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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449382/current-use-of-chromosomal-microarray-by-australian-paediatricians-and-implications-for-the-implementation-of-next-generation-sequencing
#1
Victoria McKay, Daryl Efron, Elizabeth E Palmer, Susan M White, Chris Pearson, Margie Danchin
AIM: Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is an important diagnostic test for children with multiple congenital anomalies or certain developmental behavioural problems suggestive of an underlying genetic diagnosis. However, there are medical and ethical complexities to its use and few Australian policies to guide practice. We aimed to describe the current practice of Australian paediatricians in relation to CMA testing. We hypothesised that there are knowledge gaps in their use of CMA. METHODS: Online survey completed between September 2015 and January 2016 by paediatricians in secondary care settings...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447421/clinical-decision-support-for-hematology-laboratory-test-utilization
#2
REVIEW
R Jackups, J J Szymanski, S P Persaud
Clinical decision support (CDS) is the use of information and communication technologies to improve clinical decision making and patient care. CDS applications have been used in many aspects of health care, including medication ordering and diagnostic prediction algorithms. As economic and regulatory pressures place a strain on laboratory resources, the potential of CDS to improve utilization of laboratory testing has also begun to be realized. Hematology and coagulation laboratories stand to gain tremendously from the implementation of CDS interventions, given their mixture of high-volume, low-cost tests (eg CBC, PT, aPTT) and tests that carry a high potential of being misused or misinterpreted (eg lupus anticoagulant, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia testing)...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442456/the-malaria-system-microapp-a-new-mobile-device-based-tool-for-malaria-diagnosis
#3
Allisson Dantas Oliveira, Clara Prats, Mateu Espasa, Francesc Zarzuela Serrat, Cristina Montañola Sales, Aroa Silgado, Daniel Lopez Codina, Mercia Eliane Arruda, Jordi Gomez I Prat, Jones Albuquerque
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a public health problem that affects remote areas worldwide. Climate change has contributed to the problem by allowing for the survival of Anopheles in previously uninhabited areas. As such, several groups have made developing news systems for the automated diagnosis of malaria a priority. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a new, automated, mobile device-based diagnostic system for malaria. The system uses Giemsa-stained peripheral blood samples combined with light microscopy to identify the Plasmodium falciparum species in the ring stage of development...
April 25, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437795/effect-of-using-the-heart-score-in-patients-with-chest-pain-in-the-emergency-department-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomized-trial
#4
Judith M Poldervaart, Johannes B Reitsma, Barbra E Backus, Hendrik Koffijberg, Rolf F Veldkamp, Monique E Ten Haaf, Yolande Appelman, Herman F J Mannaerts, Jan-Melle van Dantzig, Madelon van den Heuvel, Mohamed El Farissi, Bernard J W M Rensing, Nicolette M S K J Ernst, Ineke M C Dekker, Frank R den Hartog, Thomas Oosterhof, Ghizelda R Lagerweij, Eugene M Buijs, Maarten W J van Hessen, Marcel A J Landman, Roland R J van Kimmenade, Luc Cozijnsen, Jeroen J J Bucx, Clara E E van Ofwegen-Hanekamp, Maarten-Jan Cramer, A Jacob Six, Pieter A Doevendans, Arno W Hoes
Background: The HEART (History, Electrocardiogram, Age, Risk factors, and initial Troponin) score is an easy-to-apply instrument to stratify patients with chest pain according to their short-term risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), but its effect on daily practice is unknown. Objective: To measure the effect of use of the HEART score on patient outcomes and use of health care resources. Design: Stepped-wedge, cluster randomized trial...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427352/point-of-sampling-detection-of-zika-virus-within-a-multiplexed-kit-capable-of-detecting-dengue-and-chikungunya
