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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416296/hiv-infection-and-aortic-stiffness
#1
REVIEW
Luisa Helena Maia Leite, Ariel Cohen, Franck Boccara
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and receiving antiretroviral therapy now have the same life expectancy as the general population. However, they have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events because of a complex and polyfactorial vasculopathy, combining the effects of antiretroviral therapy, the HIV virus itself, immune activation, chronic inflammation and metabolic disturbances. Whether people living with HIV infection experience increased vascular aging compared with the general population remains controversial...
April 14, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406804/subjective-general-health-and-the-social-regulation-of-hypothalamic-activity
#2
Casey L Brown, Lane Beckes, Joseph P Allen, James A Coan
OBJECTIVE: Social support is associated with better health. This association may be partly mediated through the social regulation of adrenomedullary activity related to poor cardiovascular health and glucocorticoid activity known to inhibit immune functioning. These physiological cascades originate in the hypothalamic areas that are involved in the neural response to threat. We investigated whether the down regulation, by social support, of hypothalamic responses to threat is associated with better subjective health...
April 12, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403789/metaflammation-tissue-specific-alterations-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-platform
#3
Raffaella Mastrocola, Manuela Aragno, Giuseppe Alloatti, Massimo Collino, Claudia Penna, Pasquale Pagliaro
In the last decades, the extension of life expectancy and the increased consumption of foods rich in saturated fats and added sugars have exposed the general population to emerging health problems. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), composed of a cluster of factors as obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension, is rapidly increasing in industrialized and developing countries leading to precocious onset of age-related diseases. Indeed, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts, and a chronic low-grade inflammation are common features of MS and physiological ageing...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396185/from-lymphopoiesis-to-plasma-cells-differentiation-the-age-related-modifications-of-b-cell-compartment-are-influenced-by-inflamm-ageing
#4
REVIEW
Matteo Bulati, Calogero Caruso, Giuseppina Colonna-Romano
Ageing is a complex process characterized by a general decline in physiological functions with increasing morbidity and mortality. The most important aspect of ageing is the chronic inflammatory status, named "inflamm-ageing", strictly associated with the deterioration of the immune function, termed "immunosenescence". Both are causes of increased susceptibility of elderly to infectious diseases, cancer, dementia, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmunity, and of a decreased response to vaccination. It has been widely demonstrated that ageing has a strong impact on the remodelling of the B cell branch of immune system...
April 7, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390264/selected-life-extending-interventions-reduce-arterial-cxcl10-and-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-in-aged-mouse-arteries
#5
Daniel W Trott, Lisa A Lesniewski, Anthony J Donato
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Aging is the most predictive risk factor for CVD and is associated with arterial inflammation which contributes to increased CVD risk. Although age-related arterial inflammation has been described in both humans and animals, only a limited number of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines have been identified. In this investigation we sought to determine whether lifespan extending interventions, including crowded litter early life nutrient deprivation (CL), traditional lifelong caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong Rapamycin treatment (Rap) would attenuate age-related arterial inflammation using multi analyte profiling...
April 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387721/dietary-sources-and-bioactivities-of-melatonin
#6
REVIEW
Xiao Meng, Ya Li, Sha Li, Yue Zhou, Ren-You Gan, Dong-Ping Xu, Hua-Bin Li
Insomnia is a serious worldwide health threat, affecting nearly one third of the general population. Melatonin has been reported to improve sleep efficiency and it was found that eating melatonin-rich foods could assist sleep. During the last decades, melatonin has been widely identified and qualified in various foods from fungi to animals and plants. Eggs and fish are higher melatonin-containing food groups in animal foods, whereas in plant foods, nuts are with the highest content of melatonin. Some kinds of mushrooms, cereals and germinated legumes or seeds are also good dietary sources of melatonin...
