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Paediatric obesity

S Oliveira, A K Samba, A J Towbin, A Gupta, J I Geller, J D Nathan, R Kohli
: Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign tumours with potential for malignant transformation with no recommendations regarding management in the paediatric population. We report a case of an inflammatory adenoma with β-catenin activated pathway in an obese, paediatric patient with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old female presented with a microlobulated liver lesion measuring >5 cm in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with inflammatory adenoma with β-catenin activated pathology arising in a background of NASH, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score 5/8...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
R Dorajoo, R T-H Ong, X Sim, L Wang, W Liu, E S Tai, J Liu, S-M Saw
INTRODUCTION: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 103 adult obesity risk loci; however, it is unclear if these findings are relevant to East-Asian childhood body mass index (BMI) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated for paediatric obesity associations at these risk loci utilizing genome-wide data from Chinese childhood subjects in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study (N = 1006). A weighted gene-risk score of all adult obesity risk loci in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia study showed strong associations with BMI at age 9 (p-value = 3...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Hong Ren, Zhixiong Zhou, Wenxi Kevin Liu, Xiujiang Wang, Zenong Yin
AIM: This study examined the relationships between energy balance-related behaviours outside school hours and obesity in Chinese primary school students. We also explored the influence of gender on those relationships. METHODS: The study sample was a cross-sectional cohort of 5,032 Chinese children who were enrolled in grades 1-6 in primary schools in five Chinese cities and whose mean ages ranged from 7.3 to 11.9 years. The children's parents completed a survey on their child's height, weight and energy balance-related behaviours outside school hours...
October 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Santhosh Kumar, Jeroen Kroon, Ratilal Lalloo, Suhas Kulkarni, Newell W Johnson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) with dental caries in Indian schoolchildren, and to analyse the influence of socio-economic status (SES). METHODS: The study population consisted of 11- to 14-year-old children from Medak District in Telangana State, India. The Indian Academy of Paediatrics 2015 growth charts were used to categorise children as underweight, overweight, normal or obese, based on their BMI. Data on the SES of the family were collected through questionnaires...
October 17, 2016: International Dental Journal
Elif Kilic, Ömer Faruk Özer, Aybala Erek Toprak, Hayriye Erman, Emel Torun, Sıddıka Kesgin Ayhan, Hifa Gülru Caglar, Sahbettin Selek, Abdurrahim Kocyigit
BACKGROUND Childhood obesity characterized by excessive fat in the body is one of the most serious health problems worldwide due to the social, medical, and physiological complications. Obesity and associated diseases are triggering factors for oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between childhood obesity and inflammatory and oxidative status. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-seven obese children and 37 healthy controls selected from among children admitted to BLIND University Paediatrics Department were included in the study...
October 13, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Bedowra Zabeen, Jebun Nahar, Samin Tayyeb, Fauzia Mohsin, Nazmun Nahar, Kishwar Azad
INTRODUCTION: Recent data show that the prevalence of diabetes among children and adolescents is increasing in some ethnic groups. The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth. METHODS: The aim of this study was to describe the baseline characteristics of children and adolescents diagnosed ≤18 years who had features of T2D and presented at Changing Diabetes in Children, Paediatric Diabetes Clinic at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation of Diabetes, Endocrine, and Metabolic Disorders...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Roya Kelishadi, Shirin Djalalinia, Mohammad Esmaiel Motlagh, Ali Rahimi, Maryam Bahreynian, Tahereh Arefirad, Gelayol Ardalan, Saeid Safiri, Motahare Hasani, Hamid Asayesh, Morteza Mansourian, Mostafa Qorbani
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the association of neck circumference (NC) with obesity to determine the sex-specific and age-specific optimal cut-off points of this measure in association with obesity in a national sample of the Iranian paediatric population. METHODS: This survey on weight disorders was conducted among a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years. Using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic curves, we evaluated the association of NC with general and abdominal obesity...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
Kung-Ting Kao, Matthew A Sabin
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents is increasing, mirroring the epidemic of paediatric obesity. Early-onset T2DM is associated with poor long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we describe the growing problem of early-onset T2DM in Australia, explore the difference between early-onset and adult-onset T2DM, and review the management of T2DM in children and adolescents. DISCUSSION: T2DM is difficult to differentiate from the more common type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in the paediatric population...
June 2016: Australian Family Physician
M M JaKa, J L Haapala, E S Trapl, A S Kunin-Batson, B A Olson-Bullis, W J Heerman, J M Berge, S M Moore, D Matheson, N E Sherwood
Behavioural interventions for paediatric obesity are promising, but detailed information on treatment fidelity (i.e. design, training, delivery, receipt and enactment) is needed to optimize the implementation of more effective interventions. Little is known about current practices for reporting treatment fidelity in paediatric obesity studies. This systematic review, in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, describes the methods used to report treatment fidelity in randomized controlled trials...
