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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919693/performance-evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-a-moderate-tuberculosis-incidence-compared-with-taqman-mtb-and-trcrapid-m-tb
#1
Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Hideaki Nagai, Kenji Ogawa, Tomoshige Matsumoto, Kozo Morimoto, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
Xpert MTB/RIF is an automated nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) that can detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in clinical specimens as well as rifampicin (RIF) resistance resulting from rpoB mutation. Despite its high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) with or without RIF resistance, the clinical performance of the test is variable. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in a setting of moderate TB burden and high medical resources...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917695/nanostring-a-novel-digital-color-coded-barcode-technology-current-and-future-applications-in-molecular-diagnostics
#2
Hin-Fung Tsang, Vivian Weiwen Xue, Su-Pin Koh, Ya-Ming Chiu, Lawrence Po-Wah Ng, Sze-Chuen Cesar Wong
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sample is a gold mine of resources for molecular diagnosis and retrospective clinical studies. Although molecular technologies have expanded the range of mutations identified in FFPE samples, the applications of existing technologies are limited by the low nucleic acids yield and poor extraction quality. As a result, the routine clinical applications of molecular diagnosis using FFPE samples has been associated with many practical challenges. NanoString technologies utilize a novel digital color-coded barcode technology based on direct multiplexed measurement of gene expression and offer high levels of precision and sensitivity...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916953/rapid-sensitive-detection-of-bartonella-quintana-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-of-the-groel-gene
#3
Shoukui Hu, Lina Niu, Lijuan Luo, Xiuping Song, Jimin Sun, Qiyong Liu
Trench fever, caused by Bartonella quintana, is recognized as a re-emerging and neglected disease. Rapid and sensitive detection approaches are urgently required to monitor and help control B. quintana infections. Here, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which amplifies target DNA at a fixed temperature with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, was employed to detect B. quintana. Thirty-six strains, including 10 B. quintana, 13 other Bartonella spp., and 13 other common pathogens, were applied to verify and evaluate the LAMP assay...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914367/single-wall-carbon-nanotube-electrode-system-capable-of-quantitative-detection-of-cd4-t-cells
#4
Joonhyub Kim, Gayoung Park, Seoho Lee, Suk-Won Hwang, Namki Min, Kyung-Mi Lee
Development of CNT-based CD4(+) T cell imunosensors remains in its infancy due to the poor immobilization efficiency, lack of reproducibility, and difficulty in providing linear quantification. Here, we developed a fully-integrated single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based immunosensor capable of selective capture and linear quantification of CD4(+) T cells with greater dynamic range. By employing repeated two-step oxygen (O2) plasma treatment processes with 35 days of recovery periods, we achieved the enhanced functionalization of the CNT surface and the removal of the byproduct of spray-coated SWCNTs that hinders charge transfer and stable CD4(+) T cell sensing...
November 25, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909582/ebola-research-funding-a-systematic-analysis-1997-2015
#5
Joseph Ra Fitchett, Amos Lichtman, Damilola T Soyode, Ariel Low, Jimena Villar de Onis, Michael G Head, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: The latest outbreak of Ebola in West Africa overwhelmed the affected countries, with the impact on health extending far beyond Ebola-related deaths that have exceeded 11 000. The need to promptly mobilise resources to control emerging infections is widely recognized. Yet, data on research funding for emerging infections remains inadequately documented. METHODS: We defined research investment as all funding flows for Ebola and/or Marburg virus from 1997 to April 2015 whose primary purpose was to advance knowledge and new technologies to prevent or cure disease...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902900/sensitivity-and-specificity-estimation-for-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-the-egyptian-participatory-disease-surveillance-program
#6
C Verdugo, I El Masry, Y Makonnen, H Hannah, F Unger, M Soliman, S Galal, J Lubroth, D Grace
Many developing countries lack sufficient resources to conduct animal disease surveillance. In recent years, participatory epidemiology has been used to increase the cover and decrease the costs of surveillance. However, few diagnostic performance assessments have been carried out on participatory methods. The objective of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic performance of practitioners working for the Community-Based Animal Health and Outreach (CAHO) program, which is a participatory disease surveillance system for the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Egypt...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902755/the-utility-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-as-a-tool-in-enhanced-surveillance-for-malaria-elimination-in-vanuatu
#7
Wesley Donald, Cielo Pasay, Jean-Olivier Guintran, Harry Iata, Karen Anderson, Johnny Nausien, Karryn J Gresty, Norman C Waters, Lasse S Vestergaard, George Taleo, Qin Cheng
BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to eliminate malaria, Vanuatu has piloted the implementation of enhanced malaria surveillance and response strategies since 2011. This involves passive case detection (PCD) in health facilities, proactive case detection (Pro-ACD) and reactive case detection (Re-ACD) in communities using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). While RDTs improve case management, their utility for detection of malaria infections in ACDs in this setting is unclear. METHODS: The utility of malaria RDTs as diagnostic tools was evaluated in PCD, in five rounds of Pro-ACDs and five rounds of Re-ACDs conducted in Tafea and Torba Provinces between 2011 and 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897060/potential-for-adaptive-dose-escalation-in-radiotherapy-for-patients-with-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-a-low-mid-income-setting
#8
Sushma Agrawal, Sunil Kumar, Anil Kumar Maurya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of tumour volume regression on adaptive treatment planning, reduction in doses to organs at risk (OAR) and dose escalation. METHODS: 20 patients undergoing radical chemoradiotherapy were imaged in fifth week of radiotherapy (CT_45) to evaluate differences in tumour volume regression between concurrent (CONC) and sequential chemoradiotherapy (SEQ). Replanning was done on CT_45 in those with >20% regression (n=10) and evaluated for change in target coverage indices (coverage index [CI], external volume index [EI]) and doses to OAR [mean lung dose, V20 and V5 of whole and ipsilateral lung (MLDWL, V20WL, V5WL, MLDIL, V20IL, V5IL), mean esophagus dose, V50 esophagus and maximum spinal cord doses]...
