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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918411/combining-cd4-recovery-and-cd4-cd8-ratio-restoration-as-an-indicator-for-evaluating-the-outcome-of-continued-antiretroviral-therapy-an-observational-cohort-study
#1
Shui Shan Lee, Ngai Sze Wong, Bonnie Chun Kwan Wong, Ka Hing Wong, Kenny Chi Wai Chan
OBJECTIVES: Immune recovery following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is commonly assessed by the degree of CD4 reconstitution alone. In this study, we aimed to assess immune recovery by incorporating both CD4 count and CD4:CD8 ratio. DESIGN: Observational cohort study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Clinical data from Chinese HIV-positive patients attending the largest HIV service in Hong Kong and who had been on HAART for ≥4 years were accessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Optimal immune outcome was defined as a combination of a CD4 count ≥500/μL and a CD4:CD8 ratio ≥0...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918107/depression-evening-salivary-cortisol-and-inflammation-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-psychoneuroendocrinological-structural-regression-model
#2
Sara F Milrad, Daniel L Hall, Devika R Jutagir, Emily G Lattie, Sara J Czaja, Dolores M Perdomo, Mary Ann Fletcher, Nancy Klimas, Michael H Antoni
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a poorly understood illness that is characterized by diverse somatic symptoms, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and heightened inflammatory indicators. These symptoms are often exacerbated and accompanied by psychological distress states and depression. Since depression is known to be associated with HPA axis dysfunction and greater inflammation, a psychoneuroendocrinological (PNE) model of inflammation was examined in persons diagnosed with CFS in order to uncover underlying biopsychosocial mechanisms in this poorly understood chronic illness...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918072/development-of-a-duplex-semi-nested-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-classical-goose-parvovirus-and-novel-goose-parvovirus-related-virus-in-sick-or-dead-ducks-with-short-beak-and-dwarfism-syndrome
#3
Pengfei Li, Ruihua Zhang, Junhao Chen, Dapeng Sun, Jingjing Lan, Shaoli Lin, Shasha Song, Zhijing Xie, Shijin Jiang
Duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) in China. Until now, it remains uncertain whether the Cherry Valley ducks and mule ducks with SBDS are co-infected with classical goose parvovirus (GPV) and NGPV. In this study, a duplex semi-nested PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity was developed for detection of the two viruses. Using the duplex PCR assay, NGPV was tested positive in all the 15 duck flocks with SBDS, whereas classical GPV was not detected in all the 133 sick and dead ducks collected from East China...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917662/successful-optic-nerve-regeneration-in-the-senescent-zebrafish-despite-age-related-decline-of-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-response-processes
#4
Jessie Van Houcke, Ilse Bollaerts, Emiel Geeraerts, Benjamin Davis, An Beckers, Inge Van Hove, Kim Lemmens, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases or after brain lesions seriously affects life quality of a growing number of elderly, since the adult CNS lacks the capacity to replace or repair damaged neurons. Despite intensive research efforts, full functional recovery after CNS disease and/or injury remains challenging, especially in an aging environment. As such, there is a rising need for an aging model in which the impact of aging on successful regeneration can be studied...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917536/birth-outcomes-following-immunization-of-pregnant-women-with-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-vaccine-2009-2010
#5
Abigail Eaton, Ned Lewis, Bruce Fireman, John Hansen, Roger Baxter, Julianne Gee, Nicola P Klein
BACKGROUND: Following the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009, pregnant women were recommended to receive both seasonal (TIV) and H1N1 influenza vaccines. This study presents incidence of adverse birth and pregnancy outcomes among a population of pregnant women immunized with TIV and H1N1 vaccines at Kaiser Permanente Northern California during 2009-2010. METHODS: We telephone surveyed pregnant Kaiser Permanente Northern California members to assess non-medically-attended reactions following H1N1, TIV or both vaccines during 2009-2010 (n=5365) in a separate study...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917313/field-evaluation-of-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae-native-and-recombinant-prototype-vaccines
#6
Kathryn Bartley, Frank Turnbull, Harry W Wright, John F Huntley, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Mintu Nath, Alasdair J Nisbet
Vaccination is a desirable emerging strategy to combat poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae. We performed trials, in laying hens in a commercial-style cage facility, to test the vaccine efficacy of a native preparation of soluble mite extract (SME) and of a recombinant antigen cocktail vaccine containing bacterially-expressed versions of the immunogenic SME proteins Deg-SRP-1, Deg-VIT-1 and Deg-PUF-1. Hens (n=384 per group) were injected with either vaccine or adjuvant only (control group) at 12 and 17 weeks of age and then challenged with PRM 10days later...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916968/hmgb-proteins-and-arthritis
#7
REVIEW
Noboru Taniguchi, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Ikuro Maruyama, Martin Lotz
The high-mobility group box (HMGB) family includes four members: HMGB1, 2, 3 and 4. HMGB proteins have two functions. In the nucleus, HMGB proteins bind to DNA in a DNA structure-dependent but nucleotide sequence-independent manner to function in chromatin remodeling. Extracellularly, HMGB proteins function as alarmins, which are endogenous molecules released upon tissue damage to activate the immune system. HMGB1 acts as a late mediator of inflammation and contributes to prolonged and sustained systemic inflammation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis...
