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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772094/quantifying-biomolecular-binding-constants-using-video-paper-analytical-devices
#1
Benjamin S Miller, Claudio Parolo, Valerian Turbé, Candice E Keane, Eleanor R Gray, Rachel McKendry
We report a novel ultralow-cost biochemical analysis platform to quantify protein dissociation binding constants and kinetics using paper microfluidics. Our approach marries video imaging with one of humankind's oldest materials - paper, requiring no large, expensive laboratory equipment, complex microfluidics or external power. Temporal measurements of nanoparticle-antibody conjugates binding on paper is found to follow the Langmuir Adsorption Model. This is exploited to measure a series of antibody-antigen dissociation constants on paper, showing excellent agreement with a gold-standard benchtop interferometer...
May 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771787/point-of-care-cryptococcal-antigen-screening-pipetting-finger-prick-blood-improves-performance-of-immuno-mycologics-lateral-flow-assay
#2
Rachel M Wake, Joseph N Jarvis, Thomas S Harrison, Nelesh P Govender
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening at point of care could improve cryptococcal meningitis prevention where laboratory resources are limited. We evaluated the accuracy of Immuno-Mycologics (IMMY, Norman, OK) CrAg lateral flow assay (LFA) using different techniques at point of care. SETTING: Two tertiary-level hospitals in Johannesburg and a community health clinic in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: A case-control diagnostic validation study, and a prospective clinic-based implementation study using the IMMY CrAg LFA on finger-prick blood...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771555/the-quality-of-assessments-for-childhood-psychopathology-within-a-regional-medical-center
#3
Adam F Sattler, Jarrod M Leffler, Nicole L Harrison, Ewa D Bieber, Joseph J Kosmach, Leslie A Sim, Stephen P H Whiteside
Accurate assessment is essential to implementing effective mental health treatment; however, little research has explored child clinicians' assessment practices in applied settings. The current study thus examines practitioners' use of evidence-based assessment (EBA) instruments (i.e., self-report measures and structured interviews), specificity of identified diagnoses (i.e., use of specific diagnostic labels vs. nonstandardized labels, not otherwise specified [NOS] diagnoses, and adjustment disorder diagnoses), and documentation of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770117/clinical-application-of-epilepsy-genetics-in-africa-is-now-the-time
#4
Alina I Esterhuizen, Gemma L Carvill, Rajkumar S Ramesar, Symon M Kariuki, Charles R Newton, Annapurna Poduri, Jo M Wilmshurst
Over 80% of people with epilepsy live in low- to middle-income countries where epilepsy is often undiagnosed and untreated due to limited resources and poor infrastructure. In Africa, the burden of epilepsy is exacerbated by increased risk factors such as central nervous system infections, perinatal insults, and traumatic brain injury. Despite the high incidence of these etiologies, the cause of epilepsy in over 60% of African children is unknown, suggesting a possible genetic origin. Large-scale genetic and genomic research in Europe and North America has revealed new genes and variants underlying disease in a range of epilepsy phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761701/semi-quantitative-nucleic-acid-test-with-simultaneous-isotachophoretic-extraction-and-amplification
#5
Andrew T Bender, Mark D Borysiak, Amanda M Levenson, Lorraine Lillis, David S Boyle, Jonathan D Posner
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) provide high diagnostic accuracy for infectious diseases and quantitative results for monitoring viral infections. The majority of NAATs require complex equipment, cold chain dependent reagents, and skilled technicians to perform tests. This largely confines NAATs to centralized laboratories and can significantly delay appropriate patient care. Low-cost, point-of-care (POC) NAATs are especially needed in low-resource settings to provide patients with diagnosis and treatment planning in a single visit to improve patient care...