September 9, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
P C Thomas, L V Marino, S A Williams, R M Beattie
INTRODUCTION: Multiple nutritional risk assessment tools are available, but there are limited data on their application in the acute setting. We explored the validity of two tools in a tertiary Children's Hospital's acute unit and the cohort's nutritional status using WHO definitions. METHODS: Prospective study n=300 (median 38 months; 44.6% female; 25.7% ≤12 months). Participants had standard anthropometry measured, all were screened using the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP), the Paediatric Malnutrition Screening Tool (PMST) (modified STAMP) and 125 were additionally screened using the Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Screening (PYMS) tool...
September 8, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Rita Machaalani, Carla A Evans, Karen A Waters
PURPOSE: This study aimed to objectively measure adherence (compliance) and effectiveness of CPAP and BiLevel pressure support in an Australian paediatric population and determine factors associated with adherence outcomes. METHODS: Data was collected as part of routine clinical care from 2011 to 2013. Adherence was recorded by downloads from the PAP device. "Adequate" adherence was defined as ≥4 h/night for 70 % of days used. Effectiveness of therapy was measured by polysomnography (PSG) pre- and post-PAP initiation...
September 3, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Jenny Peplies, Claudia Börnhorst, Kathrin Günther, Arno Fraterman, Paola Russo, Toomas Veidebaum, Michael Tornaritis, Stefaan De Henauw, Staffan Marild, Dénes Molnar, Luis A Moreno, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: This study investigates prospective associations of anthropometrical and lifestyle indices with insulin resistance (IR) in European children from the IDEFICS cohort. Insulin resistance (IR) is a growing concern in childhood obesity and a central aspect of the metabolic syndrome (MS). It most likely represents the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 3348 preadolescent children aged 3 to 10.9 years from 8 European countries who were observed from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010...
2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Karin M Vissers, Edith J M Feskens, Johannes B van Goudoever, Arieke J Janse
BACKGROUND: In term infants, there is evidence that early complementary feeding is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Therefore, timely introduction of complementary feeding during infancy is necessary. The World Health Organization (WHO) and European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) both developed recommendations for the start of complementary feeding for term-born infants. However, these guidelines cannot be directly translated to preterm infants...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Fariba Ahmadizar, Susanne J H Vijverberg, Hubertus G M Arets, Anthonius de Boer, Jason E Lang, Meyer Kattan, Colin N A Palmer, Somnath Mukhopadhyay, Steve Turner, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee
To estimate the association between obesity and poor asthma control or risk of exacerbations in asthmatic children and adolescents, and to assess whether these associations are different by sex.A meta-analysis was performed on unpublished data from three North-European paediatric asthma cohorts (BREATHE, PACMAN (Pharmacogenetics of Asthma medication in Children: Medication with Anti-inflammatory effects) and PAGES (Pediatric Asthma Gene Environment Study)) and 11 previously published studies (cross-sectional and longitudinal studies)...
October 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Marianne Eg, Dina Cortes, Anders Johansen, Kirsten Frederiksen, Vibeke Lorentzen, Lone Marie Larsen, Jens-Christian Holm, Marianne Vámosi
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity has tripled over the past 30 years. One in five children in Denmark is overweight, a condition which is accompanied by serious medical and psychosocial complications. So far, an overview of the Danish treatment of childhood overweight and obesity has been lacking. METHODS: Telephone interviews with all Danish paediatric departments were conducted in 2014. The results, constituting a baseline, were analysed using the clinical guidelines for overweight and obesity published by the Danish Paediatric Society's Overweight Committee in 2015...
September 2016: Danish Medical Journal
John Porter, Joanne Blair, Richard J Ross
Cortisol has a distinct circadian rhythm with low concentrations at night, rising in the early hours of the morning, peaking on waking and declining over the day to low concentrations in the evening. Loss of this circadian rhythm, as seen in jetlag and shift work, is associated with fatigue in the short term and diabetes and obesity in the medium to long term. Patients with adrenal insufficiency on current glucocorticoid replacement with hydrocortisone have unphysiological cortisol concentrations being low on waking and high after each dose of hydrocortisone...
August 31, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Shaman Rajindrajith, Niranga Manjuri Devanarayana, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus Perera, Marc Alexander Benninga
Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a high prevalence (0.7%-29%) worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. Biopsychosocial risk factors such as psychological stress, poor dietary habits, obesity and child maltreatment are commonly identified predisposing factors for FC...
August 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Francesca Ferretti, Francesco Nicita, Andrea Vania, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
August 26, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
C Carriere, C Cabaussel, C Bader, P Barberger-Gateau, P Barat, H Thibault
AIM: The RePPOP Aquitaine network, which was established in south-west France to prevent and treat paediatric obesity, has developed a multidisciplinary approach based on multicomponent lifestyle interventions and family-based actions. This study assessed the impact of its care management programme and investigated the factors associated with better outcomes. METHODS: The impact of the RePPOP care management programme was assessed by changes in the body mass index (BMI) Z score, between baseline and the end-of-care management...
November 2016: Acta Paediatrica
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