April 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380480/hemodialysis-patients-display-a-declined-proportion-of-th2-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-parallel-with-a-high-interferon-%C3%AE-profile
#7
Ladan Mansouri, Anna Nopp, Stefan H Jacobson, Britta Hylander, Joachim Lundahl
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and infections in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) arises partly due to a high inflammatory state and aberrations in immune cells function. Following in vitro stimulation of leukocytes with different T-cell mitogens, we observed a lower level of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10 production in CKD patients. To gain more knowledge as to whether this is the result of an alteration in T-cell function, we investigated the T-cell subsets profile and cytokine production in hemodialysis patients...
April 6, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372498/innate-immune-function-and-organ-failure-recovery-in-adults-with-sepsis
#8
Aline B Maddux, Terra D Hiller, Katherine H Overdier, Laura L Pyle, Ivor S Douglas
PURPOSE: Sepsis stimulates pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses. The innate immune response is critical to organ injury repair. We tested for an association between innate immune function and organ function recovery in a prospective cohort of immune-competent adults with sepsis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study enrolling immune-competent adults with sepsis. We tested innate immune function by quantification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α production capacity in whole blood samples on hospital days 1, 4, and 6...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364472/transcriptional-signatures-of-sleep-duration-discordance-in-monozygotic-twins
#9
N F Watson, D Buchwald, J J Delrow, W A Altemeier, M V Vitiello, A I Pack, M Bamshad, C Noonan, S A Gharib
Introduction: Habitual short sleep duration is associated with adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory effects. Co-twin study methodologies account for familial (eg, genetics and shared environmental) confounding, allowing assessment of subtle environmental effects, such as the effect of habitual short sleep duration on gene expression. Therefore, we investigated gene expression in monozygotic twins discordant for actigraphically phenotyped habitual sleep duration. Methods: Eleven healthy monozygotic twin pairs (82% female; mean age 42...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346348/vitamin-d-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis-patients
#10
REVIEW
Guillaume Jean, Jean Claude Souberbielle, Charles Chazot
Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL) are common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or undergoing dialysis. In addition to nutritional and sunlight exposure deficits, factors that affect vitamin D deficiency include race, sex, age, obesity and impaired vitamin D synthesis and metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)₂D levels also decrease progressively because of 25(OH)D deficiency, together with impaired availability of 25(OH)D by renal proximal tubular cells, high fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and decreased functional renal tissue...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342757/role-of-enzymatic-free-radical-scavengers-in-management-of-oxidative-stress-in-autoimmune-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Shikha Srivastava, Deependra Singh, Satish Patel, Manju R Singh
Autoimmune disorders are distinct with over production and accumulation of free radicals due to its undisclosed genesis. The cause of numerous disorders as cancer, arthritis, psoriasis, diabetes, alzheimer's, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's, respiratory distress syndrome, colitis, crohn's, pulmonary fibrosis, obesity and ageing have been associated with immune dysfunction and oxidative stress. In an oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species generally provoke the series of oxidation at cellular level. The buildup of free radicals in turn triggers various inflammatory cells causing release of various inflammatory interleukins, cytokines, chemokines, and tumor necrosis factors which mediate signal transduction and transcription pathways as nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340138/a-life-without-worms
#12
Richard E Sanya, Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Irene Andia Biraro, Harriet Mpairwe, Alison M Elliott
Worms have co-evolved with humans over millions of years. To survive, they manipulate host systems by modulating immune responses so that they cause (in the majority of hosts) relatively subtle harm. Anthelminthic treatment has been promoted as a measure for averting worm specific pathology and to mitigate subtle morbidities which may include effects on anaemia, growth, cognitive function and economic activity. With our changing environment marked by rapid population growth, urbanisation, better hygiene practices and anthelminthic treatment, there has been a decline in worm infections and other infectious diseases and a rise in non-communicable diseases such as allergy, diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
March 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336558/remnant-cholesterol-elicits-arterial-wall-inflammation-and-a-multilevel-cellular-immune-response-in-humans
#13
Sophie J Bernelot Moens, Simone L Verweij, Johan G Schnitzler, Lotte C A Stiekema, Merijn Bos, Anne Langsted, Carlijn Kuijk, Siroon Bekkering, Carlijn Voermans, Hein J Verberne, Børge G Nordestgaard, Erik S G Stroes, Jeffrey Kroon
OBJECTIVE: Mendelian randomization studies revealed a causal role for remnant cholesterol in cardiovascular disease. Remnant particles accumulate in the arterial wall, potentially propagating local and systemic inflammation. We evaluated the impact of remnant cholesterol on arterial wall inflammation, circulating monocytes, and bone marrow in patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD). APPROACH AND RESULTS: Arterial wall inflammation and bone marrow activity were measured using (18)F-FDG PET/CT...
