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journal of neuroinflammation

W Richard Bevan-Jones, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Luca Passamonti, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Robert Arnold, Elijah Mak, Li Su, Jonathan P Coles, Tim D Fryer, Young T Hong, Guy Williams, Franklin Aigbirhio, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation of the central nervous system is increasingly regarded as having a role in cognitive disorders such as dementia and depression, but it is not clear how such inflammation relates to other aspects of neuropathology, structural and functional changes in the brain and symptoms (as assessed via clinical and neuropsychological assessment and MRI). This study will explore these pathophysiological mechanisms using positron emission tomography (PET) which allows in vivo imaging of inflammation, amyloid and τ deposition, together with neuropsychological profiling, MRI and peripheral biomarker analysis...
January 7, 2017: BMJ Open
Fan Liao, Hyejin Yoon, Jungsu Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APOE4 genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Prevailing evidence suggests that amyloid β plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this article is to review the recent findings about the metabolism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and amyloid β and other possible mechanisms by which ApoE contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoE isoforms have differential effects on amyloid β metabolism...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Giustino Varrassi, Antonella Paladini
Professor Giustino Varrassi and Antonella Paladini speak to Jade Parker, Commissioning Editor: Professor Giustino Varrassi is Full Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine in the LUdeS University, Valletta, Malta. He graduated at the Medical School of the University 'La Sapienza' (Rome, Italy) in 1973, and became board certified in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care in 1976 and in Pneumology in 1978, both in the same Medical School. He is currently President of the European League Against Pain and of the Paolo Procacci Foundation, and is a founding member of both of these...
January 2017: Pain Management
Gregory B Potter, Magdalena A Petryniak
Neuroinflammation, activation of innate immune components of the nervous system followed by an adaptive immune response, is observed in most leukodystrophies and coincides with white matter pathology, disease progression, and morbidity. Despite this, there is a major gap in our knowledge of the contribution of the immune system to disease phenotype. Inflammation in Krabbe's disease has been considered a secondary effect, resulting from cell-autonomous oligodendroglial cell death or myelin loss resulting from psychosine accumulation...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Datis Kharrazian, Aristo Vojdani
Evidence continues to increase linking autoimmunity and other complex diseases to the chemicals commonly found in our environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic monomer used widely in many forms, from food containers to toys, medical products and many others. The potential for BPA to participate as a triggering agent for autoimmune diseases is likely due to its known immunological influences. The goal of this research was to determine if immune reactivity to BPA has any correlation with neurological antibodies...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Andreas Buck, Clemens Decristoforo
The EANM 2015 Annual Congress, held from October 10th to 14th in Hamburg, Germany, was outstanding in many respects. With 5550 participants, this was by far the largest European congress concerning nuclear medicine. More than 1750 scientific presentations were submitted, with more than 250 abstracts from young scientists, indicating that the future success of our discipline is fuelled by a high number of young individuals becoming involved in a multitude of scientific activities. Significant improvements have been made in molecular imaging of cancer, particularly in prostate cancer...
September 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sue T Griffin, Robert E Mrak
The editors of Journal of Neuroinflammation would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 12 (2015).
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
C B Johnson, D D Jenkins, J P Bentzley, D Lambert, K Hope, L G Rollins, P S Morgan, T Brown, V Ramakrishnan, D M Mulvihill, L D Katikaneni
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate brain metabolites, which reflect neuroinflammation, and relate to neurodevelopmental outcomes in healthy term neonates exposed to chorioamnionitis. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-one healthy term neonates with documented fetal inflammatory response after maternal chorioamnionitis underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with voxels placed in basal ganglia (BG) and frontal white matter. Bayley III examinations were performed at 12 months of age...
December 2015: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Lin-Lin Jing, Xiao-Xia Zhu, Zhi-Ping Lv, Xue-Gang Sun
BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Xiaoyaosan (XYS) for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to review the studies on antidepressant mechanisms of XYS. METHODS: The China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (1998-2014), VIP Journal Integration Platform (1989-2009), and PubMed (1950-2014) were used to search for and collect scientific publications related to XYS and MDD. Clinical trials for "MDD" and "xiaoyao" were screened. Papers that used the original prescription of XYS for treatment and in combination with Western medicines were included, while papers describing modified XYS were excluded...
2015: Chinese Medicine
Limor Raz, Janice Knoefel, Kiran Bhaskar
The prevalence of dementia is increasing in our aging population at an alarming rate. Because of the heterogeneity of clinical presentation and complexity of disease neuropathology, dementia classifications remain controversial. Recently, the National Plan to address Alzheimer’s Disease prioritized Alzheimer’s disease-related dementias to include: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and mixed dementias. While each of these dementing conditions has their unique pathologic signature, one common etiology shared among all these conditions is cerebrovascular dysfunction at some point during the disease process...