May 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745966/status-of-cardiac-arrhythmia-services-in-africa-in-2018-a-pascar-sudden-cardiac-death-task-force-report
#6
M A Talle, A Bonny, W Scholtz, A Chin, G Nel, K M Karaye, J B Anzouan-Kacou, A Damasceno, Y R Lubenga, M U Sani, B M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the availability of health services to treat cardiac arrhythmias in Africa. METHODS: The Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) Sudden Cardiac Death Task Force conducted a survey of the burden of cardiac arrhythmias and related services over two months (15 October to 15 December) in 2017. An electronic questionnaire was completed by general cardiologists and electrophysiologists working in African countries. The questionnaire focused on availability of human resources, diagnostic tools and treatment modalities in each country...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742199/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies-in-cryptococcosis-impact-on-outcome
#7
Timothée Boyer Chammard, Elvis Temfack, Olivier Lortholary, Alexandre Alanio
Cryptococcosis diagnosis has been recently improved by the use of rapid cryptococcal antigen testing with lateral flow assays, which have proved sensitive and specific. Using "test and treat" screening strategies for cryptococcal disease with these tests has been showed effective in reducing cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in HIV-infected patients. Recommended induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapeutic strategy for CM is widely unavailable and/or expensive in low and middle-income settings...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742144/mpt64-antigen-detection-test-improves-routine-diagnosis-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-study-from-the-tertiary-care-hospital-in-zanzibar
#8
Melissa Davidsen Jørstad, Msafiri Marijani, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise, Lisbet Sviland, Tehmina Mustafa
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a diagnostic challenge. An immunochemistry-based MPT64 antigen detection test (MPT64 test) has reported higher sensitivity in the diagnosis of EPTB compared with conventional methods. The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate the MPT64 test in routine diagnostics in a low-resource setting. METHODS: Patients with presumptive EPTB were prospectively enrolled at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Zanzibar, and followed to the end of treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739357/serological-evaluation-for-chagas-disease-in-migrants-from-latin-american-countries-resident-in-rome-italy
#9
Stefania Pane, Maria Letizia Giancola, Pierluca Piselli, Angela Corpolongo, Ernestina Repetto, Rita Bellagamba, Claudia Cimaglia, Stefania Carrara, Piero Ghirga, Alessandra Oliva, Nazario Bevilacqua, Ahmad Al Rousan, Carla Nisii, Giuseppe Ippolito, Emanuele Nicastri
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, whose chronic phase may lead to cardiac and intestinal disorders. Endemic in Latin America where it is transmitted mainly by vectors, large-scale migrations to other countries have turned CD into a global health problem because of its alternative transmission routes through blood transfusion, tissue transplantation, or congenital. Aim of this study was to compare the performance of two commercially available tests for serological diagnosis of CD in a group of Latin American migrants living in a non-endemic setting (Rome, Italy)...
May 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730224/rapid-diagnosis-of-parasitic-diseases-current-scenario-and-future-needs
#10
REVIEW
Stefan Momčilović, Cinzia Cantacessi, Valentina Arsić-Arsenijević, Domenico Otranto, Suzana Tasić-Otašević
BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases are one of the world's most devastating and prevalent infections which cause millions of morbidities and mortalities annually. In the past, many of these infections have been linked predominantly to tropical or subtropical areas. Nowadays, however, climatic and vector ecology changes, a significant increase in international travel, armed conflicts and migration of humans and animals have influenced the transmission of some parasitic diseases from "book pages" to reality in developed countries...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723198/telesonography-in-emergency-medicine-a-systematic-review
#11
Genevieve Marsh-Feiley, Leila Eadie, Philip Wilson
Ultrasound is an efficacious, versatile and affordable imaging technique in emergencies, but has limited utility without expert interpretation. Telesonography, in which experts may remotely support the use of ultrasound through a telecommunications link, may broaden access to ultrasound and improve patient outcomes, particularly in remote settings. This review assesses the literature regarding telesonography in emergency medicine, focussing on evidence of feasibility, diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722772/hydroelectric-power-plant-on-a-paper-strip
#12
Sankha Shuvra Das, Shantimoy Kar, Tarique Anwar, Partha Saha, Suman Chakraborty
We exploit the combinatorial advantage of electrokinetics and tortuosity of a cellulose-based paper network on laboratory grade filter paper for the development of a simple, inexpensive, yet extremely robust (shows constant performance for 12 days) 'paper-and-pencil'-based device for energy harvesting applications. We successfully achieve harvesting of a maximum output power of ∼640 pW in a single channel, while the same is significantly improved (by ∼100 times) with the use of a multichannel microfluidic array (maximum of up to 20 channels)...
May 3, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722172/papanicolaou-induced-fluorescence-ziehl-neelsen-and-auramine-o-stains-on-lymph-node-fine-needle-aspiration-biopsy-specimens-from-children-a-comparative-study
#13
Malesiba Mampotoko Selepe, Abraham Christoffel van Wyk, Kim Gilberte Pauline Hoek, Yvonne Prince, Paul David van Helden, Robin Mark Warren, Colleen Anne Wright
BACKGROUND: The rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children remains challenging. The presence of enlarged lymph nodes provides an opportunity to obtain diagnostic material through fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Mycobacterial culture, traditionally the reference standard, has a slow turnaround time and PCR-based methods are not widely available in developing countries. Direct visualization of mycobacteria on microscopy can be a rapid method to confirm the diagnosis...