March 23, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335517/state-of-the-art-on-functional-virgin-olive-oils-enriched-with-bioactive-compounds-and-their-properties
#14
REVIEW
Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez, María Figueiredo-González, Carmen González-Barreiro, Jesús Simal-Gándara, María Desamparados Salvador, Beatriz Cancho-Grande, Giuseppe Fregapane
Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food-as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)-due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316603/dose-dependent-induction-of-an-idiotypic-cascade-by-anti-glycosaminoglycan-monoclonal-antibody-in-apoe-mice-association-with-atheroprotection
#16
Roger Sarduy, Victor Brito, Adriana Castillo, Yosdel Soto, Tania Griñán, Sylvie Marleau, Ana María Vázquez
Atherosclerosis, the underlying pathology of most cardiovascular diseases, is triggered by the retention of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins in the arterial wall through electrostatic interactions with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans. Previously, we reported the antiatherogenic properties of the chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) chP3R99-LALA, which binds sulfated GAGs, inhibits low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-chondroitin sulfate (CS) association, and abrogates LDL oxidation and foam cell formation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315111/neighborhood-socioeconomic-status-and-health-a-longitudinal-analysis
#17
Jennifer W Robinette, Susan T Charles, Tara L Gruenewald
Higher income neighborhoods are associated with better health, a relation observed in many cross-sectional studies. However, prior research focused on the prevalence of health conditions, and examining the incidence of new health conditions may provide stronger support for a potential causal role of neighborhoods on health. We used the 2004 and 2014 waves of the Midlife in the United States Study (n = 1726; ages 34-83) to examine health condition incidence as a function of neighborhood income. Among participants who had lived in the same neighborhood across the time period, we hypothesized that higher neighborhood income would be associated with a lower incidence of health conditions ten years later...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285606/the-importance-of-dietary-dha-and-ara-in-early-life-a-public-health-perspective
#18
Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
Although the literature on the contribution of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) to fundamental metabolic functions in brain, immune and cardiovascular systems is extensive, there is a lack of consensus on the need for explicit recommendations on dietary intake for both DHA and ARA during the early years of life. This review takes a public health perspective with the objective of ensuring that recommendations protect the most vulnerable children worldwide. Most studies on the effects of DHA and ARA in early life have been undertaken in high-income countries and this is reflected in policy recommendations...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282521/surgical-site-infections-in-patients-receiving-osteomyocutaneous-free-flaps-to-the-head-and-neck-does-choice-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-matter
#19
James Murphy, Amal Isaiah, Donita Dyalram, Joshua E Lubek
PURPOSE: The most appropriate prophylactic antibiotic for clean-and-contaminated head and neck osteomyocutaneous free flap (OFF) tissue transfer procedures is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the choice of perioperative antibiotic was related to recipient surgical site infection (SSI) in patients receiving an OFF to the head and neck. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated SSI in relation to the perioperative antibiotic received from July 2010 through October 2013 at a tertiary care medical center...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281838/diagnostic-function-of-the-neuroinflammatory-biomarker-ykl-40-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista, Enrica Cavedo, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Harald Hampel
Neuroinflammation is a crucial mechanism in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases pathophysiology. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) YKL-40 - an indicator of microglial activation - has recently been identified by proteomic studies as a candidate biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Areas covered: We review the impact of CSF YKL-40 as a pathophysiological biomarker for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. CSF YKL-40 concentrations have been shown to predict progression from prodromal mild cognitive impairment to AD dementia...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
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