September 15, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916903/merkel-cell-carcinoma-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Teresa Amaral, Ulrike Leiter, Claus Garbe
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer with a neuroendocrine phenotype. Incidence varies according to the geographic regions but is overall increasing. Different risk factors have been identified namely advanced age, immunosuppression, and ultraviolet light exposure. An association between MCC and polyomavirus infection is known. However, the exact mechanism that leads to carcinogenesis is yet to be fully understood. Surgery when feasible is the recommended treatment for localized disease, followed by adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation...
September 16, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916245/tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-during-pregnancy-and-reduced-risk-of-infant-acute-respiratory-infections
#9
Zeina G Khodr, Anna T Bukowinski, Gia R Gumbs, Ava Marie S Conlin
BACKGROUND: To protect infants from pertussis infection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends women receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy. Here, we assessed the association between timing of maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants <2months of age. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 99,434 infants born to active duty military women in the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry from 2006 through 2013...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916001/giardia-and-cryptosporidium-infections-in-neonatal-reindeer-calves-relation-to-the-acute-phase-response
#10
Tarmo Niine, Kristel Peetsalu, Mauri Nieminen, Antti Oksanen, Timo Soveri, Toomas Orro
This longitudinal observational study was conducted to investigate the spontaneous effect of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections on acute phase response (APR) in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Finnish Lapland. Serum (n=609) and faecal samples (n=366) were collected from 54 reindeer calves aged zero to 33days. The samples were analysed for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, acute phase proteins (APP) and γ-globulins. Linear regression models were used to investigate associations of early Giardia infection (before 12days of life) with the response of APPs and acquiring of passive immunity...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915402/complete-immunization-coverage-and-its-determinants-among-children-in-malaysia-findings-from-the-national-health-and-morbidity-survey-nhms-2016
#11
K K Lim, Y Y Chan, A Noor Ani, J Rohani, Z A Siti Norfadhilah, M R Santhi
OBJECTIVES: The success of the Expanded Program on Immunization among children will greatly reduce the burden of illness and disability from vaccine preventable diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the complete immunization coverage and its determinants among children aged 12-23 months in Malaysia. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data on immunization were extracted from the 2016 National Health and Morbidity Survey...