#5
Ozlem Yaren, Barry W Alto, Priyanka V Gangodkar, Shatakshi R Ranade, Kunal N Patil, Kevin M Bradley, Zunyi Yang, Nikhil Phadke, Steven A Benner
BACKGROUND: Zika, dengue, and chikungunya are three mosquito-borne viruses having overlapping transmission vectors. They cause diseases having similar symptoms in human patients, but requiring different immediate management steps. Therefore, rapid (< one hour) discrimination of these three viruses in patient samples and trapped mosquitoes is needed. The need for speed precludes any assay that requires complex up-front sample preparation, such as extraction of nucleic acids from the sample...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420399/distinct-parasite-populations-infect-individuals-identified-through-passive-and-active-case-detection-in-a-region-of-declining-malaria-transmission-in-southern-zambia
#6
Kelly M Searle, Ben Katowa, Tamaki Kobayashi, Mwiche N S Siame, Sungano Mharakurwa, Giovanna Carpi, Douglas E Norris, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in the burden of malaria have been documented in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, with elimination strategies and goals being formulated in some regions. Within this context, understanding the epidemiology of low-level malaria transmission is crucial to achieving and sustaining elimination. A 24 single-nucleotide-polymorphism Plasmodium falciparum molecular barcode was used to characterize parasite populations from infected individuals identified through passive and active case detection in an area approaching malaria elimination in southern Zambia...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419213/risks-factors-for-congenital-cmv-infection-following-primary-and-non-primary-maternal-infection-a-prospective-neonatal-screening-study-using-pcr-in-saliva
#7
Marianne Leruez-Ville, Jean-François Magny, Sophie Couderc, Christine Pichon, Marine Parodi, Laurence Bussières, Tiffany Guilleminot, Idir Ghout, Yves Ville
Background: The design of diagnostic and preventive strategies have been prevented by gaps in knowledge of the epidemiology of congenital CMV (cCMV) with the type of maternal infection as well as the lack of large-scale neonatal screening tools. Methods: 11,715 consecutive newborns were screened for cCMV by PCR in saliva. Prevalence, type of maternal infection, socio-demographic, obstetrical and serological data were analyzed. Results: Positive predictive value of CMV PCR in saliva was 59%, false positive results were associated with lower viral loads (p<0...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411630/an-immunochromatographic-assay-for-carcinoembryonic-antigen-on-cotton-thread-using-a-composite-of-carbon-nanotubes-and-gold-nanoparticles-as-reporters
#8
Xiaobo Jia, Tingting Song, Yan Liu, Lili Meng, Xun Mao
This paper describes a low-cost, sensitive, visual and rapid immunochromatographic assay method on cotton thread for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection by using novel carbon nanotube/gold nanoparticles (CNT/GNPs) nanocomposite reporter probe. CEA, a lung cancer protein biomarker, was used as analyte to demonstrate the principle of the immunochromatographic assay on cotton thread biosensor. In the presence of target CEA, the decreasing aggregation amount of CNT/GNPs nanocomposite reporter probes on the test zone induced directly readout by naked eye...
May 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403471/do-psychiatric-disorders-or-measures-of-distress-moderate-response-to-postpartum-relapse-prevention-interventions
#9
Rachel P Kolko, Rebecca L Emery, Yu Cheng, Michele D Levine
Introduction: Most women who quit smoking during pregnancy will relapse postpartum. Interventions for sustained postpartum abstinence can benefit from understanding prenatal characteristics associated with treatment response. Given that individuals with psychiatric disorders or elevated depressive symptoms have difficulty quitting smoking and that increases in depressive symptoms prenatally are common, we examined the relevance of psychiatric diagnoses, prenatal depressive symptoms, and stress to postpartum relapse prevention intervention response...