November 29, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889904/how-to-screen-for-non-adherence-to-antihypertensive-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Pankaj Gupta, Prashanth Patel, Robert Horne, Heather Buchanan, Bryan Williams, Maciej Tomaszewski
The quality of assessment of non-adherence to treatment in hypertensive is poor. Within this review, we discuss the different methods used to assess adherence to blood-pressure-lowering medications in hypertension patients. Subjective reports such as physicians' perceptions are inaccurate, and questionnaires completed by patients tend to overreport adherence and show a low diagnostic specificity. Indirect objective methods such as pharmacy database records can be useful, but they are limited by the robustness of the recorded data...
December 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886789/electrophysiology-in-the-developing-world-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
REVIEW
Michael Bestawros
As a subset of the growing epidemic of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), the significant burdens of heart rhythm disorders also increase. Effective diagnostic and treatment modalities exist, but financial resources and expertise are limited. Cost-effective strategies exist to address most of these limitations, but many surmountable barriers need to be overcome to introduce and improve electrophysiologic care in LMICs. In this article, current and potential solutions are offered for the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of managing bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886248/ultrasensitive-rapid-and-inexpensive-detection-of-dna-using-paper-based-lateral-flow-assay
#11
Miriam Jauset-Rubio, Markéta Svobodová, Teresa Mairal, Calum McNeil, Neil Keegan, Ayman Saeed, Mohammad Nooredeen Abbas, Mohammad S El-Shahawi, Abdulaziz S Bashammakh, Abdulrahman O Alyoubi, Ciara K O Sullivan
Sensitive, specific, rapid, inexpensive and easy-to-use nucleic acid tests for use at the point-of-need are critical for the emerging field of personalised medicine for which companion diagnostics are essential, as well as for application in low resource settings. Here we report on the development of a point-of-care nucleic acid lateral flow test for the direct detection of isothermally amplified DNA. The recombinase polymerase amplification method is modified slightly to use tailed primers, resulting in an amplicon with a duplex flanked by two single stranded DNA tails...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865485/comparison-of-the-effectiveness-of-stress-echocardiography-versus-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-in-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-low-risk-chest-pain
#12
Rhian Davies, Guodong Liu, Christopher Sciamanna, William R Davidson, Douglas L Leslie, Andrew J Foy
The aim of this study was to compare clinically relevant cardiovascular outcomes and downstream resource utilization associated with stress echocardiography (SE) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in emergency department patients with low-risk chest pain. This was a retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data for a national sample of privately insured patients over the period January 1 to December 31, 2011. Subjects were selected who presented to the emergency department with a primary or secondary diagnosis of chest pain and underwent either SE or MPI...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856945/microfluidic-cartridges-for-automated-point-of-care-blood-cell-counting
#13
Suzanne Smith, Phophi Madzivhandila, René Sewart, Ureshnie Govender, Holger Becker, Pieter Roux, Kevin Land
Disposable, low-cost microfluidic cartridges for automated blood cell counting applications are presented in this article. The need for point-of-care medical diagnostic tools is evident, particularly in low-resource and rural settings, and a full blood count is often the first step in patient diagnosis. Total white and red blood cell counts have been implemented toward a full blood count, using microfluidic cartridges with automated sample introduction and processing steps for visual microscopy cell counting to be performed...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855644/febrile-illness-diagnostics-and-the-malaria-industrial-complex-a-socio-environmental-perspective
#14
Justin Stoler, Gordon A Awandare
BACKGROUND: Global prioritization of single-disease eradication programs over improvements to basic diagnostic capacity in the Global South have left the world unprepared for epidemics of chikungunya, Ebola, Zika, and whatever lies on the horizon. The medical establishment is slowly realizing that in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly urban areas, up to a third of patients suffering from acute fever do not receive a correct diagnosis of their infection. MAIN BODY: Malaria is the most common diagnosis for febrile patients in low-resource health care settings, and malaria misdiagnosis has soared due to the institutionalization of malaria as the primary febrile illness of SSA by international development organizations and national malaria control programs...
