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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922704/direct-acting-antivirals-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#1
REVIEW
Janus C Jakobsen, Emil Eik Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Kiran Kumar Katakam, Kristina Fobian, Goran Hauser, Goran Poropat, Snezana Djurisic, Karl Heinz Weiss, Milica Bjelakovic, Goran Bjelakovic, Sarah Louise Klingenberg, Jian Ping Liu, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Ronald L Koretz, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide suffer from hepatitis C, which can lead to severe liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), e.g. sofosbuvir, are relatively new and expensive interventions for chronic hepatitis C, and preliminary results suggest that DAAs may eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the blood (sustained virological response). Sustained virological response (SVR) is used by investigators and regulatory agencies as a surrogate outcome for morbidity and mortality, based solely on observational evidence...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917537/hbcag-produced-in-transgenic-tobacco-triggers-th1-and-th2-response-when-intramuscularly-delivered
#2
Marcin Pyrski, Anna Rugowska, Kamil Robert Wierzbiński, Anna Kasprzyk, Maria Bogusiewicz, Piotr Bociąg, Sławomir Samardakiewicz, Marcin Czyż, Maciej Kurpisz, Tomasz Pniewski
Hepatitis B core Antigen (HBcAg) assembled into Capsid-Like Particles (CLPs) is investigated as a therapeutic vaccine in treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in diagnostic tests or as a carrier for various epitopes. While the expression of HBcAg has been thoroughly clarified in E. coli and yeast, it has also been investigated in other expression systems. Stably transformed tobacco expressed HBcAg at a level of 110-250µg/g fresh weight, therefore in view of its large leaf biomass it offers a production platform comparable with transient expression systems regarding the final yield of HBcAg...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917218/erythema-elevatum-diutinum-in-crohn-s-disease-associated-spondyloarthritis-a-rare-vasculitis-an-unusual-association
#3
Maria João Gonçalves, Vasco C Romão, Luís Soares-de-Almeida, Helena Canhão, José Carlos Romeu, Heinz Kutzner, José Alberto Pereira-da-Silva
Erythema elevatum diutinum is a rare neutrophilic dermatoses with vasculitis, which presents as persistent, symmetrical, purple or brownish papules and nodules, mainly in the extensor surface of the limbs. We describe a case of erythema elevatum diutinum and polyarthritis as initial manifestations of Crohn's disease associated spondyloarthritis. A 51-year-old man, from São Tomé e Príncipe, with previous history of treated tuberculosis and chronic hepatitis B infection, was admitted due to 4 months history of polyarthritis, hyperpigmented papules on the extensor surfaces, occasional episodes of bloody mucous diarrhea and significant weight loss...
September 14, 2017: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915795/future-complications-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-a-low-risk-area-projections-from-the-hepatitis-c-study-in-northern-norway
#4
H Kileng, L Bernfort, T Gutteberg, O S Moen, M G Kristiansen, E J Paulssen, L K Berg, J Florholmen, R Goll
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) infection causes an asymptomatic chronic hepatitis in most affected individuals, which often remains undetected until cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications occur. Screening of high-risk subjects in Northern Norway has revealed a relatively low prevalence in the general population (0.24%). Despite this, late complications of HCV infection are increasing. Our object was to estimate the future prevalence and complications of chronic HCV infection in the period 2013-2050 in a low-risk area...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914957/hepatitis-b-virus-core-related-antigen-levels-predict-progression-to-liver-cirrhosis-in-hepatitis-b-carriers
#5
Toshifumi Tada, Takashi Kumada, Hidenori Toyoda, Natsuko Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Akita, Junko Tanaka
