study investigated the effects of a traditional (TT) vs. cluster (CT) resistance training on the lower-body force, velocity, and power output. Nineteen males were allocated to a CT or a TT group and took part of a 3-week resistance training (2 weekly sessions). CT involved 6 sets of 3 × 2 repetitions (30 seconds rest every 2 repetitions and 4 minutes 30 seconds between sets)...
April 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567999/operating-length-and-velocity-of-human-vastus-lateralis-muscle-during-walking-and-running
#11
S Bohm, R Marzilger, F Mersmann, A Santuz, A Arampatzis
According to the force-length-velocity relationships, the muscle force potential during locomotion is determined by the operating fibre length and velocity. We measured fascicle and muscle-tendon unit length and velocity as well as the activity of the human vastus lateralis muscle (VL) during walking and running. Furthermore, we determined the VL force-length relationship experimentally and calculated the force-length and force-velocity potentials (i.e. fraction of maximum force according to the force-length-velocity curves) for both gaits...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567100/force-velocity-profiling-in-older-adults-an-adequate-tool-for-the-management-of-functional-trajectories-with-aging
#12
Julian Alcazar, Carlos Rodriguez-Lopez, I Ara, Ana Alfaro-Acha, Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, Roberto Navarro-Cruz, Jose Losa-Reyna, Francisco J García-García, Luis M Alegre
INTRODUCTION: The actual mechanisms leading to a reduced muscle power and functional ability in older adults are poorly understood. We investigated the association between different force-velocity (F-V) profiles and impaired muscle power, physical and cognitive function, frailty, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older people. METHODS: Physical function (habitual gait speed, timed up-and-go test, sit-to-stand and stair-climbing ability), cognitive function, HRQoL and frailty were evaluated in 31 older subjects (70-85 years)...
March 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558255/comparison-of-different-regression-models-to-fit-the-force-velocity-relationship-of-a-knee-extension-exercise
#13
Eliseo Iglesias-Soler, Juan Fariñas, Xian Mayo, Luis Santos, Slobodan Jaric
The aims of this study were to compare the goodness of fit and the concurrent validity of three regression models of the force-velocity relationship in a unilateral knee extension exercise. The force-velocity relationship and the one-repetition-maximum load in the dominant and non-dominant leg were obtained in 24 male sports sciences students by a progressive protocol. Additionally, the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensor muscles was recorded. Individual force-velocity relationships were obtained by the linear, quadratic polynomial and exponential regression models...
March 20, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504934/mechanochemical-coupling-and-bi-phasic-force-velocity-dependence-in-the-ultra-fast-ring-atpase-spoiiie
#14
Ninning Liu, Gheorghe Chistol, Yuanbo Cui, Carlos Bustamante
Multi-subunit ring-shaped ATPases are molecular motors that harness chemical free energy to perform vital mechanical tasks such as polypeptide translocation, DNA unwinding, and chromosome segregation. Previously we reported the intersubunit coordination and stepping behavior of the hexameric ring-shaped ATPase SpoIIIE (Liu et al., 2015). Here we use optical tweezers to characterize the motor's mechanochemistry. Analysis of the motor response to external force at various nucleotide concentrations identifies phosphate release as the likely force-generating step...
March 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489715/force-velocity-relationship-in-three-different-variations-of-prone-row-exercises
#15
Irineu Loturco, Timothy Suchomel, Ronaldo Kobal, Ademir F S Arruda, Aristide Guerriero, Lucas A Pereira, Chi Nan Pai
This study examined the force-velocity relationship and tested the possibility of determining the relative loading intensity (% 1RM) in three different variations of prone row exercises. Thirty male top-level athletes from two different sports (National Team rugby union players and professional mixed martial arts fighters) were submitted to maximum dynamic strength assessments in the free prone bench pull, bent over barbell row, and bent over Smith-machine row, following standard procedures encompassing lifts performed from 40 to 100% of 1RM...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489712/using-load-velocity-relationships-to-predict-1rm-in-free-weight-exercise-a-comparison-of-the-different-methods
#16
Liam J Hughes, Harry G Banyard, Alasdair R Dempsey, Brendan R Scott
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of predicting 1-repetition maximum (1RM) in trained individuals using a load-velocity relationship. Twenty strength-trained men (age: 24.3±2.9 years, height: 180.1±5.9 cm, body mass: 84.2±10.5 kg) were recruited and visited the laboratory on three occasions. The load-velocity relationship was developed using the mean concentric velocity of repetitions performed at loads between 20% and 90% 1RM. Predicted 1RM was calculated using 3 different methods discussed in existing research; minimal velocity threshold 1RM (1RMMVT), load at zero velocity 1RM (1RMLD0) and force-velocity 1RM methods (1RMFV)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474490/reproducibility-of-estimated-optimal-peak-output-using-a-force-velocity-test-on-a-cycle-ergometer
#17
Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, Ricardo Rebelo-Gonçalves, Diogo Martinho, Alexis Ahmed, Leonardo G O Luz, João P Duarte, Vítor Severino, Rafael C Baptista, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Vasco Vaz, Rui S Gonçalves, Antonio Tessitore, António J Figueiredo
The current study aimed to examine the reproducibility of estimated peak power and estimated pedal velocity in a multi-trial 10-s all-out cycling test among adult athletes (n = 22; aged 23.50±4.73 years). Stature, sitting height and body mass were measured. Leg length was estimated as stature minus sitting height. Body volume was obtained from air displacement plethysmography and was subsequently used to calculate body density. Fat mass and fat-free mass were derived. The short-term power outputs were assessed from the force-velocity test (FVT), using a friction-braked ergometer on two separated occasions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466274/dissociated-time-course-of-recovery-between-strength-and-power-after-isoinertial-resistance-loading-in-rugby-union-players
#18
Rodney A Kennedy, David Drake
Kennedy, RA and Drake, D. Dissociated time course of recovery between strength and power after isoinertial resistance loading in rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 748-755, 2018-There is a substantial amount of research on the responses to isometric and eccentric loading. However, only a paucity of literature exists on the responses to isoinertial loading, especially in trained athletic populations using realistic loading protocols. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute neuromuscular response to a bout of isoinertial resistance loading in elite rugby players...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443085/mimicking-and-measuring-occlusal-erosive-tooth-wear-with-the-rub-roll-and-non-contact-profilometry
#19
Jan L Ruben, Gert-Jan Truin, Bas A C Loomans, Marie-Charlotte D N J M Huysmans
Chewing, drinking, and occasional tooth grinding will result in physiological tooth wear during a lifetime. Extreme challenges, such as bruxism or habitual chewing on foreign objects, may lead to excessive wear. Recently, the role of erosion in accelerating mechanical tooth wear has been recognized, but the interplay between chemical and mechanical wear processes has not been extensively studied. Our laboratory recently introduced a novel oral wear simulation device, the Rub&Roll, that enables the user to perform wear and loading studies separately or simultaneously in an erosive and/or abrasive environment...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391409/a-neuro-musculo-skeletal-model-for-insects-with-data-driven-optimization
#20
Shihui Guo, Juncong Lin, Toni Wöhrl, Minghong Liao
Simulating the locomotion of insects is beneficial to many areas such as experimental biology, computer animation and robotics. This work proposes a neuro-musculo-skeletal model, which integrates the biological inspirations from real insects and reproduces the gait pattern on virtual insects. The neural system is a network of spiking neurons, whose spiking patterns are controlled by the input currents. The spiking pattern provides a uniform representation of sensory information, high-level commands and control strategy...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
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