November 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846812/predictors-of-hospitalization-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-montreal-canada-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Lisa A Ronald, J Mark FitzGerald, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Boivin, Kevin Schwartzman, Gillian Bartlett-Esquilant, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is the most costly health system component of tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Our objectives were to identify how frequently patients are hospitalized, and the factors associated with hospitalizations and length-of-stay (LOS) of TB patients in a large Canadian city. METHODS: We extracted data from the Montreal TB Resource database, a retrospective cohort of all active TB cases reported to the Montreal Public Health Department between January 1996 and May 2007...
November 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846004/implementation-of-a-risk-stratification-and-management-pathway-for-acute-chest-pain-in-the-emergency-department
#16
Christopher W Baugh, Jeffrey O Greenberg, Simon A Mahler, Joshua M Kosowsky, Jeremiah D Schuur, Siddharth Parmar, George R Ciociolo, Christina W Carr, Roya Ghazinouri, Benjamin M Scirica
OBJECTIVES: Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department, and a small but important minority represents an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Variation in diagnostic workup, risk stratification, and management may result in underuse, misuse, and/or overuse of resources. METHODS: From July to October 2014, we conducted a prospective cohort study in an academic medical center by implementing a Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) for chest pain based on the HEART score...
December 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836710/prognostic-significance-of-a-negative-prostate-biopsy-an-analysis-of-subjects-enrolled-in-a-prostate-cancer-screening-trial
#17
Patrick Lewicki, Jonathan Shoag, David M Golombos, Clara Oromendia, Karla V Ballman, Joshua A Halpern, Benjamin V Stone, Padraic O'Malley, Christopher E Barbieri, Douglas S Scherr
PURPOSE: The optimal management of patients following a negative prostate biopsy is unknown. Consequently, resources are increasingly being directed towards risk stratification within this cohort. However the risk of prostate cancer mortality in this group before introduction of supplemental biomarkers and imaging techniques is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial provides survival data prior to implementation of new diagnostic interventions...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833250/cytohistological-discordance-on-gastrointestinal-brushings-facts-unfolded
#18
Ruchita Tyagi, Jagpal Kaur, Gursheen Kaur, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Harpreet Kaur Puri, Neena Sood
INTRODUCTION: Brush cytology is a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable tool to diagnose gastrointestinal tract (GIT) lesions in low-resource settings. Most of the studies on GIT brushings have focused on upper GI lesions. We have studied the diagnostic accuracy of brush cytology in the entire length of GIT and correlated the cytological diagnosis with histopathology. The aim of this study is to study diagnostic utility of brush cytology of GIT lesions in the context of correlation with biopsy and study the factors responsible for cytohistological discordance...
September 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829667/novel-ph-sensing-semiconductor-for-point-of-care-detection-of-hiv-1-viremia
#19
R Gurrala, Z Lang, L Shepherd, D Davidson, E Harrison, M McClure, S Kaye, C Toumazou, G S Cooke
The timely detection of viremia in HIV-infected patients receiving antiviral treatment is key to ensuring effective therapy and preventing the emergence of drug resistance. In high HIV burden settings, the cost and complexity of diagnostics limit their availability. We have developed a novel complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip based, pH-mediated, point-of-care HIV-1 viral load monitoring assay that simultaneously amplifies and detects HIV-1 RNA. A novel low-buffer HIV-1 pH-LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) assay was optimised and incorporated into a pH sensitive CMOS chip...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826707/diagnostic-yield-of-outpatient-pediatric-echocardiograms-impact-of-indications-and-specialty
#20
Sean M Lang, Elijah Bolin, Sarah Hardy, Xinyu Tang, R Thomas Collins
Multiple reports have shown that echocardiograms are neither cost-effective nor of high diagnostic yield for a number of indications. This study sought to evaluate the impact of indications and provider type on the diagnostic yield of first-time outpatient pediatric echocardiograms. All initial echocardiograms interpreted at our institution from February 2009 to December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Positive findings were defined as any abnormality of structure or function. Ordering physicians were grouped as Primary Care, Subspecialist, or Cardiologist...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
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