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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505288/effect-of-different-antibiotics-on-biofilm-produced-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#1
María José González, Luciana Robino, Victoria Iribarnegaray, Pablo Zunino, Paola Scavone
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) occur frequently in children and women. Intracellular bacterial communities (IBC) and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli are risk factors for recurrence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different antibiotics on biofilms by E. coli strains isolated from children with UTI and to correlate virulence factors and IBC with biofilm formation. 116 E. coli strains were tested for biofilm formation using the crystal violet microplate technique. 58...
May 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498305/aminoglycosides-monotherapy-as-first-line-treatment-for-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-in-children
#2
Nora Poey, Fouad Madhi, Sandra Biscardi, Stéphane Béchet, Robert Cohen
We report a retrospective monocentric descripitive study performed in CHI Creteil for 20 months to describe the management and outcome of amikacin monotherapy as an alternative to third-generation cephalosporins for empiric treatment of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI) in children. Data were analyzed for 151 children, and 90 selected cases were classified as certain or highly probable FUTI. Escherichia coli infection was found in 89 cases. In all patients, fever was resolved within 72 hr after beginning amikacin treatment...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492106/higher-risk-of-revision-for-infection-using-systemic-clindamycin-prophylaxis-than-with-cloxacillin
#3
Otto Robertsson, Olof Thompson, Annette W-Dahl, Martin Sundberg, Lars Lidgren, Anna Stefánsdóttir
Background and purpose - Clindamycin has not been compared with other antibiotics for prophylaxis in arthroplasty. Since 2009, the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) has been collecting information on the prophylactic antibiotic regime used at every individual operation. In Sweden, when there is allergy to penicillin, clindamycin has been the recommended alternative. We examined whether there were differences in the rate of revision due to infection depending on which antibiotic was used as systemic prophylaxis...
May 11, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453710/prescription-of-antibiotics-to-pre-school-children-from-2005-to-2014-in-japan-a-retrospective-claims-database-study
#4
Satomi Yoshida, Masato Takeuchi, Koji Kawakami
Background: Antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed medications for children but inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is prevalent. The purpose of our study was to access the nationwide trend in antibiotic prescriptions, and to ascertain inappropriate prescribing for upper respiratory infections (URIs) in pre-school children in Japan. Methods: Data from the administrative claims database from 2005 January to 2014 September in Japan were examined. We identified outpatient antibiotic prescription claims and described prescription patterns of subjects who were followed from birth to 6 years of age...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450986/-major-sickle-cell-syndromes-and-infections-associated-with-this-condition-in-children-in-burkina-faso
#5
Sonia Douamba, Kisito Nagalo, Laure Tamini, Ismaël Traoré, Madibèlè Kam, Fla Kouéta, Diarra Yé
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to investigate infections in children with major sickle cell syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric descriptive retrospective hospital study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, over a ten-year period. All children with major sickle cell syndrome (homozygous SS and double heterozygous SC, SDPunjab, Sβ thalassemic, SOArab and SE) hospitalized for microbiologically confirmed infections were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-three patients met our inclusion criteria...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450951/characteristics-of-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-as-a-cause-of-neonatal-infection-in-shandong-china
#6
Yan Jin, Xiaofei Song, Yigang Liu, Yong Wang, Bingchang Zhang, Hui Fan, Chunhong Shao
The goal of the present study was to examine the characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as a cause of neonatal infection. A total of 37 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae-positive newborns hospitalized in Shandong Provincial Hospital, China between April 2011 and October 2013 were examined. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method and the Etest. Resistance genes were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were used to determine the genotypes and homology of these isolates...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443500/occurrence-of-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-clinical-isolates-of-proteus-species-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#7
Mohit Chaubey, Suchitra Shenoy
BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) are responsible for increased resistance to third generation cephalosporins. Proteus species is an important cause of both community acquired and nosocomial infections. The Proteus spp is usually susceptible to beta lactam drugs but there is progressive increase in beta lactam resistance and recently ESBLs are also fast spreading to this species. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to study ESBL production and occurrence of TEM, SHV and CTX M beta lactamases in clinical isolates of Proteus spp in a tertiary care centre...
