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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748854/ratios-of-t-helper-2-cells-to-t-helper-1-cells-and-cytokine-levels-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b
#1
Ming-Hui Li, Dan Zhang, Lu Zhang, Xiao-Jing Qu, Yao Lu, Ge Shen, Shu-Ling Wu, Min Chang, Ru-Yu Liu, Lei-Ping Hu, Hong-Xiao Hao, Wen-Hao Hua, Shu-Jing Song, Gang Wan, Shun-Ai Liu, Yao Xie
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is an immune response-mediated disease. The aim of this study was to explore the differences of ratios of T-helper (Th) 2 cells to Th1 cells and cytokine levels in acute hepatitis B (AHB) patients and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients in immune-tolerance and immune-active phases. METHODS: Thirty chronic HBV-infected patients in the immune-tolerant phase (IT group) and 50 chronic hepatitis B patients in the immune-active (clearance) phase (IC group), 32 AHB patients (AHB group), and 13 healthy individuals (HI group) were enrolled in the study...
August 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747369/serum-hbv-dna-rna-and-hbsag-which-correlated-better-to-intrahepatic-covalently-closed-circular-dna-before-and-after-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment
#2
Yuhua Gao, Yutang Li, Qinghua Meng, Zhanqing Zhang, Ping Zhao, Qinghua Shang, Yue Li, Mingze Su, Tong Li, Xueen Liu, Hui Zhuang
The study was to investigate whether serum HBV RNA is a strong surrogate marker for intrahepatic HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) when compared with serum HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Serum HBV RNA, HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg and intrahepatic cccDNA were quantitatively detected at baseline (n=82) and 96 weeks (n=62) after nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) treatment in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. Then the correlations between serum HBV RNA, HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg and intrahepatic cccDNA were statistically analyzed...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746448/fatal-toxoplasmosis-in-an-immunosuppressed-domestic-cat-from-brazil-caused-by-toxoplasma-gondii-clonal-type-i
#3
Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena, Camila Mariellen Evangelista, Renata Assis Casagrande, Giovana Biezus, Claudia Salete Wisser, Paulo Eduardo Ferian, Anderson Barbosa de Moura, Veronica Machado Rolim, David Driemeier, Solange Oliveira, Bruna Farias Alves, Solange Maria Gennari, Sandra Davi Traverso
The objective of the study was to report on a fatal case of feline toxoplasmosis with coinfection with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV). A domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) presented intense dyspnea and died three days later. In the necropsy, the lungs were firm, without collapse and with many white areas; moderate lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly were also observed. The histopathological examination showed severe necrotic interstitial bronchopneumonia and mild necrotic hepatitis, associated with intralesional cysts and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii that were positive by anti-T...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743900/long-term-hepatitis-b-infection-in-a-scalable-hepatic-co-culture-system
#4
Benjamin Y Winer, Tiffany S Huang, Eitan Pludwinski, Brigitte Heller, Felix Wojcik, Gabriel E Lipkowitz, Amit Parekh, Cheul Cho, Anil Shrirao, Tom W Muir, Eric Novik, Alexander Ploss
Hepatitis B virus causes chronic infections in 250 million people worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B virus carriers are at risk of developing fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. A prophylactic vaccine exists and currently available antivirals can suppress but rarely cure chronic infections. The study of hepatitis B virus and development of curative antivirals are hampered by a scarcity of models that mimic infection in a physiologically relevant, cellular context. Here, we show that cell-culture and patient-derived hepatitis B virus can establish persistent infection for over 30 days in a self-assembling, primary hepatocyte co-culture system...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743803/the-glucocorticoid-angptl4-ceramide-axis-induces-insulin-resistance-through-pp2a-and-pkc%C3%AE
#5
Tzu-Chieh Chen, Daniel I Benjamin, Taiyi Kuo, Rebecca A Lee, Mei-Lan Li, Darryl J Mar, Damian E Costello, Daniel K Nomura, Jen-Chywan Wang
Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is associated with the development of insulin resistance. We showed that glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance was attenuated upon ablation of Angptl4, a glucocorticoid target gene encoding the secreted protein angiopoietin-like 4, which mediates glucocorticoid-induced lipolysis in white adipose tissue. Through metabolomic profiling, we revealed that glucocorticoid treatment increased hepatic ceramide concentrations by inducing enzymes in the ceramide synthetic pathway in an Angptl4-dependent manner...