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Several hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers have been identified as risk factors for progression to liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic HBV infection. We clarified the predictive impact of HBV markers on progression to cirrhosis in HBV carriers. METHODS: A total of 529 hepatitis B e antigen seroconverters with FIB-4 index ≤3.6 not on nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy were included. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis of associations between HBV markers and progression to cirrhosis...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902848/the-effect-of-hiv-infection-and-hcv-viremia-on-inflammatory-mediators-and-hepatic-injury-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#6
Sheila M Keating, Jennifer L Dodge, Philip J Norris, John Heitman, Stephen J Gange, Audrey L French, Marshall J Glesby, Brian R Edlin, Patricia S Latham, Maria C Villacres, Ruth M Greenblatt, Marion G Peters
Hepatitis C virus infection induces inflammation and while it is believed that HIV co-infection enhances this response, HIV control may reduce inflammation and liver fibrosis in resolved or viremic HCV infection. Measurement of systemic biomarkers in co-infection could help define the mechanism of inflammation on fibrosis and determine if HIV control reduces liver pathology. A nested case-control study was performed to explore the relationship of systemic biomarkers of inflammation with liver fibrosis in HCV viremic and/or seropositive women with and without HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902234/monitoring-of-post-vaccination-anti-hbs-titles-vaccine-in-children-and-adolescents-in-the-pre-dialysis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Nathália Cristina Pereira da Costa, Mônica Ribeiro Canhestro, Cristina Maria Bouissou Morais Soares, Juliana Scudilio Rodrigues
Introduction: Bacterial or viral diseases are one of the major causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These patients show a quantitative reduction of levels of antibodies over time. Among the infectious diseases that affect CKD patients, stands out hepatitis B (HB). Immunization and control of antibodies levels against the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are ways to prevent the HB infection in this population. Patients with anti-HBs levels ≥10 IU/ml are considered adequate responders, whereas those with anti-HBs levels ≥ 100 IU/ml are considered excellent responders...
August 28, 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901507/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-tumor-associated-macrophages-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-metastasis-through-the-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway
#8
Rushan Fei, Yuanwei Zhang, Saisai Wang, Tao Xiang, Wenbin Chen
Considerable evidence has implied that α7 nicotinic receptor subtypes play an important role in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain signaling. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of endogenous α7nAChR signaling in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in human colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis and prognosis. α7nAChR expression in primary tumor cells and adjacent stroma cells especially in TAMs in 51 CRC patients was observed. Using a human monocyte THP-derived macrophages (TMs) with α7nAChR-siRNA knockdown (TMα7-/-) and a CRC cell Transwell co-culture model, the migration and invasion of two CRC cells, LoVo and SW620, were determined...
September 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899983/regulatory-nk-cells-mediated-between-immunosuppressive-monocytes-and-dysfunctional-t-cells-in-chronic-hbv-infection
#9
Haijun Li, Naicui Zhai, Zhongfeng Wang, Hongxiao Song, Yang Yang, An Cui, Tianyang Li, Guangyi Wang, Junqi Niu, Ian Nicholas Crispe, Lishan Su, Zhengkun Tu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: HBV infection represents a major health problem worldwide, but the immunological mechanisms by which HBV causes chronic persistent infection remain only partly understood. Recently, cell subsets with suppressive features have been recognised among monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we examine the effects of HBV on monocytes and NK cells. METHODS: Monocytes and NK cells derived from chronic HBV-infected patients and healthy controls were purified and characterised for phenotype, gene expression and cytokines secretion by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR, ELISA and western blotting...
