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Qin-Li Liang, Yang Zou, Yun-Hang Gao, Lan-Bi Nie, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Gui-Xue Hu, Rui Du, Xing-Quan Zhu
Porcine enzootic pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae affects the global pig industry with significant economic losses. It is yet to know whether wild boars in China were infected with M. hyopneumoniae. The present study was conducted to examine the seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors of M. hyopneumoniae infection in farmed wild boars in China. A total of 882 serum samples were collected from farmed wild boars in Jilin City, Siping City and Baishan City in Jilin Province, northeastern China from April 2015 to February 2016, and were examined by the double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Yan-Ling Yin, Hui-Jun Zhang, Ya-Jie Yuan, Huan Tang, Dan Chen, Sha Jing, Hao-Xian Wu, Sha-Sha Wang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is an important zoonotic parasite that parasitizes the gastro-intestines of humans and animals, with diarrhea as the most common clinical symptom. The goat has been indicated as one of the most important reservoirs of G. duodenalis for humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1311 faecal specimens were examined, and the overall prevalence was 7...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Julie Rivière, Yann Le Strat, Pascal Hendrikx, Barbara Dufour
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease of cattle and wildlife, with economic repercussions and implications for animal and human health. The surveillance of bTB in wildlife is particularly important, to shed light on the epidemiological role of wild species and for the adaptation of control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, was launched in 2011 on wild boars, red deer, roe deer and badgers. It relies on active and passive surveillance activities, constrained by practical difficulties, such as the accessibility of wild animals, and regulatory rules for the trapping of badgers, for example...
2018: PloS One
Tiandong Che, Diyan Li, Long Jin, Yuhua Fu, Yingkai Liu, Pengliang Liu, Yixin Wang, Qianzi Tang, Jideng Ma, Xun Wang, Anan Jiang, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li
Genome-wide transcriptomic studies in humans and mice have become extensive and mature. However, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expressed during pig spleen development has not been achieved. LncRNAs are known to participate in regulatory networks for an array of biological processes. Here, we constructed 18 RNA libraries from developing fetal pig spleen (55 days before birth), postnatal pig spleens (0, 30, 180 days and 2 years after birth), and the samples from the 2-year-old Wild Boar...
2018: PloS One
D Cano-Terriza, M A Risalde, S Jiménez-Ruiz, J Vicente, J Isla, J Paniagua, I Moreno, C Gortázar, J A Infantes-Lorenzo, I García-Bocanegra
In recent decades, habitat change and the intensive management of wild ungulates for hunting have led to an increase in their populations in south-central Spain. This implies a higher generation of hunting waste, which can favour the transmission of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the proper disposal of hunting waste as TB control measure in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the 2008/2009 to 2016/2017 hunting seasons...
March 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Keren Long, Ke Mao, Tiandong Che, Jinwei Zhang, Wanling Qiu, Yujie Wang, Qianzi Tang, Jideng Ma, Mingzhou Li, Xuewei Li
Animal domestication is a long-term, multistage process that results in modifications of many traits, especially the less aggressive behavior in domesticated animals. In this study, we used the Illumina RNA-seq to compare the transcriptome in brain frontal cortex between wild boar and Rongchang pig, a typical indigenous domestic pig in China, and revealed that 604 genes and 639 genes were specifically detected in wild boar and domesticated pig, respectively, with distinct functional characteristics that may be related to their respective environment...
March 13, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
G N Cagatay, A Antos, D Meyer, C Maistrelli, O Keuling, P Becher, A Postel
The recently identified atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) was demonstrated to be the causative agent of the neurological disorder "congenital tremor" in newborn piglets. Despite its relevance and wide distribution in domestic pigs, so far nothing is known about the situation in wild boar, representing an important wild animal reservoir for the related classical swine fever virus. In this study, 456 wild boar serum samples obtained from northern Germany were investigated for the presence of APPV genomes and virus-specific antibodies...
