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Low resource diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328522/cassava-flour-slurry-as-a-low-cost-alternative-to-commercially-available-gel-for-obstetrical-ultrasound-a-blinded-non-inferiority-trial-comparison-of-image-quality
#1
Aleha Aziz, Pe'er Dar, Francine Hughes, Clemencia Solorzano, Mundenga Mutendi Muller, Christian Salmon, Margaret Salmon, Nerys Benfield
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of ultrasound images obtained with cassava flour slurry (CFS) compared to conventional gel in order to determine objectively whether CFS could be a true low-cost alternative. DESIGN: Blinded non-inferiority trial. SETTING: Obstetrical ultrasound unit in an academic medical center. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Women with a singleton pregnancy, undergoing anatomy ultrasounds. METHODS: Thirty pregnant women had standard biometry measures obtained with CFS and conventional gel...
January 12, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318878/ultrasensitive-enzyme-free-biosensor-by-coupling-cyclodextrin-functionalized-au-nanoparticles-and-high-performance-au-paper-electrode
#2
Xiaoxiao Zheng, Li Li, Kang Cui, Yan Zhang, Lina Zhang, Shenguang Ge, Jinghua Yu
Microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD), originally developed for improving healthcare in developing countries, presents a simple yet powerful platform for performing low-cost and portable diagnostic devices. Here, we reported an enzyme-free μPAD for the detection of two tumor markers. Firstly, a porous structure of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified paper working electrode (Au-PWE), with a feature of all-around conductivity and plenty of active sites favoring for the biological ligands attachment, was firstly fabricated as a sensor substrate...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317875/diagnostic-accuracy-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-as-a-field-molecular-tool-for-rapid-mass-screening-of-old-world-leishmania-infections-in-sand-flies-and-in-vitro-culture
#3
Mehdi Ghodrati, Adel Spotin, Teimour Hazratian, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Ali Bordbar, Sahar Ebrahimi, Shirzad Fallahi, Parviz Parvizi
Background: We employed a highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) by targeting 18S rRNA gene to identify the rapid mass screening of Leishmania infections in captured sand flies of southwest Iran and In vitro culture. Methods: One hundred fifty sand flies were collected from 11 sites adjacent to Iraqi's borders in southern parts of Khuzestan Province by using sticky sheets of paper and CDC miniature light traps during late May 2014 to Nov 2015...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303284/-current-approach-to-diagnostics-treatment-and-prevention-of-tuberculosis
#4
Martina Vašáková
Tuberculosis is world-wide spread infectious disease with persistant high incidence, mainly in the densely populated countries with low income. Czech Republic belongs to the countries with highly efficient control of tuberculosis and continuously decreasing incidence of the disease. High-risk population for tuberculosis in the Czech Republic are the homeless people, who together with migrants from the countries with high incidence of tuberculosis represent reservoir of infection for our population. Treatment of tuberculosis is long-term, combined and controlled...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297619/a-framework-to-develop-adapted-treatment-regimens-to-manage-pediatric-cancer-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-the-pediatric-oncology-in-developing-countries-podc-committee-of-the-international-pediatric-oncology-society-siop
#5
Scott C Howard, Alan Davidson, Sandra Luna-Fineman, Trijn Israels, Guillermo Chantada, Catherine G Lam, Stephen P Hunger, Simon Bailey, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora, Francisco Pedrosa, Mhamed Harif, Monika L Metzger
Many children with cancer in low- and middle-income countries are treated in hospitals lacking key infrastructure, including diagnostic capabilities, imaging modalities, treatment components, supportive care, and personnel. Childhood cancer treatment regimens adapted to local conditions provide an opportunity to cure as many children as possible with the available resources, while working to improve services and supportive care. This paper from the Adapted Treatment Regimens Working Group of the Pediatric Oncology in Developing Countries committee of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology outlines the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of adapted regimens and specifies levels of services needed to deliver them...
December 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297603/apc-gene-promoter-aberrant-methylation-in-serum-as-a-biomarker-for-breast-cancer-diagnosis-a-meta-analysis
#6
Xiaojun Qian, Liwei Ruan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of APC gene promoter methylation in serum as a biomarker for breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. METHODS: Two reviewers systematically searched online resources to identify the publications relevant to APC gene promoter methylation and BC. The data of true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative were extracted from each included study and pooled for diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver operating characteristic curve...
