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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933175/-hiv-infection-a-new-disease-of-internal-medicine
#1
Svatava Snopková
Modern antiretroviral treatment belongs to the greatest success of current medicine. HIV infection has gone from a death sentence to a manageable chronic disease which develops several decades. Thanks to treatment advances, people with HIV can and do live long and full lives. In the last two decades, the incidence AIDS defining illnesses have been dramatically reduced especially opportunistic infections and malignancies, whereas the role of non-infection comorbidities has risen than age-matched HIV uninfected adults...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930079/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-cardiovascular-risk-indices-among-asymptomatic-women-with-and-without-hiv
#2
Suman Srinivasa, Michael T Lu, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Timothy K O'Malley, Lauren A Stone, Amanda Martin, Alexandra J Coromilas, Tricia H Burdo, Virginia A Triant, Janet Lo, Sara E Looby, Tomas G Neilan, Markella V Zanni
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV. METHODS: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. EAT volume derived from CT was compared among women with and without HIV, and within-group EAT associations were assessed...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915332/obesity-and-cardiometabolic-defects-in-heart-failure-pathology
#3
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain
Obesity is a major global epidemic that sets the stage for diverse multiple pathologies, including cardiovascular disease. The obesity-related low-grade chronic inflamed milieu is more pronounced in aging and responsive to cardiac dysfunction in heart failure pathology. Metabolic dysregulation of obesity integrates with immune reservoir in spleen and kidney network. Therefore, an integrative systems biology approach is necessary to delay progressive cardiac alternations. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to largely discuss the impact of obesity on the cardiovascular pathobiology in the context of problems and challenges, with major emphasis on the diversified models, and to study cardiac remodeling in obesity...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#4
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#5
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891325/epigenetics-and-immunometabolism-in-diabetes-and-aging
#6
Tomasz J Guzik, Francesco Cosentino
SIGNIFICANCE: A strong relationship between hyperglycemia, impaired insulin pathway and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. Immunometabolic pathways link these pathogenic processes and pose important potential therapeutic targets. Recent Advances: The link between immunity and metabolism is bi-directional and includes the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as T2D, obesity, metabolic syndrome and hypertension as well as the role of metabolic factors in regulation of immune cell functions...
September 11, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879059/pulmonary-hypertension-and-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-children-recipients-of-orthotopic-living-related-liver-transplantation
#7
Magd A Kotb, Inas Abd El Satar, Ahmed M Badr, Nancy H Anis, Hoda Abd El Rahman Ismail, Alaa F Hamza, Hesham M Abdelkader
Surgical stress, liberation of cytokines associated with re-perfusion injury, and long standing use of immune suppressive medications in children recipients of orthotopic living related liver transplantation (OLRLT) pose cardiovascular risk. Reported cardiovascular adverse effects vary from left ventricular wall thickening, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to resting ECG abnormalities, asymptomatic ST depression following increased heart rate and ventricular arrhythmias. Twenty-five consecutive children recipients of OLRLT were assessed by conventional 2-D, M-mode echocardiography and Doppler...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868165/serum-vitamin-d-level-at-icu-admission-and-mortality
#8
Hakan Korkut Atalan, Bülent Güçyetmez
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a major role in the regulation of bone and calcium metabolism and has effects on the immune and cardiovascular systems. Vitamin D deficiency is commonly seen in the general population as well as in critically ill patients and is reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Our aim was to determine the relationship between vitamin D level at ICU admission and mortality. METHODS: A total of 491 patients admitted to the ICU between January 2014 and January 2015 were evaluated retrospectively...
August 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868129/does-the-human-immune-system-ever-really-become-senescent
#9
REVIEW
Graham Pawelec
Like all somatic tissues, the human immune system changes with age. This is believed to result in an increased frequency of, and susceptibility to, infectious disease and to contribute to a wide range of non-communicable age-associated diseases in later life, especially cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmunity. The majority of studies addressing immune ageing has been cross-sectional, but limited longitudinal studies are contributing to a better understanding of age-associated changes, as opposed to differences, and their clinical relevance...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852965/traumatic-stress-and-accelerated-cellular-aging-from-epigenetics-to-cardiometabolic-disease
#10
REVIEW
Erika J Wolf, Filomene G Morrison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on traumatic stress-related accelerated aging, including a focus on cellular mechanisms and biomarkers of cellular aging and on the clinical manifestations of accelerated biological aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple lines of research converge to suggest that PTSD is associated with accelerated aging in the epigenome, and the immune and inflammation systems, and this may be reflected in premature onset of cardiometabolic and cardiovascular disease...
August 29, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837372/update-upon-efficacy-and-safety-of-etanercept-for-the-treatment-of-spondyloarthritis-and-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#11
Giuseppe Murdaca, Simone Negrini, Ottavia Magnani, Elena Penza, Marco Pellecchio, Rossella Gulli, Paola Mandich, Francesco Puppo
TNF-α inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy both as monotherapy and in combination with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in the treatment of chronic inflammatory immune-mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriasis (Ps) and/or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and may be administered off-label to treat disseminated granuloma annulare, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. There are several TNF-α inhibitors available for clinical use including infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, certolizumab pegol and etanercept...