July 25, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739303/cpg-oligonucleotides-increase-hbv-specific-cytokine-responses-in-whole-blood-and-enhance-cytokine-release-assay-sensitivity
#6
Werner Dammermann, Julia Dornbrack, Katharina Bröker, Frank Bentzien, Stefan Lüth
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To develop a therapeutic vaccine for chronic hepatitis B patients it is necessary to assess cellular immune responses to hepatitis B virus(HBV) antigens. We investigated the potential of toll-like receptor(TLR) 9 agonists, i.e. CpG oligonucleotides, as costimulators to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of our HBV specific cytokine release assay. METHODS: Whole blood from 80 healthy individuals(n=51 hepatitis B vaccinated, n=29 unvaccinated) was stimulated with hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg) or hepatitis B core antigen(HBcAg) in presence or absence of CpG oligonucleotides...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738454/-development-of-markov-models-for-economics-evaluation-of-strategies-on-hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-population-based-antiviral-treatment-in-china
#7
P C Yang, S X Zhang, P P Sun, Y L Cai, Y Lin, Y H Zou
Objective: To construct the Markov models to reflect the reality of prevention and treatment interventions against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, simulate the natural history of HBV infection in different age groups and provide evidence for the economics evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination and population-based antiviral treatment in China. Methods: According to the theory and techniques of Markov chain, the Markov models of Chinese HBV epidemic were developed based on the national data and related literature both at home and abroad, including the settings of Markov model states, allowable transitions and initial and transition probabilities...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734819/the-prevalence-of-chronic-conditions-and-poor-health-among-people-with-and-without-vision-impairment-aged-%C3%A2-65-years-2010-2014
#8
John E Crews, Chiu-Fang Chou, Swathi Sekar, Jinan B Saaddine
PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of 13 chronic conditions and fair/poor health among people aged ≥65 years in the U.S. with and without vision impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study from the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Survey METHODS: We examined hypertension, heart disease, high cholesterol, stroke, arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, weak/failing kidneys, diabetes, hepatitis, depression, and hearing impairment. We used logistic regression to show the association between vision impairment and chronic conditions and the association between vision impairment and poor health for those with chronic conditions...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732019/rate-of-hepatitis-c-viral-clearance-by-human-livers-in-human-patients-liver-transplantation-modeling-primary-infection-and-implications-for-studying-entry-inhibition
#9
Michael G Hughes, William W Tucker, Sreelatha Reddy, Michael E Brier, David Koch, Craig J McClain, Colleen B Jonsson, Nobuyuki Matoba, Donghoon Chung
To better understand the dynamics of early hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we determined how rapidly non-cirrhotic HCV-uninfected liver allografts clear HCV from the circulation of cirrhotic HCV-infected patients at the time of transplantation but before administration of immunosuppression. Specifically, we characterized serum HCV kinetics during the first 90 min of reperfusion for 19 chronically HCV-infected patients transplanted with an HCV-uninfected liver by measuring serum viral load immediately prior to reperfusion (t = 0) and then every 15 min for a total of 90 min (t = 90)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727933/genotype-specific-acquisition-evolution-and-adaptation-of-characteristic-mutations-in-hepatitis-e-virus
#10
Aqsa Ikram, Mohamad S Hakim, Jian-Hua Zhou, Wenshi Wang, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis but also provokes chronic infection in immunocompromised patients. Although the pathogenesis and treatment outcome involve complex interplay between the virus and host, the nature of adaptive responses of HEV to the host immune system remain obscure at best. In this study, we employed large-scale proteomic bioinformatics to profile characteristic mutations in human HEV isolates associated to ribavirin treatment failure, chronic hepatitis, hepatic failure or altered immunoreactivity...
July 20, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724761/isg15-modulates-type-i-interferon-signaling-and-antiviral-response-during-hepatitis-e-virus-replication
#11
Harini Sooryanarain, Adam J Rogers, Dianjun Cao, Mary Etna R Haac, Yogesh A Karpe, Xiang-Jin Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus, generally causes a self-limiting acute viral hepatitis, although chronic HEV infection has recently become a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals especially in solid organ transplant recipients. Innate immunity, via type-I interferon (IFN) response, plays an important role during initial stages of a viral infection. ISG15, an IFN-induced ubiquitin-like protein, is known to have an immunomodulatory role, as well as can impart a direct antiviral effect against a wide spectrum of virus families...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723855/four-year-outcomes-after-cessation-of-tenofovir-in-immune-tolerant-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#12
Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Aric J Hui, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Rosita Suk-Yi Chan, Angel Mei-Ling Chim, Angeline Oi-Shan Lo, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
GOALS: To study the long-term outcome after cessation of antiviral therapy in immune-tolerant patients. BACKGROUND: Experience in the treatment of immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B is scanty. Some immune-tolerant patients may receive temporary antiviral therapy, such as for prevention of vertical transmission at pregnancy or prophylaxis for chemotherapy. STUDY: This was a follow-up study of a phase 2 trial at 2 centers. Immune-tolerant patients received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and/or emtricitabine for 4 years and were followed for another 4 years after treatment cessation...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721353/hepatitis-e-virus-associated-meningoencephalitis-in-a-lung-transplant-recipient-diagnosed-by-clinical-metagenomic-sequencing
#13
Jamie A Murkey, Kara W Chew, Margrit Carlson, Chelsea L Shannon, Deepika Sirohi, Hannah A Sample, Michael R Wilson, Paul Vespa, Romney M Humphries, Steve Miller, Jeffrey D Klausner, Charles Y Chiu
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection uncommonly causes chronic hepatitis and neurologic disease. We describe a case of genotype 3a HEV meningoencephalitis diagnosed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing, illustrating the power of an unbiased molecular approach to microbial testing and the first reported case of HEV infection presumably acquired through lung transplantation.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718943/hepatitis-e-virus-orf-1-induces-proliferative-and-functional-t-cell-responses-in-patients-with-ongoing-and-resolved-hepatitis-e
#14
Jana Al-Ayoubi, Patrick Behrendt, Birgit Bremer, Pothakamuri Venkata Suneetha, Anett Gisa, Franziska Rinker, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer, Anke R M Kraft
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis with > 3 million symptomatic cases per year accounting for 70,000 HEV-related deaths. HEV-specific T-cell responses have been investigated against structural proteins expressed by open reading frames (ORF) 2 and 3. T-cell responses against non-structural HEV proteins encoded by ORF1 are hardly studied. The aim of this study was to determine HEV ORF1-specific T-cell responses in comparison to ORF2/3 in patients exposed to HEV...
