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Giovanni Franzo, Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Michele Drigo, Mattia Cecchinato, Marco Martini, Alessandra Mondin, Maria Luisa Menandro
The genus Circovirus includes one of the most relevant infectious agents affecting domestic pigs, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). The wild boar susceptibility to this pathogen has also been demonstrated although the actual epidemiological role of wild populations is still debated. In recent times, a new circovirus, Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV-3), has been discovered and reported in the presence of several clinical conditions. However, no information is currently available about PCV-3 circulation and prevalence in wild boar...
May 18, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Marcelo Gottschalk, Virginia Aragon, Jordi Càmara, Carmen Ardanuy, Roser Velarde, Nuria Galofré-Milà, Raquel Castillo-Contreras, Jorge R López-Olvera, Gregorio Mentaberre, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Santiago Lavín, Oscar Cabezón
Urban wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Barcelona, Spain, harbor great diversity of Streptococcus suis strains, including strains with the cps2 gene and with the same molecular profile as local human cases. The increasing trend of potential effective contacts for S. suis transmission is of public health concern.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Junwei Li, Jordi Roca, Cristina Pérez-Patiño, Isabel Barranco, Emilio A Martinez, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez, Inmaculada Parrilla
This study aimed to elucidate the effect of seminal plasma (SP) from post-SRF on boar sperm freezability and, in addition, to determine the relevance of sperm itself to sustain cryopreservation, regardless of the SP surrounding them. Twelve ejaculates from three boars were manually collected in fractions/portions, P1: the first 10 mL of the SRF, P2: the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF. Immediately, samples were centrifuged to separate spermatozoa from the surrounding SP. Spermatozoa from P1 and P2 were then incubated with its own SP or that from post-SRF, diluted in BTS (1:1, v/v) at 17 °C overnight before being frozen in 0...
May 14, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Claudia Pittiglio, Sergei Khomenko, Daniel Beltran-Alcrudo
The wild boar is an important crop raider as well as a reservoir and agent of spread of swine diseases. Due to increasing densities and expanding ranges worldwide, the related economic losses in livestock and agricultural sectors are significant and on the rise. Its management and control would strongly benefit from accurate and detailed spatial information on species distribution and abundance, which are often available only for small areas. Data are commonly available at aggregated administrative units with little or no information about the distribution of the species within the unit...
2018: PloS One
Mirko Faber, Mona Askar, Klaus Stark
BackgroundNotified cases of hepatitis E have increased 40-fold in the past 10 years in Germany. Food safety is a major concern as hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA has been detected in ready-to-eat retail-level food products. The objective of this case-control study was to assess risk factors for autochthonous symptomatic hepatitis E and explore reasons for delays in diagnosis. Methods: Demographic, clinical and exposure data from notified hepatitis E cases and individually matched population controls were collected in semi-standardised telephone interviews...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
E Heyrman, S Millet, F A M Tuyttens, B Ampe, S Janssens, N Buys, J Wauters, L Vanhaecke, M Aluwé
One of the challenges in the production of entire male pigs is the occurrence of boar taint. We separately tested the effect of 3 management strategies to reduce boar taint on respectively 2, 3, and 6 Flemish pig farms: 1) adapted feeding strategies, 2) presence of gilts in the compartment, and 3) varying lairage duration at the slaughterhouse. A commercialized feed concept resulted in a significant reduction of olfactory boar taint prevalence when fed for 2 weeks (T2W) compared to control (T-CON) (P = 0...
May 9, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Won-Hee Song, Peter Sutovsky
A cell-free system using oocyte extracts is a valuable tool to study early events of animal fertilization and examine protein-protein interactions difficult to observe in whole cells. The process of postfertilization sperm mitophagy assures timely elimination of paternal, sperm-contributed mitochondria carrying potentially corrupted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Cell-free systems would be especially advantageous for studying postfertilization sperm mitophagy as large amounts of oocyte extracts can be incubated with hundreds to thousands of spermatozoa in a single trial, while only one spermatozoon per zygote can be examined by whole-cell approaches...