January 3, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289543/comparison-of-3-frailty-instruments-in-a-geriatric-acute-care-setting-in-a-low-middle-income-country
#7
Sumika Mori Lin, Márlon Juliano Romero Aliberti, Sileno de Queiroz Fortes-Filho, Juliana de Araújo Melo, Ivan Aprahamian, Claudia Kimie Suemoto, Wilson Jacob Filho
OBJECTIVE: Comparison of frailty instruments in low-middle income countries, where the prevalence of frailty may be higher, is scarce. In addition, less complex diagnostic tools for frailty are important in these settings, especially in acutely ill patients, because of limited time and economic resources. We aimed to compare the performance of 3 frailty instruments for predicting adverse outcomes after 1 year of follow-up in older adults with an acute event or a chronic decompensated disease...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287838/diabetes-and-complications-of-the-heart-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-urgent-need-for-improved-awareness-diagnostics-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Nadezhda Glezeva, Master Chisale, Kenneth McDonald, Mark Ledwidge, Joe Gallagher, Chris J Watson
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is no longer a disease of high income countries but a global health pandemic. With the continued and rapid increase in its prevalence worldwide it is forecasted that diabetes will be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. A major concern stems from its role in development and progression of cardiovascular disease, including cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Within low- and middle-income areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa the burden of diabetes is already significant driven by many factors, including, socioeconomic (urbanisation), nutritional (high-calorie "western-diet", obesity) and lifestyle (physical inactivity) changes...
December 26, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287070/a-diagnostic-and-epidemiologic-investigation-of-acute-febrile-illness-afi-in-kilombero-tanzania
#9
Christine Hercik, Leonard Cosmas, Ondari D Mogeni, Newton Wamola, Wanze Kohi, Victor Omballa, Melvin Ochieng, Shirley Lidechi, Juma Bonventure, Caroline Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Barry S Fields, Sayoki Mfinanga, Joel M Montgomery
INTRODUCTION: In low-resource settings, empiric case management of febrile illness is routine as a result of limited access to laboratory diagnostics. The use of comprehensive fever syndromic surveillance, with enhanced clinical microbiology, advanced diagnostics and more robust epidemiologic investigation, could enable healthcare providers to offer a differential diagnosis of fever syndrome and more appropriate care and treatment. METHODS: We conducted a year-long exploratory study of fever syndrome among patients ≥ 1 year if age, presenting to clinical settings with an axillary temperature of ≥37...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284695/maternal-and-neonatal-directed-assessment-of-technologies-mandate-methods-and-assumptions-for-a-predictive-model-for-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-mortality-interventions
#10
Bonnie Jones-Hepler, Katelin Moran, Jennifer Griffin, Elizabeth M McClure, Doris Rouse, Carolina Barbosa, Emily MacGuire, Elizabeth Robbins, Robert L Goldenberg
Maternal, fetal, and neonatal mortality disproportionately impact low- and middle-income countries, and many current interventions that can save lives are often not available nor appropriate for these settings. Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technologies (MANDATE) is a mathematical model designed to evaluate which interventions have the greatest potential to save maternal, fetal, and neonatal lives saved in sub-Saharan Africa and India. The MANDATE decision-support model includes interventions such as preventive interventions, diagnostics, treatments, and transfers to different care settings to compare the relative impact of different interventions on mortality outcomes...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278455/genetic-diagnosis-of-down-syndrome-in-an-underserved-community
#11
Andrew K Sobering, Joshua B Stevens, Janice L Smith, Beverly Nelson, Tyhiesia Donald, Sarah H Elsea
It is a matter of course that in high-income countries, infants born with features suggestive of Down syndrome (DS) are offered genetic testing for confirmation of a clinical diagnosis. Benefits of a definitive diagnosis include an end to the diagnostic odyssey, informed prognosis, opportunities for caregiver support, inclusion to social support networks, and more meaningful genetic counseling. The healthcare experience for families of children born with DS in low- and middle-income nations is in stark contrast with such a level of care...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276756/cost-effectiveness-of-medical-devices-to-diagnose-pre-eclampsia-in-low-resource-settings
#12
Zoë M McLaren, Alana Sharp, John P Hessburg, Amir Sabet Sarvestani, Ethan Parker, James Akazili, Timothy R B Johnson, Kathleen H Sienko
Background: Maternal mortality remains a major health challenge facing developing countries, with pre-eclampsia accounting for up to 17 percent of maternal deaths. Diagnosis requires skilled health providers and devices that are appropriate for low-resource settings. This study presents the first cost-effectiveness analysis of multiple medical devices used to diagnose pre-eclampsia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Blood pressure and proteinuria measurement devices, identified from compendia for LMICs, were included...
2017: Development Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273539/effectiveness-of-who-s-pragmatic-screening-algorithm-for-child-contacts-of-tuberculosis-cases-in-resource-constrained-settings-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-uganda
#13
Leonardo Martinez, Ye Shen, Andreas Handel, Srijita Chakraburty, Catherine M Stein, LaShaunda L Malone, W Henry Boom, Frederick D Quinn, Moses L Joloba, Christopher C Whalen, Sarah Zalwango
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality; however, interventions to detect undiagnosed tuberculosis in children are underused. Child contact tracing has been widely recommended but poorly implemented in resource-constrained settings. WHO has proposed a pragmatic screening approach for managing child contacts. We assessed the effectiveness of this screening approach and alternative symptom-based algorithms in identifying secondary tuberculosis in a prospectively followed cohort of Ugandan child contacts...