September 12, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894272/t-cell-tolerance-and-exhaustion-in-the-clearance-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-role-of-inoculum-size-in-a-quantitative-hepatic-experimental-model
#10
Chuanshan Zhang, Yingmei Shao, Shuting Yang, Xiaojuan Bi, Liang Li, Hui Wang, Ning Yang, Zhide Li, Cheng Sun, Liang Li, Guodong Lü, Tuerganaili Aji, Dominique A Vuitton, Renyong Lin, Hao Wen
The local immune mechanisms responsible for either self-healing or sustained chronic infection are not clear, in the development of E. multilocularis larvae. Here, we developed a suitable experimental model that mimics naturally infected livers, according to the parasite load. We demonstrated that local cellular immunity and fibrogenesis are actually protective and fully able to limit metacestode growth in the liver of low or medium dose-infected mice (LDG or MDG), or even to clear it, while impairment of cellular immunity is followed by a more rapid and severe course of the disease in high dose-infected mice (HDG)...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894190/novel-detection-of-post-translational-modifications-in-human-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-after-chronic-alcohol-exposure-role-of-inflammation-regulator-h4k12ac
#11
Tiyash Parira, Gloria Figueroa, Alejandra Laverde, Gianna Casteleiro, Mario E Gomez Hernandez, Francisco Fernandez-Lima, Marisela Agudelo
Previous reports on epigenetic mechanisms involved in alcohol abuse have focus on hepatic and neuronal regions, leaving the immune system and specifically monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) understudied. Our lab has previously shown histone deacetylases are modulated in cells derived from alcohol users and after in vitro acute alcohol treatment of human MDDCs. In the current study, we developed a novel screening tool using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FT-ICR MS) and single cell imaging flow cytometry to detect post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human MDDCs due to chronic alcohol exposure...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892166/clinical-patterns-associated-with-the-concurrent-detection-of-anti-hbs-and-hbv-dna
#12
Olympia E Anastasiou, Marek Widera, Johannes Korth, Helenie Kefalakes, Antonios Katsounas, Gudrun Hilgard, Guido Gerken, Ali Canbay, Sandra Ciesek, Jens Verheyen
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA is a rare serological combination and has been described in acute (AHB) and chronic HBV infection (CHB). OBJECTIVES: To scrutinize viral and clinical patterns associated with concurrent detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA. STUDY DESIGN: Simultaneous detection of anti-HBs and HBV DNA was observed in 64/1444 (4.4%) patients treated for HBV infection at the University Hospital of Essen from 2006 to 2016 (8 with acute, 20 with reactivated and 36 chronic HBV infection)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891457/current-prevalence-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infection-in-the-general-population-blood-donors-and-pregnant-women-in-the-eu-eea-a-systematic-review
#13
S H I Hofstraat, A M Falla, E F Duffell, S J M Hahné, A J Amato-Gauci, I K Veldhuijzen, L Tavoschi
This systematic review aimed at estimating chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) prevalence in the European Union (EU) and Economic Area (EEA) countries in the general population, blood donors and pregnant women. We searched PubMed©, Embase© and Cochrane Library databases for reports on HBV and HCV prevalence in the general population and pregnant women in EU/EEA countries published between 2005 and 2015. Council of Europe data were used for HBV and HCV blood donor prevalence. HBV general population estimates were available for 13 countries, ranging from 0·1% to 4·4%...
September 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891120/hepatitis-e-in-transfusion-dependent-thalassaemia-patients-in-greece-a-single-centre-experience
#14
P Klonizakis, G Gioula, M Exindari, C Apostolou, A Kotsiafti, E Vlachaki
Hepatitis E is considered an emerging disease that may be a threat in both developing and industrialized countries all over the world. The risk of chronic hepatitis E virus infection is higher among immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to assess the status of hepatitis E infection in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia from a single centre, in Greece. Our results suggest that the prevalence of hepatitis E infection in this group of patients is low.
September 10, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888487/impaired-autophagic-flux-and-p62-mediated-emt-are-involved-in-arsenite-induced-transformation-of-l-02-cells
#15
Xinlu Liu, Min Ling, Chao Chen, Fei Luo, Ping Yang, Dapeng Wang, Xiong Chen, Hui Xu, Junchao Xue, Qianlei Yang, Lu Lu, Jiachun Lu, Qian Bian, Aihua Zhang, Qizhan Liu
Autophagy is a catabolic process essential for preserving cellular homeostasis, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved during tissue development and cancer progression. In arsenite-treated human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cells, arsenite reduced the autophagic flux, which caused accumulation of p62, an adaptor and receptor of autophagy. Further, in arsenite-transformed L-02 cells, the levels of E-cadherin were attenuated, but the levels of vimentin, which is expressed in mesenchymal cells, and Snail, a transcription regulator of the EMT, were up-regulated...