May 11, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Pan Ni, Ali Akbar Bhuiyan, Jian-Hai Chen, Jingjin Li, Cheng Zhang, Shuhong Zhao, Xiaoyong Du, Hua Li, Hui Yu, Xiangdong Liu, Kui Li
Up to date, the scarcity of publicly available complete mitochondrial sequences for European wild pigs hampers deeper understanding about the genetic changes following domestication. Here, we have assembled 26 de novo mtDNA sequences of European wild boars from next generation sequencing (NGS) data and downloaded 174 complete mtDNA sequences to assess the genetic relationship, nucleotide diversity, and selection. The Bayesian consensus tree reveals the clear divergence between the European and Asian clade and a very small portion (10 out of 200 samples) of maternal introgression...
May 10, 2018: Genetica
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Luca Villa, Katharina Riehn, Ahmad Hamedy, Stefano Minazzi, Emanuela Olivieri, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Wild boar is a source of human infections with zoonotic pathogens, including food-borne parasites. With the aim of a characterization of the human exposure risk, a survey on wild boars intended for human consumption was planned, selecting three pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii, Alaria alata, and Trichinella spp., as markers of meat infection. Diaphragm muscle samples from 100 wild boars hunted in Piedmont region (Northern Italy) in two hunting seasons (2015-2016) were collected. Concerning T. gondii, a combined approach of antibody detection and molecular techniques with genotyping was performed...
May 11, 2018: Parasitology Research
Marie Reinhardt, Jens A Hammerl, Stefan Hertwig
We report here the draft genome sequences of 10 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates recovered from tonsils of wild boars hunted between 2015 and 2016 in Germany. Whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatic analyses were performed to assess the diversity of Y. pseudotuberculosis , which may result in human infections caused by the consumption of game meat.
May 10, 2018: Genome Announcements
Aliakbar Shamsian, Edoardo Pozio, Abdolmajid Fata, Zahra Navi, Elham Moghaddas
Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites causing trichinellosis. In Iran, these parasites occur in several animal species and rare cases have been recorded in humans. To monitor the epidemiological pattern of these parasites in the Khorasan-e-Razavi province, Northeastern Iran, muscle tissues were collected from the tongues of roadkill animals between 2016 and 2017: 295 stray dogs, one red fox (Vulpes vulpes), 12 golden jackals (Canis aureus), and one wild boar (Sus scrofa). Trichinella spp...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Jaewook Chung, Xia Zhang, Bruce Collins, Renan B Sper, Katherine Gleason, Sean Simpson, Sehwon Koh, Jeffrey Sommer, William L Flowers, Robert M Petters, Jorge A Piedrahita
Expression of HMGA2 is strongly associated with body size and growth in mice and humans. In mice, inactivation of one or both alleles of Hmga2 results in body-size reductions of 20% and 60%, respectively. In humans, microdeletions involving the HMGA2 locus result in short stature, suggesting the function of the HMGA2 protein is conserved among mammals. To test this hypothesis, we generated HMGA2-deficient pigs via gene editing and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Examination of growth parameters revealed that HMGA2 -/+ male and female pigs were on average 20% lighter and smaller than HMGA2 +/+ matched controls ( P < 0...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Margit Dall Aaslyng, Anette Granly Koch
Smoke has often been recommended as a masking agent for boar taint. However, guidelines on how much smoke is necessary have not been established. We compared different smoking parameters in bacon (smoking times) and sausages (smoking times and use of liquid smoke). In streaky bacon from entire male pigs with skatole concentrations of up to 0.6 μg/g and androstenone concentrations of up to 5.8 μg/g in the neck fat, three smoking times were compared: 10, 30 and 60 min. Boar taint was partially, but not fully, masked...