April 25, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435019/epidemiology-and-trends-in-the-antibiotic-susceptibilities-of-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-patients-with-intra-abdominal-infections-in-the-asia-pacific-region-2010-2013
#8
Ya-Ting Chang, Geoffrey Coombs, Thomas Ling, V Balaji, Camilla Rodrigues, Hiroshige Mikamo, Min-Ja Kim, Datin Ganeswrie Rajasekaram, Myrna Mendoza, Thean Yen Tan, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Yuxing Ni, Weinman Barry, Yingchun Xu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Po-Ren Hsueh
This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in the Asia-Pacific region (APR) from 2010-2013. A total of 17 350 isolates were collected from 54 centres in 13 countries in the APR. The three most commonly isolated GNB were Escherichia coli (46.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%). Overall, the rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E...
June 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434558/resistance-profiles-and-risk-factors-of-resistant-microorganisms-in-bacteraemia-of-abdominal-origin
#9
J Martín Jaramago, R Armero Ibáñez, J J Camarena Miñana, M Morales Suárez-Varela
OBJECTIVE: The presence of resistant microorganisms is a major cause of failure in initial empirical antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the resistance profile of microorganisms that cause bacteraemia of abdominal origin and to identify whether the previous use of antibiotics and the place of acquisition of bacteraemia are risk factors associated with the presence of resistant organisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical, observational, epidemiological, retrospective cohort study was conducted with all the adult patients admitted to a university hospital from 2011-2013...
April 20, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431478/successful-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-meningitis-with-ampicillin-sulbactam-in-primary-hospital
#10
Leitao Sun, Xiaohong Wang, Zefu Li
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial infections, especially those due to multi-drug resistant strains, are increasingly detected. We want to find the effective treatment measures about multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections through this research. METHODOLOGY: The clinical features and the outcomes of twelve cases of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis treated with ampicillin sulbactam and intrathecal use of amikacin are reported in primary hospital...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421643/empiric-antibiotic-regimens-for-neonatal-sepsis-in-australian-and-new-zealand-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#11
Jeremy P Carr, David P Burgner, Rohan S Hardikar, Jim P Buttery
AIM: Neonatal sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and requires prompt empiric treatment. However, only a minority of babies who receive antibiotics for suspected sepsis have an infection. Antimicrobial exposure in infancy has important short- and long-term consequences. There is no consensus regarding empirical antimicrobial regimens. METHODS: The study included a survey of empiric antimicrobial regimens in all tertiary neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand in 2013-2014...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413862/a-simple-strategy-for-culturing-morphologically-conserved-rat-hypothalamic-tanycytes
#12
Pablo Nicolás De Francesco, Daniel Castrogiovanni, Maia Uriarte, Victoria Frassa, Francina Agosti, Jesica Raingo, Mario Perello
Hypothalamic tanycytes are specialized bipolar ependymal cells that line the floor of the third ventricle. Given their strategic location, tanycytes are believed to play several key functions including being a selective barrier and controlling the amount of hypothalamic-derived factors reaching the anterior pituitary. The in vitro culture of these cells has proved to be difficult. Here, we report an improved method for the generation of primary cultures of rat hypothalamic tanycytes. Ependymal cultures were derived from tissue dissected out of the median eminence region of 10-day-old rats and cultured in a chemically defined medium containing DMEM:F12, serum albumin, insulin, transferrin and the antibiotic gentamycin...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413497/antibiotic-de-escalation-principle-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-complicated-with-severe-pneumonia
#13
Baohong Xiao, Mei Wang, Xiaoling Hu, Jinfeng Li, Fangfang Wang, Jiaxing Sun
The present study investigated the clinical effect of antibiotic de-escalation therapy in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with severe pneumonia. According to the parity method of hospitalization number, 86 cases were selected and divided into the observation and control group with 43 cases each. Based on empirical antibiotic application, levofloxacin and cephalosporin antibiotics were used in the control group. After treatment for 3 days, the regimen was adjusted to antibiotics active against Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacteria such as the third or fourth generation cephalosporin antibiotics, combined with aminoglycoside, or macrolide antibiotics according to their effects...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397262/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-critical-tools-for-antibiotic-resistance-pattern
#14
REVIEW
Nagarajan Padmini, Antony Alex Kennedy Ajilda, Natesan Sivakumar, Gopal Selvakumar