August 24, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832367/cardiovascular-disease-risk-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-north-america-and-europe
#12
Lauren Stone, Sara E Looby, Markella V Zanni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the epidemiology and mechanistic underpinnings of heightened cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in North America and Europe. RECENT FINDINGS: WLHIV in North America and Europe exhibit high CVD incidence rates, which are at par with those of compatriot men living with HIV. Compared with uninfected women, WLHIV in these regions face a 2-4-fold increased relative risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831714/omega-3-fatty-acid-levels-in-red-blood-cell-membranes-and-physical-decline-over-3%C3%A2-years-longitudinal-data-from-the-mapt-study
#13
Bertrand Fougère, Sabine Goisser, Christelle Cantet, Gaëlle Soriano, Sophie Guyonnet, Philipe De Souto Barreto, Matteo Cesari, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
Studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with brain, cardiovascular, and immune function, as well as physical performance and bone health in older adults. So far, few studies have investigated the associations between PUFA status and performance-based tests of physical function. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the omega-3 PUFA levels (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) in red blood cell (RBC) membranes and physical performance, in a sample of community-dwelling older adults...
August 22, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817863/prevention-detection-and-management-of-diabetes-in-south-dakota
#14
Amy L Hogue, Mark K Huntington
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence nationwide and in South Dakota, with an especially high prevalence in its American Indian population. Screening is not recommended for type 1 DM, but is for type 2 DM and pre-diabetes in certain populations. Fasting glucose, two-hour glucose tolerance test, or hemoglobin A1c are appropriate screening options. Treatment can include diabetic self-management education programs and medications. In addition to glycemic control, other cardiovascular risk factors must be reduced in these patients and specific testing and consultations should be performed to detect complications such as nephropathy or retinopathy...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814614/role-of-inactivity-in-chronic-diseases-evolutionary-insight-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Frank W Booth, Christian K Roberts, John P Thyfault, Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch
This review proposes that physical inactivity could be considered a behavior selected by evolution for resting, and also selected to be reinforcing in life-threatening situations in which exercise would be dangerous. Underlying the notion are human twin studies and animal selective breeding studies, both of which provide indirect evidence for the existence of genes for physical inactivity. Approximately 86% of the 325 million in the United States (U.S.) population achieve less than the U.S. Government and World Health Organization guidelines for daily physical activity for health...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811294/dihydrocapsiate-improved-age-associated-impairments-in-mice-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#16
Kana Ohyama, Katsuya Suzuki
Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807722/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-is-not-associated-with-a-history-of-reproductive-risk-factors-in-women-with-angina-pectoris-an-ipower-substudy
#17
Hannah Elena Suhrs, Anna Meta Kristensen, Anna Bay Rask, Marie Mide Michelsen, Daria Frestad, Naja Dam Mygind, Kira Bové, Eva Prescott
BACKGROUND: Reproductive risk factors such as preeclampsia and recurrent miscarriages have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. Underlying coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) may be a common denominator. PURPOSE: We investigated whether a history of reproductive risk factors was associated with CMD in women with angina pectoris and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Participants from the iPOWER study, including women with angina pectoris and no obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis), were invited to complete an electronic survey regarding reproductive risk factors: recurrent miscarriages, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, rhesus immunity, polycystic ovary syndrome and menopausal status as well as migraine and Raynaud phenomenon...
August 11, 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804509/lifetime-stress-exposure-and-health-a-review-of-contemporary-assessment-methods-and-biological-mechanisms
#18
Grant S Shields, George M Slavich
Life stress is a central construct in health research because it is associated with increased risk for a variety of serious mental and physical health problems, including anxiety disorders, depression, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disorders, Alzheimer's disease, certain cancers, and other diseases of aging. In this review, we examine how lifetime stress exposure contributes to elevated disease risk, and explore ongoing measurement and scientific issues related to this topic. To accomplish these goals, we first review existing instruments that have been developed for assessing perceived stress, self-reported life events, interviewer-assessed life stressors, and lifetime stress exposure...
August 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801523/dietary-modulation-of-oxylipins-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-aging
#19
Stephanie P B Caligiuri, Mihir Parikh, Aleksandra Stamenkovic, Grant N Pierce, Harold M Aukema
Oxylipins are a group of fatty acid metabolites generated via oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and are involved in processes such as inflammation, immunity, pain, vascular tone and coagulation. As a result, oxylipins are implicated in many conditions characterized by these processes including cardiovascular disease and aging. The best characterized oxylipins in relation to cardiovascular disease are derived from the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid. These oxylipins generally increase inflammation, hypertension and platelet aggregation, although not universally...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799997/epidemiology-of-ischemic-heart-disease-in-hiv
#20
Virginia A Triant, Steven K Grinspoon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize and synthesize recent data on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in HIV-infected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies in the field demonstrate an increasing impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality in HIV relative to AIDS-related diagnoses. Studies continue to support an approximately 1.5 to two-fold increased risk of IHD conferred by HIV, with specific risk varying by sex and virologic/immunologic status...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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