March 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
G La Rosa, R Calero-Bernal, J E Pérez-Martín, D Tonanzi, F Galati, F J Serrano-Aguilera, B M Rosenthal, E Pozio
Recurrent self-mating can result in nearly clonal propagation of biological lineages, but even occasional outcrossing can serve to redistribute variation in future generations, providing cohesion among regional populations. The zoonotic parasite Trichinella spiralis has been suspected to undergo frequent inbreeding, resulting in genetically uniform larval cohorts which differ markedly from one another. Here, we explored the extent of inbreeding for this parasite by determining how genetic variation (at variable microsatellite markers) is distributed among 1,379 larvae derived from 41 wild boars in Extremadura, Spain...
March 8, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
David Risco, María Bravo, Remigio Martínez, Almudena Torres, Pilar Gonçalves, Jesús Cuesta, Waldo García-Jiménez, Rosario Cerrato, Rocío Iglesias, Javier Galapero, Emmanuel Serrano, Luis Gómez, Pedro Fernández-Llario, Javier Hermoso de Mendoza
Tuberculosis (TB) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) may be affected by coinfections with other pathogens, such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Therefore, sanitary measures focused on controlling PCV2 could be useful in reducing the impact of TB in this wild suid. The aim of this study was to explore whether vaccination against PCV2 targeting young animals affects TB prevalence and TB severity in wild boar. The study was conducted on a game estate in mid-western Spain. Seventy animals of ages ranging from 4 to 8 months were captured, individually identified, vaccinated against PCV2 and released, forming a vaccinated group...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
E O Roos, F Olea-Popelka, P Buss, L-M de Klerk-Lorist, D Cooper, P D van Helden, S D C Parsons, M A Miller
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), has been reported in many species including suids. Wild boar are important maintenance hosts of the infection with other suids, that is domestic and feral pigs, being important spillover hosts in the Eurasian ecosystem and in South Africa, warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) may play a similar role in M. bovis-endemic areas. However, novel diagnostic tests for warthogs are required to investigate the epidemiology of bTB in this species. Recent studies have demonstrated that serological assays are capable of discriminating between M...
March 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Raquel Portugal, Alexandre Leitão, Carlos Martins
ASFV causes an important disease of domestic swine and wild boar. Currently no vaccine is available, highlighting the necessity to understand ASFV modulation of innate immune responses in natural host cells. With this aim, macrophage cultures enriched in SWC9 and CD163 differentiation markers were infected in parallel with high virulent ASFV/L60 and low virulent ASFV/NHV, the latter lacking MGF 360 and 505/530 genes associated with type I interferon (IFN I) control. IFN I production and signaling were studied after completion of the viral cycles...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
J V Camp, R Haider, D Porea, L E Oslobanu, P Forgách, N Nowotny
A serosurvey for Tahyna virus (TAHV), a mosquito-borne California encephalitis orthobunyavirus (Peribunyaviridae) endemic to Europe, was performed to estimate the activity of TAHV on a broad geographic scale. Sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected from Austria, Hungary and Romania. Samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against TAHV using a virus microneutralization assay. The results demonstrate that TAHV transmission to mammals is widespread in Europe, particularly in the wild boar population where the mean rate of seroconversion is 15...
March 8, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
William V Holt, Nana Satake
Attempting to extract useful and reliable information about semen quality and its fertility potential remains a difficult exercise, partly because the sperm heterogeneity within samples often renders simple statistical analyses rather meaningless. In fact, a mean and standard deviation may reflect neither the very fast swimming activities of the most active cells nor the slow and sluggish activities of others. Herein we propose that the information value within semen samples can be maximised if current knowledge about sperm activation mechanisms is exploited before undertaking the measurements...