Drug resistance is a phenomenon where by an organism becomes fully or partially resistant to drugs or antibiotics being used against it. Antibiotic resistance poses an exacting intimidation for people with underlying medical immune conditions or weakened immune systems. Infections caused by the enzyme extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing multi drug resistance (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae especially Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are resistant to a broad range of beta lactams, including third generation cephalosporins...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396027/risk-factors-for-community-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-children
#15
Daniel J Adams, Matthew D Eberly, Michael Rajnik, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the medication and other exposures associated with pediatric community-associated Clostridium difficile infections (CA-CDIs). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a case-control study using billing records from the US military health system database. CA-CDI cases included children 1-18 years of age with an outpatient International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic code for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) from 2001 to 2013...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385299/kick-the-bucket-one-hospital-system-s-journey-to-reduce-clostridium-difficile
#16
Molly Bridget Delaney
PROBLEM: Albert Einstein defines insanity as doing the same thing over again but expecting different results. Although the United States claims to reduce antibiotic abuse, practice strict isolation, and clean meticulously, the burden of Clostridium difficile outpaces goals. Unless innovative approaches are tried, we risk culling elderly, immunosuppressed, and otherwise debilitated populations. Emergency departments are a primary access point for patients who are unable to wait for primary care...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378152/-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-germany-what-is-the-current-situation
#17
F Maechler, C Geffers, F Schwab, L-A Peña Diaz, M Behnke, P Gastmeier
BACKGROUND: The frequency of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) is increasing in Germany and worldwide. OBJECTIVES: Presentation of MDRO resistance rates and prevalence in Germany MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results from the Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance (ARS) and Hospital Infection Surveillance Systems (Krankenhausinfektions-Surveillance-Systems, KISS) and from recent prevalence surveys are presented. RESULTS: MRSA-resistance rates and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have remained at a stable level over the last few years...
April 4, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372746/uptake-and-translocation-of-sulfamethazine-by-alfalfa-grown-under-hydroponic-conditions
#18
Sudarshan Kurwadkar, Garrett Struckhoff, Kameron Pugh, Om Singh
Antibiotics are routinely used in intensive animal agriculture operations collectively known as Concentrated Animal Feed Operations (CAFO) which include dairy, poultry and swine farms. Wastewater generated by CAFOs often contains low levels of antibiotics and is typically managed in an anaerobic lagoon. The objective of this research is to investigate the uptake and fate of aqueous sulfamethazine (SMN) antibiotic by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grass grown under hydroponic conditions. Uptake studies were conducted using hydroponically grown alfalfa in a commercially available nutrient solution supplemented with 10mg/L of SMN antibiotic...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369594/antibiotic-exposure-in-neonates-and-early-adverse-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Eirin Esaiassen, Jon Widding Fjalstad, Lene Kristine Juvet, John N van den Anker, Claus Klingenberg
Objectives: To systematically review and meta-analyse the relationship between antibiotic exposure in neonates and the following early adverse outcomes: necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and/or death. Methods: Data sources were PubMed, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane Database (to December 2016), supplemented by manual searches of reference lists. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included if they provided data on different categories of antibiotic exposures (yes versus no, long versus short duration, and/or broad- versus narrow-spectrum regimens) and the risk of developing NEC, IFI and/or death in the neonatal period...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365324/clinical-features-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-important-enterobacteriaceae-pathogens-in-guangzhou-representative-of-southern-china-2001-2015
#20
Jinhong Xie, Brian M Peters, Bing Li, Lin Li, Guangchao Yu, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff
OBJECT: This surveillance aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterobacteriaceae pathogens in Southern China during 2001-2015. METHODS: A total of 6858 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected, including 4276 E. coli, 1992 K. pneumoniae and 590 Enterobacter spp. Disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations method were used for susceptibility testing, with results interpreted by the CLSI (2015). RESULTS: Urinary tract remained the dominant isolated site among E...
March 29, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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