September 6, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881031/ribavirin-steady-state-plasma-level-is-a-predictor-of-sustained-virological-response-in-hepatitis-c-infected-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#16
M van Tilborg, F I Lieveld, E J Smolders, K J van Erpecum, C T M M de Kanter, R Maan, M van der Valk, J E Arends, A S M Dofferhoff, H Blokzijl, M Bijmolen, J P H Drenth, R J de Knegt, D M Burger
BACKGROUND: In the era of highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, ribavirin (RBV) is still considered beneficial in certain patients. AIM: To assess the association between RBV steady-state plasma levels and sustained virological response (SVR). METHODS: Consecutive HCV-infected patients treated with DAAs plus RBV from four Dutch academic medical centres were enrolled...
September 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878132/therapeutic-opportunities-for-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-exploiting-similarities-and-differences-in-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Greuter, Harmeet Malhi, Gregory J Gores, Vijay H Shah
Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are among the most frequent causes of chronic liver disease in the United States. Although the two entities are triggered by different etiologies - chronic alcohol consumption (ASH) and obesity-associated lipotoxicity (NASH) - they share overlapping histological and clinical features owing to common pathogenic mechanisms. These pathogenic processes include altered hepatocyte lipid metabolism, organelle dysfunction (i.e., ER stress), hepatocyte apoptosis, innate immune system activation, and hepatic stellate cell activation...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878075/the-characterization-of-the-quasi-enveloped-hepatitis-e-virus-particles-released-by-the-cellular-exosomal-pathway
#18
Shigeo Nagashima, Masaharu Takahashi, Tominari Kobayashi, Tanggis, Tsutomu Nishizawa, Takashi Nishiyama, Putu Prathiwi Primadharsini, Hiroaki Okamoto
Our previous studies demonstrated that membrane-associated hepatitis E virus (HEV) particles-now considered "quasi-enveloped particles"-are present in the multivesicular body with intraluminal vesicles (exosomes) in infected cells, and that the release of HEV virions is related to the exosomal pathway. In this study, we characterized exosomes purified from culture supernatant of HEV-infected PLC/PRF/5 cells. Purified CD63-, CD9-, or CD81-positive exosomes derived from the culture supernatant of HEV-infected cells that had been cultivated in serum-free medium were found to contain HEV RNA and the viral capsid (ORF2) and ORF3 proteins, as determined by a RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877911/hepatic-gale-regulates-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis-by-modulating-tff3-expression
#19
Yi Zhu, Shangang Zhao, Yingfeng Deng, Ruth Gordillo, Alexandra L Ghaben, Mengle Shao, Fang Zhang, Ping Xu, Yang Li, Huachuan Cao, Olga Zagnitko, David A Scott, Rana K Gupta, Chao Xing, Bei B Zhang, Hua V Lin, Philipp E Scherer
Transcripts of key enzymes in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism in mouse livers are significantly increased after chronic high-fat high-sucrose feeding. UDP-galactose-4-epimerase (GALE) is the last enzyme in this pathway that converts UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose and was previously identified as a downstream target of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress effector spliced X-box binding protein 1, suggesting an interesting crosstalk between galactose and glucose metabolism in the context of hepatic ER stress and whole body metabolic fitness...
September 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877177/an-in-vitro-diagnostic-certified-point-of-care-single-nucleotide-test-for-il28b-polymorphisms
#20
Darragh Duffy, Estelle Mottez, Shaun Ainsworth, Tan-Phuc Buivan, Aurelie Baudin, Muriel Vray, Ben Reed, Arnaud Fontanet, Alexandra Rohel, Ventzislava Petrov-Sanchez, Laurent Abel, Ioannis Theodorou, Gino Miele, Stanislas Pol, Matthew L Albert
Numerous genetic polymorphisms have been identified as associated with disease or treatment outcome, but the routine implementation of genotyping into actionable medical care remains limited. Point-of-care (PoC) technologies enable rapid and real-time treatment decisions, with great potential for extending molecular diagnostic approaches to settings with limited medical infrastructure (e.g., CLIA certified diagnostic laboratories). With respect to resource-limited settings, there is a need for simple devices to implement biomarker guided treatment strategies...
2017: PloS One
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