March 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
B A Pereira, B R Chaves, M C Teles, T P Pontelo, C R Oliveira, R V de Souza, J E Rodríguez-Gil, M G Zangeronimo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (ChA) in boar semen stored at 15°C. Twelve ejaculates were processed into insemination doses at different concentrations of ChA (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mg/ml) or vitamin E (200 μl/ml) as positive control. Semen was analysed after 0, 24 and 72 hr of storage. ChA improved (p < .05) sperm motility, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity in all periods of storage. Furthermore, after 24 hr of storage, ChA above 1.5 mg/ml supported the sperm viability until 120 min after reheating (p < ...
March 5, 2018: Andrologia
Zaida Rentería-Solís, Marta Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Katharina Riehn
Alaria spp. mesocercariae are commonly found in wild boar and other omnivorous mammals. In Europe, the number of cases presenting Alaria mesocercariae infections has been on the rise in the last years. From October to December 2016, samples of muscle from tongue, neck, and mandibular regions were collected from 1 Eurasian badger (Meles meles) and 14 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in the Białowieża Forest, north-eastern Poland. Using the Alaria migration technique (AMT), Alaria mesocercariae were isolated and morphologically identified in one badger and one wild boar...
March 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
Alejandro Vicente-Carrillo
In vitro drug-induced toxicity assessment demands the usability and validation of suitable cell models, obtained non-invasively and pain-free. Sperm suspensions, painlessly and easily obtained from breeding boars, have been proven as suitable biosensors for pre-clinical toxicology screening and ranking of lead compounds in the drug development processes on a kinematics-based assay. Having a limited number of mitochondria and depending on these mitochondria and on cytoplasmic glycolysis for the energy needed for motility and for plasma membrane functionality, spermatozoa become a suitable model for capturing multiple modes of action of drugs and other chemicals acting via measurements of sperm motility...
March 2, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Dustin Heaton, Sandra Huang, Rita Shiau, Shannon Casillas, Anne Straily, Li Kuo Kong, Valerie Ng, Viviana Petru
On January 15, 2017, a hospital physician notified the Alameda County Public Health Department (ACPHD) in California of a patient with a suspected diagnosis of trichinellosis, a roundworm disease transmitted by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella spp. larvae (1). A family member of the initial patient reported that at least three other friends and family members had been evaluated at area hospitals for fever, myalgia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients had attended a celebration on December 28, 2016, at which several pork dishes were served, including larb, a traditional Laotian raw pork dish, leading the hospital physician to suspect a diagnosis of trichinellosis...
March 2, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Marco Lombardini, Alberto Meriggi, Alberto Fozzi
Crop damage by wildlife is a frequent source of human-wildlife conflict. Understanding which factors increase the risk of damage is crucial to the development of effective management strategies. The aims of this study were to provide a general description of agricultural damage caused by wild boar Sus scrofa meridionalis over a 7-year period in North-eastern Sardinia (Mediterranean Italy), and to formulate a predictive model of damage risk. We recorded a total of 221 cases of wild boar damage, with economic losses amounting to 483,982 Euros...
October 2017: Current Zoology
Jeremy T Howard, Melissa S Ashwell, Ronald E Baynes, James D Brooks, James L Yeatts, Christian Maltecca
In livestock, the regulation of drugs used to treat livestock has received increased attention and it is currently unknown how much of the phenotypic variation in drug metabolism is due to the genetics of an animal. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the amount of phenotypic variation in fenbendazole and flunixin meglumine drug metabolism due to genetics. The population consisted of crossbred female and castrated male nursery pigs ( n = 198) that were sired by boars represented by four breeds...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
P J Sánchez-Cordón, M Montoya, A L Reis, L K Dixon
African swine fever (ASF) recently has spread beyond sub-Saharan Africa to the Trans-Caucasus region, parts of the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. In this new epidemiological scenario, the disease has similarities, but also important differences, compared to the situation in Africa, including the substantial involvement of wild boar. A better understanding of this new situation will enable better control and prevent further spread of disease. In this article, these different scenarios are compared, and recent information on the pathogenesis of ASF virus strains, the immune response to infection and prospects for developing vaccines is presented...
March 2018: Veterinary Journal
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