May 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402924/remote-tele-mentored-ultrasound-for-non-physician-learners-using-facetime-a-feasibility-study-in-a-low-income-country
#10
Thomas E Robertson, Andrea R Levine, Avelino C Verceles, Jessica A Buchner, James H Lantry, Alfred Papali, Marc T Zubrow, L Nathalie Colas, Marc E Augustin, Michael T McCurdy
PURPOSE: Ultrasound (US) is a burgeoning diagnostic tool and is often the only available imaging modality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, bedside providers often lack training to acquire or interpret US images. We conducted a study to determine if a remote tele-intensivist could mentor geographically removed LMIC providers to obtain quality and clinically useful US images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine Haitian non-physician health care workers received a 20-minute training on basic US techniques...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399836/cost-effectiveness-of-response-evaluation-after-chemoradiation-in-patients-with-advanced-oropharyngeal-cancer-using-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-and-or-diffusion-weighted-mri
#11
Marjolein Je Greuter, Charlotte S Schouten, Jonas A Castelijns, Pim de Graaf, Emile Fi Comans, Otto S Hoekstra, Remco de Bree, Veerle Mh Coupé
BACKGROUND: Considerable variation exists in diagnostic tests used for local response evaluation after chemoradiation in patients with advanced oropharyngeal cancer. The yield of invasive examination under general anesthesia (EUA) with biopsies in all patients is low and it may induce substantial morbidity. We explored four response evaluation strategies to detect local residual disease in terms of diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: We built a decision-analytic model using trial data of forty-six patients and scientific literature...
April 11, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391175/children-medical-radiation-and-the-environment-an-important-dialogue
#12
Donald P Frush, Maria Del Rosario Perez
There are unique considerations in the medical care of children, which includes the use of medical imaging. Medical imaging is frequently necessary and is essential in diagnosis and management of children with illness and injury. Much of medical imaging requires ionizing radiation. While virtually all diagnostic imaging radiation is considered low-dose level, there is still a broad misperception about what modalities use ionizing radiation and how much radiation risk exists in the medical environment. A discussion of radiation exposure is especially relevant in children due to their increased vulnerability, including to radiation-induced cancer...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389587/l-dopa-in-dystonia-a-modern-perspective
#13
Roderick P P W M Maas, Tessa Wassenberg, Jean-Pierre Lin, Bart P C van de Warrenburg, Michèl A A P Willemsen
"Every child exhibiting dystonia merits an l-dopa trial, lest the potentially treatable condition of dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) is missed" has been a commonly cited and highly conserved adage in movement disorders literature stemming from the 1980s. We here provide a historical perspective on this statement, discuss the current diagnostic and therapeutic applications of l-dopa in everyday neurologic practice, contrast these with its approved indications, and finish with our view on both a diagnostic and therapeutic trial in children and adults with dystonia...
April 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384937/attitude-of-reproductive-healthcare-providers-to-prenatal-diagnosis-in-a-low-resource-nigerian-setting
#14
Leonard Ogbonna Ajah, Silas Alegu Nwali, Christopher Chim Amah, Theophilus Ogochukwu Nwankwo, Lucky Osaheni Lawani, Benjamin Chukwuma Ozumba
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal diagnosis comprises all diagnostic modalities aimed at gaining information about the embryo or fetal wellbeing. It enables antenatal care tailored to the individual need(s) of the fetus. AIM: To determine the knowledge, practice and prospect of prenatal diagnosis among reproductive health care providers in Abakaliki, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in which completely filled self-administered semi-structured questionnaires were retrieved from 182 reproductive healthcare providers at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381477/association-between-enteropathogens-and-malnutrition-in-children-aged-6-23-mo-in-bangladesh-a-case-control-study
#15
James A Platts-Mills, Mami Taniuchi, Md Jashim Uddin, Shihab Uddin Sobuz, Mustafa Mahfuz, Sm Abdul Gaffar, Dinesh Mondal, Md Iqbal Hossain, M Munirul Islam, Am Shamsir Ahmed, William A Petri, Rashidul Haque, Eric R Houpt, Tahmeed Ahmed
Background: Early exposure to enteropathogens has been associated with malnutrition in children in low-resource settings. However, the contribution of individual enteropathogens remains poorly defined. Molecular diagnostics offer an increase in sensitivity for detecting enteropathogens but have not been comprehensively applied to studies of malnutrition.Objective: We sought to identify enteropathogens associated with malnutrition in Bangladesh.Design: Malnourished children [weight-for-age z score (WAZ) <-2] aged 6-23 mo in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and identified by active community surveillance were enrolled as cases, and normal-weight children (WAZ >-1) of the same age and from the same community were enrolled as controls...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373758/typhoid-intestinal-perforation-in-developing-countries-still-unavoidable-deaths
#16
EDITORIAL
Sandro Contini
Typhoid fever is a public health challenge mostly concentrated in impoverished, overcrowded areas of the developing world, with lack of safe drinking and sanitation. The most serious complication is typhoid intestinal perforation (TIP), observed in 0.8% to 39%, with a striking rate difference between high-income and low-middle-income countries. Although the mortality rate consequent to TIP in resource-poor countries is improved in the last decades, it is still fluctuating from 5% to 80%, due to surgical- and not surgical-related constraints...