June 2018: Food Research International
Ichiro Okano, Yuki Midorikawa, Nobumasa Kushima, Yui Watanabe, Takuya Sugiyama, Katsutaka Mitachi, Kazuaki Shinohara, Takatoshi Sawada, Katsunori Inagaki
Wild boar attacks have rarely been reported in the medical literature. This is the case of an 83-year-old male farmer who was assaulted from behind by an injured adult wild boar. He presented with hemorrhagic shock after sustaining injuries to the right profunda femoris artery and right sciatic nerve as well as significant soft-tissue injuries, bilateral iliac wing fractures, an open pneumothorax, and an anorectal injury. The anorectal injury was treated with fecal diversion but was complicated by soft-tissue infection in the surrounding dead space...
May 3, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Romana Krejčířová, Marie Maňasová, Veronika Sommerová, Eva Langhamerová, Radko Rajmon, Pavla Maňásková-Postlerová
The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is a transmembrane receptor considered as a mediator of rapid non-genomic responses. GPER has been found in the male reproductive tract of many mammalian species. However, in adult boars, GPER has been reported only in ejaculated spermatozoa. Therefore, we focused on GPER detection in testicular and epididymal tissues and sperm cells in adult boars. We found GPER in Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules of boar testes and in the secretory epithelium of epididymis...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Vinod Kumar Singh, Kaushal Kishore Rajak, Amit Kumar, Sharad Kumar Yadav
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a globally significant disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus. The virus affects the wild boars and pigs of all age groups, leading to acute, chronic, late-onset or in-apparent course of the disease. The disease causes great economic loss to the piggery industry due to mortality, stunted growth, poor reproductive performance, and by impeding the international trade of pig and pig products. In India, CSF outbreaks are reported from most of the states wherever pig rearing is practiced and more frequently from northeast states...
May 4, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Carles Soler, José Á Picazo-Bueno, Vicente Micó, Anthony Valverde, Daznia Bompart, Francisco J Blasco, Juan G Álvarez, Almudena García-Molina
Sperm motility is one of the most significant parameters in the prediction of male fertility. Until now, both motility analysis using an optical microscope and computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) entailed the use of counting chambers with a depth to 20µm. Chamber depth significantly affects the intrinsic sperm movement, leading to an artificial motility pattern. For the first time, laser microscopy offers the possibility of avoiding this interference with sperm movement. The aims of the present study were to determine the different motility patterns observed in chambers with depths of 10, 20 and 100µm using a new holographic approach and to compare the results obtained in the 20-µm chamber with those of the laser and optical CASA-Mot systems...
May 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jiayin Gu, Lan Yu, Yan Hua, Yao Ning, Bao Heng, Jinzhe Qi, Zexv Long, Mingyuan Yao, Chong Huang, Zhilin Li, Jianming Lang, Guangshun Jiang, Jianzhang Ma
A small, isolated Amur tiger population is living at the southwest Primorskii Krai in Russia and Hunchun in China region. Many of them with "dual nationality" cross the border frequently. Formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger food requirements in both Russia and China sides, while Russia side already have clear results of it. We used scat analysis combined with data on the abundance of four prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and prey preferences in Hunchun...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Haitao Yang, Hailong Dou, Raj Kumar Baniya, Siyu Han, Yu Guan, Bing Xie, Guojing Zhao, Tianming Wang, Pu Mou, Limin Feng, Jianping Ge
We analyzed the scats of Amur tigers and Amur leopards, and examined their annual and seasonal food habits in Northeast China to comprehend their coexistence. Wild boar had the highest annual and seasonal consumption frequencies by the tigers, while both roe deer and sika deer were mostly preyed by the leopards annually. The three species appeared to be the key preys in terms of high proportion of consumed biomass by the two felids. Our data also revealed numerous mid-sized carnivores and small mammals included in the two felids' food list...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Gajda, Ewelina Nowacka-Kozak, Andrzej Posyniak
Tetracycline is used as a biomarker for rabies vaccine bait intended for foxes. However, there is a high probability of intake of the vaccine by other species living in the forest ecosystem, including wild boars (Sus scrofa), and tetracycline residues can occur in the animals' tissues. In this study, muscle samples from 144 animals were tested for the presence of tetracycline, collected after rabies vaccine distribution. For the quantitative analysis of tetracycline and its 4-epi form, a liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed...
May 2, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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