May 3, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720146/sms-reminders-to-improve-adherence-and-cure-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-cameroon-tb-sms-cameroon-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Georges Bediang, Beat Stoll, Nadia Elia, Jean-Louis Abena, Antoine Geissbuhler
BACKGROUND: In Cameroon, the National Tuberculosis Control Program that applies selective directly observed treatments faces difficulties in its implementation for a lack of resources, leading to only 65% of patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis being cured after 6 months of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of daily Short Message Service reminders to increase adherence and the proportion of adult tuberculosis patients cured after 6 months of treatment...
May 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706364/development-and-validation-of-a-hospital-frailty-risk-score-focusing-on-older-people-in-acute-care-settings-using-electronic-hospital-records-an-observational-study
#15
Thomas Gilbert, Jenny Neuburger, Joshua Kraindler, Eilis Keeble, Paul Smith, Cono Ariti, Sandeepa Arora, Andrew Street, Stuart Parker, Helen C Roberts, Martin Bardsley, Simon Conroy
BACKGROUND: Older people are increasing users of health care globally. We aimed to establish whether older people with characteristics of frailty and who are at risk of adverse health-care outcomes could be identified using routinely collected data. METHODS: A three-step approach was used to develop and validate a Hospital Frailty Risk Score from International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic codes...
April 26, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696325/colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-following-burn-injury-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
Jared R Gallaher, Wone Banda, Anne M Lachiewicz, Robert Krysiak, Bruce A Cairns, Anthony G Charles
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are an emerging international concern in low- and middle-income countries that threaten recent public health gains. These challenges are exacerbated in immunocompromised hosts, such as those with burn injury. This study sought to describe the epidemiology and associated clinical outcomes of burn wound colonization in a Malawian tertiary burn center. METHODS: This is a prospective analysis of burn patients presenting to Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi, within 72 h of burn injury...
April 25, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692892/osteoporosis-and-its-perspective-in-pakistan-a-review-of-evidence-and-issues-for-addressing-fragility-fractures
#17
REVIEW
Aysha Habib Khan, Lena Jafri, Sibtain Ahmed, Shahryar Noordin
Despite major advances in osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment, low rates of investigating and treating osteoporosis in patients with fragility fracture are reported in Pakistan. Cost of therapies, time and cost of resources for diagnosis, concerns about medications and lack of clarity regarding the onus of responsibility to undertake this care, are some of the barriers to osteoporosis identification and treatment. Data from our part of the world on osteoporosis as well as on fragility fractures is sparse. This review addresses the current screening and diagnostic strategies for osteoporosis and reviews the existing literature to highlight the issues prevalent in our society on this major public health problem...
May 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692621/h3africa-current-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Nicola Mulder, Alash'le Abimiku, Sally N Adebamowo, Jantina de Vries, Alice Matimba, Paul Olowoyo, Michele Ramsay, Michelle Skelton, Dan J Stein
Precision medicine is being enabled in high-income countries by the growing availability of health data, increasing knowledge of the genetic determinants of disease and variation in response to treatment (pharmacogenomics), and the decreasing costs of data generation, which promote routine application of genomic technologies in the health sector. However, there is uncertainty about the feasibility of applying precision medicine approaches in low- and middle-income countries, due to the lack of population-specific knowledge, skills, and resources...
2018: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686882/pyosalpinges-after-hysterosalpingography-in-a-patient-with-lower-genital-tract-infection-and-managed-by-laparoscopic-surgery-in-a-resource-low-tertiary-hospital-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Thomas Obinchemti Egbe, Fidelia Mbi Kobenge, Metogo Mbengono Junette Arlette, Eugene Belley-Priso
Background: Pyosalpinges (a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease) is infection of the fallopian tubes and the morbidity associated with it has major health implications. We are reporting a case of pyosalpinges diagnosed after hysterosalpingography and managed by laparoscopic surgery at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon. Case presentation: A 29-year-old single woman, an assistant nurse of the Douala tribe in Cameroon. She is G1P0010 and came to our attention because of secondary infertility of three years duration...
2018: Fertility Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684634/interactive-electronic-decision-trees-for-the-integrated-primary-care-management-of-febrile-children-in-low-resource-settings-review-of-existing-tools
#20
REVIEW
Kristina Keitel, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. AIMS: This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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