March 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372963/2016-rad-aid-conference-on-international%C3%A2-radiology-for-developing-countries-gaps-growth-and-united-nations-sustainable-development-goals
#17
Daniel J Mollura, Garshasb Soroosh, Melissa P Culp
The 2016 RAD-AID Conference analyzed the accelerated global activity in the radiology community that is transforming medical imaging into an effective spearhead of health care capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Global health efforts historically emphasized disaster response, crisis zones, and infectious disease outbreaks. However, the projected doubling of cancer and cardiovascular deaths in developing countries in the next 15 years and the need for higher technology screening and diagnostic technologies in low-resource regions, as articulated by the United Nations' new Sustainable Development Goals of 2016, is heightening the role of radiology in global health...
March 29, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372570/malaria-over-diagnosis-in-cameroon-diagnostic-accuracy-of-fluorescence-and-staining-technologies-fast-malaria-stain-and-led-microscopy-versus-giemsa-and-bright-field-microscopy-validated-by-polymerase-chain-reaction
#18
Sean M Parsel, Steven A Gustafson, Edward Friedlander, Alexander A Shnyra, Aderosoye J Adegbulu, Ying Liu, Nicole M Parrish, Syed A Jamal, Eve Lofthus, Leo Ayuk, Charles Awasom, Carolyn J Henry, Carole P McArthur
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major world health issue and its continued burden is due, in part, to difficulties in the diagnosis of the illness. The World Health Organization recommends confirmatory testing using microscopy-based techniques or rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for all cases of suspected malaria. In regions where Plasmodium species are indigenous, there are multiple etiologies of fever leading to misdiagnoses, especially in populations where HIV is prevalent and children. To determine the frequency of malaria infection in febrile patients over an 8-month period at the Regional Hospital in Bamenda, Cameroon, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of the Flourescence and Staining Technology (FAST) Malaria stain and ParaLens Advance(TM) microscopy system (FM) and compared it with conventional bright field microscopy and Giemsa stain (GS)...
April 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370977/diagnostic-protocols-a-consultation-tool-still-to-be-discovered
#19
Waltraud Fink, Gustav Kamenski, Martin Konitzer
RATIONALE: Experienced primary care physicians handle most illnesses to everyone's satisfaction despite limited resources of time and means. However, cases can be multifaceted in that harmless-presenting symptoms may also be warning signals or an indicator of a health disorder that too infrequently presents in family practice to be diagnosed correctly. On the basis of these observations, RN Braun developed 82 diagnostic protocols for a structured recording of various complaints. METHOD: All consultations during the years 2001 to 2014, in which 1 author (WF) had used diagnostic protocols in her single-handed practice, were analyzed retrospectively regarding reasons for encounter, diagnostic classification, and long-term outcome...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367971/a-paper-based-test-for-screening-newborns-for-sickle-cell-disease
#20
Nathaniel Z Piety, Alex George, Sonia Serrano, Maria R Lanzi, Palka R Patel, Maria P Noli, Silvina Kahan, Damian Nirenberg, João F Camanda, Gladstone Airewele, Sergey S Shevkoplyas
The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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