December 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258444/evaluation-of-a-field-deployable-reverse-transcription-insulated-isothermal-pcr-for-rapid-and-sensitive-on-site-detection-of-zika-virus
#14
Mariano Carossino, Yanqiu Li, Pei-Yu A Lee, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Pin-Hsing Chou, Dennis Williams, Ashley Skillman, R Frank Cook, Grayson Brown, Hsiao-Fen G Chang, Hwa-Tang T Wang, Udeni B R Balasuriya
BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil and its precipitous expansion throughout the Americas has highlighted the urgent need for a rapid and reliable on-site diagnostic assay suitable for viral detection. Such point-of-need (PON), low-cost diagnostics are essential for ZIKV control in vulnerable areas with limited resources. METHODS: We developed and evaluated a ZIKV-specific field-deployable RT-iiPCR reagent set targeting the E gene for rapid detection of ZIKV in ZIKV-spiked human and mosquito specimens, and compared its performance to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) RT-qPCR assays targeting the E and NS2B genes, respectively...
December 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251606/issues-in-access-to-end-of-life-care-in-low-resource-areas
#15
Yogesh Jain, Gajanan Phutke
Even though 1% of people require palliative and end-of-life care in low-resource situations, it remains an uncharted arena. Yet it is as important as curative care to alleviate suffering. Palliative care is not only a need in cancer and HIV disease; but is needed in a diverse group of illnesses ranging from tuberculosis, renal failures, paraplegia to chronic lung diseases. In a lower resource setting, the gaps in palliation may be the need for more technology and interventions or more healthcare professionals...
October 25, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248530/stability-of-hepatitis-c-virus-rna-and-anti-hcv-antibody-in-air-dried-and-freeze-dried-human-plasma-samples
#16
Amanda Poe, Ngocvien Thi Duong, Kanwar Bedi, Maja Kodani
Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is based on testing for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), hepatitis C core antigen (HCV cAg) and HCV RNA. To ensure quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), proficiency panels are provided by reference laboratories and various international organizations, requiring costly dry ice shipments to maintain specimen integrity. Alternative methods of specimen preservation and transport can save on shipping and handling and help in improving diagnostics by facilitating QA/QC of various laboratories especially in resource limited countries...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241376/non-endoscopic-biopsy-techniques-a-review
#17
David O Otuya, Yogesh Verma, Hamid Farrokhi, Lisa Higgins, Mireille Rosenberg, Christopher Damman, Guillermo J Tearney
Diseases of the stomach and small intestine account for approximately 20% of all gastrointestinal (GI)-related mortality. Biopsy of the stomach and small intestine remains a key diagnostic tool for most of the major diseases that affect the GI tract. While endoscopic means for obtaining biopsy is generally the standard of care, it has several limitations that make it less ideal for pediatric patients and in low resource areas of the world. Therefore, non-endoscopic means for obtaining biopsy samples is of interest in these settings...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240454/a-comparison-of-the-expectations-and-experiences-of-medical-students-from-high-middle-and-low-income-countries-participating-in-global-health-clinical-electives
#18
Michael J Peluso, Adam Rodman, Douglas A Mata, Anne T Kellett, Susan van Schalkwyk, Robert M Rohrbaugh
Phenomenon: Global health education (GHE) is expanding to include socioculturally and resource-different settings, with the goal of developing a workforce with members who can promote health equity locally and globally. GHE is also no longer limited to students from high-income countries (HICs). However, it is unknown whether the motivations and experiences of medical students from HICs and from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) participating in GHE clinical electives through institutional partnerships are similar or different...
December 14, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235484/paper-based-mos2-nanosheet-mediated-fret-aptasensor-for-rapid-malaria-diagnosis
#19
Alisha Geldert, Kenry, Chwee Teck Lim
There has been growing interest in the development of paper-based biosensors because their simplicity and low cost are attractive for point-of-care diagnosis, especially in low-resource areas. However, only a limited range of paper materials - primarily chromatography papers - have been incorporated into diagnostics thus far. Here, we investigate the performance of different types of paper in order to develop an aptamer- and MoS2 nanosheet-based sensor relying on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to signal the presence of a target protein...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226027/global-burden-of-skin-disease-inequities-and-innovations
#20
Divya Seth, Khatiya Cheldize, Danielle Brown, Esther F Freeman
Purpose of Review: We review the current understanding of the burden of dermatological disease through the lens of the Global Burden of Disease project, evaluate the impact of skin disease on quality of life in a global context, explore socioeconomic implications, and finally summarize interventions towards improving quality of dermatologic care in resource-poor settings. Recent Findings: The Global Burden of Disease project has shown that skin diseases continue to be the 4th leading cause of nonfatal disease burden world-wide...
September 2017: Current Dermatology Reports
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