September 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915332/obesity-and-cardiometabolic-defects-in-heart-failure-pathology
#12
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain
Obesity is a major global epidemic that sets the stage for diverse multiple pathologies, including cardiovascular disease. The obesity-related low-grade chronic inflamed milieu is more pronounced in aging and responsive to cardiac dysfunction in heart failure pathology. Metabolic dysregulation of obesity integrates with immune reservoir in spleen and kidney network. Therefore, an integrative systems biology approach is necessary to delay progressive cardiac alternations. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to largely discuss the impact of obesity on the cardiovascular pathobiology in the context of problems and challenges, with major emphasis on the diversified models, and to study cardiac remodeling in obesity...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#13
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915134/vitamin-d-in-obesity
#14
Jennifer S Walsh, Simon Bowles, Amy L Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and may also have important functions in immunity and other systems. Vitamin D deficiency is common, and testing and supplementation is increasing. Serum vitamin D is lower in obese people; it is important to understand the mechanism of this effect and whether it indicates clinically significant deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D is fat soluble, and distributed into fat, muscle, liver, and serum. All of these compartments are increased in volume in obesity, so the lower vitamin D likely reflects a volumetric dilution effect and whole body stores of vitamin D may be adequate...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914852/-efficiency-of-immunosuppressive-therapy-in-virus-negative-and-virus-positive-patients-with-morphologically-verified-lymphocytic-myocarditis
#15
O V Blagova, A V Nedostup, E A Kogan, V A Sulimov
AIM: To evaluate the efficiency of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) in virus-negative (V-) and virus-positive (V+) patients with lymphocytic myocarditis (LM). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 60 patients (45 males) (mean age 46.7±11.8 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy (mean left ventricular (LV) end diastolic size (EDS) 6.7±0.7 cm; ejection fraction (EF) 26.2±9.1%) were examined. The diagnosis of active/borderline LM was verified by right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy in 38 patients, by intraoperative LV biopsy in 10, in the study of explanted hearts from 3 patients and at autopsy in 9...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914199/clinical-applications-of-intravenous-immunoglobulins-in-child-neurology
#16
Maria Gogou, Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki, Martha Spilioti, Sofia Alataki, Athanasios Evangeliou
BACKGROUND: While there are guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins in children with Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis based on high-level evidence studies, data is fewer for the majority of neurologic disorders in this age group. Neuronal antibodies are detected in children with seizures of autoimmune etiology. Intravenous immunoglobulins with their broad immunomodulatory mechanism of action could be ideally effective in different forms of immune-dysregulated intractable epilepsies such as autoimmune epilepsy and autoimmune Rasmussen encephalitis...
September 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913693/human-papillomavirus-genotype-distribution-in-cervical-samples-among-vaccine-na%C3%A3-ve-barbados-women
#17
Juann M Ward, Kolin Schmalenberg, Nick A Antonishyn, Ian R Hambleton, Elizabeth L Blackman, Paul N Levett, Marquita V Gittens-St Hilaire
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to provide baseline HPV genotype distribution among women in Barbados before HPV immunization was introduced. This information would then be used as a denominator for post-vaccine surveillance and is expected to aid in understanding the effect of vaccination on cervical disease in Barbados. METHODS: Liquid-based cytology specimens were collected from 413 women (age range 18-65 years) attending three clinics, in a pre-vaccination, population-based study...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912767/shifts-in-host-mucosal-innate-immune-function-are-associated-with-ruminal-microbial-succession-in-supplemental-feeding-and-grazing-goats-at-different-ages
#18
Jinzhen Jiao, Chuanshe Zhou, L L Guan, C S McSweeney, Shaoxun Tang, Min Wang, Zhiliang Tan
Gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in regulating host mucosal innate immune function. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that age (non-rumination, transition and rumination) and feeding type [Supplemental feeding (S) vs. Grazing (G)] could alter ruminal microbial diversity and maturation of host mucosal innate immune system in goat kids. MiSeq sequencing was applied to investigate ruminal microbial composition and diversity, and RT-PCR was used to test expression of immune-related genes in ruminal mucosa...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912592/accurate-immune-repertoire-sequencing-reveals-malaria-infection-driven-antibody-lineage-diversification-in-young-children
#19
Ben S Wendel, Chenfeng He, Mingjuan Qu, Di Wu, Stefany M Hernandez, Ke-Yue Ma, Eugene W Liu, Jun Xiao, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce, Pengyu Ren, Keke Chen, Ning Jiang
Accurately measuring antibody repertoire sequence composition in a small amount of blood is challenging yet important for understanding repertoire responses to infection and vaccination. We develop molecular identifier clustering-based immune repertoire sequencing (MIDCIRS) and use it to study age-related antibody repertoire development and diversification before and during acute malaria in infants (< 12 months old) and toddlers (12-47 months old) with 4-8 ml of blood. Here, we show this accurate and high-coverage repertoire-sequencing method can use as few as 1000 naive B cells...
September 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#20
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n=30) and age-matched singletons (n=14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
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