July 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714924/cross-sectional-study-to-determine-the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infection-in-high-risk-groups-in-the-northeast-region-of-brazil
#15
Jakeline Ribeiro Barbosa, Cristianne Sousa Bezerra, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa, Carolina Pimentel de Azevedo, Geane Lopes Flores, Jeová Keny Baima Colares, Danielle Malta Lima, Elisabeth Lampe, Lívia Melo Villar
Background: HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) and HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) infections are more prevalent in vulnerable populations than the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV-positive patients (GI), chronic renal failure (CRF) patients (GII) and coagulation disorder individuals (GIII). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to March 2015. Serum samples were tested for markers of hepatitis B and C by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710798/can-quantitative-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-levels-predict-the-severity-of-liver-disease-in-genotype-e-patients
#16
Gayatri Chakrabarty, Matthew Bruce, Mary Horner, Bo Wang, Kosh Agarwal, Ivana Carey
The utility of quantitative Hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) level as a marker of chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related liver damage is not fully delineated, but is becoming increasingly relevant. Quantitative HBsAg levels are linked with progression of liver disease in HBeAg-negative genotype B and C patients, but it is not clear whether this is consistent across all HBV genotypes. In this single-center, cross-sectional observational study, we evaluated whether qHBsAg levels can predict the severity of liver disease in genotype E patients...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708971/short-term-alcohol-abstinence-improves-antibacterial-defenses-of-chronic-alcohol-consuming-mice-against-gut-bacteria-associated-sepsis-caused-by-enterococcus-faecalis-oral-infection
#17
Makiko Kobayashi, Akira Asai, Ichiaki Ito, Sumihiro Suzuki, Kazuhide Higuchi, Fujio Suzuki
The effects of short-term alcohol abstinence on host antibacterial resistance against Enterococcus faecalis oral infection was investigated in chronic alcohol-consuming mice [mice with 0.1 g/day of 20% ethanol consumption for 12 or 16 weeks (CAC-mice)]. These mice were highly susceptible to the infection; however, after 7 days of alcohol abstinence (aaCAC-mice), their antibacterial resistances were completely restored to the normal mouse level. Normal mice inoculated with CAC-mouse hepatic macrophages were shown to be susceptible to the infection, whereas the same macrophage preparation from aaCAC-mice did not impair the antibacterial resistance of normal mice...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707785/equine-hepacivirus-persistent-infection-in-a-horse-with-chronic-wasting
#18
G Elia, G Lanave, E Lorusso, A Parisi, A Trotta, R Buono, V Martella, N Decaro, C Buonavoglia
Equine hepacivirus is the closest homologue of hepatitis C virus. Limited data on the clinical features of this infection are available. We report the identification of a horse with high-titre viremia by equine hepacivirus. Over a 15-month follow-up, the clinical signs and the viremic status persisted, suggesting a chronic evolution.
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707319/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-significantly-decreases-serum-lipoprotein-levels-compared-with-entecavir-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers
#19
A A Shaheen, M AlMattooq, S Yazdanfar, K W Burak, M G Swain, S E Congly, M A Borman, S S Lee, R P Myers, C S Coffin
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Studies suggest lipid lowering effect of TDF in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals, but the effect on lipids and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in CHB is unknown. AIM: To compare TDF vs ETV effects on lipid levels in CHB. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data on serum lipids and CVD risk factors at baseline and ~1 year on TDF or ETV were collected from CHB carriers...
July 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706418/naringenin-prevents-experimental-liver-fibrosis-by-blocking-tgf%C3%AE-smad3-and-jnk-smad3-pathways
#20
Erika Hernández-Aquino, Natanael Zarco, Sael Casas-Grajales, Erika Ramos-Tovar, Rosa E Flores-Beltrán, Jonathan Arauz, Mineko Shibayama, Liliana Favari, Víctor Tsutsumi, José Segovia, Pablo Muriel
AIM: To study the molecular mechanisms involved in the hepatoprotective effects of naringenin (NAR) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats (120-150 g) were randomly divided into four groups: (1) a control group (n = 8) that received 0.7% carboxy methyl-cellulose (NAR vehicle) 1 mL/daily p.o.; (2) a CCl4 group (n = 8) that received 400 mg of CCl4/kg body weight i.p. 3 times a week for 8 wk; (3) a CCl4 + NAR (n = 8) group that received 400 mg of CCl4/kg body weight i...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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