January 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Shruti V Kabadi, Bogdan A Stoica, Danna B Zimmer, Lauriaselle Afanador, Kara B Duffy, David J Loane, Alan I Faden
Neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly recognized to contribute to chronic tissue loss and neurologic dysfunction. Circulating levels of S100B increase after TBI and have been used as a biomarker. S100B is produced by activated astrocytes and can promote microglial activation; signaling by S100B through interaction with the multiligand advanced glycation end product-specific receptor (AGER) has been implicated in brain injury and microglial activation during chronic neurodegeneration...
December 2015: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Slava Rom, Holly Dykstra, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Nancy L Reichenbach, Yuri Persidsky
Pathologic conditions in the central nervous system, regardless of the underlying injury mechanism, show a certain level of blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Endothelial dysfunction is the earliest event in the initiation of vascular damage caused by inflammation due to stroke, atherosclerosis, trauma, or brain infections. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of gene expression regulators. The relationship between neuroinflammation and miRNA expression in brain endothelium remains unexplored...
December 2015: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Jojanneke H J Huck, Dorette Freyer, Chotima Böttcher, Mihovil Mladinov, Claudia Muselmann-Genschow, Mareike Thielke, Nadine Gladow, Dana Bloomquist, Philipp Mergenthaler, Josef Priller
Dopamine is the predominant catecholamine in the brain and functions as a neurotransmitter. Dopamine is also a potent immune modulator. In this study, we have characterized the expression of dopamine receptors on murine microglia. We found that cultured primary microglia express dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5 receptors. We specifically focused on the D2 receptor (D2R), a major target of antipsychotic drugs. Whereas D2Rs were strongly expressed on striatal neurons in vivo, we did not detect any D2R expression on resident microglia in the healthy brains of wild-type mice or transgenic mice expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the Drd2 promoter...
November 2015: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Benjamin M Segal
FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells accumulate in the central nervous system (CNS) during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and have been shown to limit the extent of neuroinflammation and to facilitate clinical recovery. The recent demonstration that Treg cells lose FoxP3 expression and assume effector cell characteristics upon stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines has raised questions about their stability in the inflamed CNS. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, O'Connor et al...
May 2012: European Journal of Immunology
Tadafumi Kato
When papers published in highly-prestigious journals in 2010 and 2011 were categorized, the number of papers on genestic studies was found to be the largest, followed by papers on brain imaging, postmortem brain studies, and animal model studies. Follow-up studies of the findings of initial genome-wide association analyses constitute a major part of genetic studies. Recent brain imaging studies were found to integrate previous findings that indicated altered responces of prefrontal cortex to cognitive stimuli and enhanced responces of amygdala to emotional faces...
February 2012: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Mariko L Howe, Ben A Barres
Microglia are the abundant, resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that become rapidly activated in response to injury or inflammation. While most studies of microglia focus on this phenomenon, little is known about the function of 'resting' microglia, which possess fine, branching cellular processes. Biber and colleagues, in a recent paper in Journal of Neuroinflammation, report that ramified microglia can limit excitotoxicity, an important insight for understanding mechanisms that limit neuron death in CNS disease...
2012: BMC Biology
James P O'Callaghan, Krishnan Sriram, Diane B Miller
Neuroinflammation is a hot topic in contemporary neuroscience. A relatively new open-access journal, the Journal of Neuroinflammation, focuses on this field. As another example, abstracts to the 2007 Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience could be submitted in several subcategories of neuroinflammation, a strong signal of growth in this research area. While it is becoming clear that activation of microglia and astroglia and the attendant expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines often are associated with disease-, trauma-, and toxicant-induced damage to the CNS, it is by no means clear that a cause-and-effect relationship exists between the presence of a neuroinflammatory process and neural damage...
October 2008: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Mengzhou Xue, V Wee Yong
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to review the role of matrix metalloproteinases in intracerebral hemorrhage, which is associated with hypertension, head trauma and premature birth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search of literature pertaining to this study was conducted in April 2008 using specific keyword search terms pertaining to intracerebral hemorrhage and matrix metalloproteinases. Some papers are not cited here as it is not possible to be all inclusive or due to the space limit from the journal...
October 2008: Neurological Research
Robert E Mrak, W Sue T Griffin
Journal of Neuroinflammation is an Open Access, online journal published by BioMed Central. Open Access publishing provides instant and universal availability of published work to any potential reader, worldwide, completely free of subscriptions, passwords, and charges. Further, authors retain copyright for their work, facilitating its dissemination. Open Access publishing is made possible by article-processing charges assessed "on the front end" to authors, their institutions, or their funding agencies. Beginning November 1, 2004, the Journal of Neuroinflammation will introduce article-processing charges of around US$525 for accepted articles...
14, 2004: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Robert E Mrak, W Sue T Griffin
Welcome to the Journal of Neuroinflammation, an open-access, peer-reviewed, online journal that focuses on innate immunological responses of the central nervous system, involving microglia, astrocytes, cytokines, chemokines, and related molecular processes. 'Neuroinflammation' is an encapsulization of the idea that microglial and astrocytic responses and actions in the central nervous system have a fundamentally inflammation-like character, and that these responses are central to the pathogenesis and progression of a wide variety of neurological disorders...
April 20, 2004: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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